Yugoslavia gave aid to Yugoslavia in hopes of cooperation

Yugoslavia has not always been around. The Austro-Hungarian Empire controlled Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and large parts of Serbia until 1918 when the empire collapsed after WW1. The area is ethnically diverse as it consists of Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks, Slovenes , Albanians, Macedonians , Montenegrins, and Hungarians. The country was formed in 1918 and it’s first name the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. It was first ruled by Alexander the 1 as a monarchy. He was called Alexander the Unifier after he renamed the Yugoslavia in 1929 .The official language of the country was Serbo-Croatian. Alexander the 1 was assassinated in 1934 and the crown passed to his son who was too young to rule. Alexander’s cousin, Paul, ruled as Prince regent as a result. Paul’s rule lasted until 1941 when t. Now the economy of Yugoslavia was quite mixed. Tito implemented communism throughout the newly found country. Eventually, his economic plan, modeled much like Stalin’s, was failing the country. Yugoslavia was on the brink of starvation but was saved by the US. The US gave aid to Yugoslavia in hopes of cooperation against the Soviet Union. To some extent, this did work. As the cold war dragged on, the country was open to more capitalist reforms which helped the country’s economy. Up to the seventies, Yugoslavia had a robust economy except, it was all built on borrowing money. Yugoslavia’s external debt was $17.0 billion in 1989 according to Wikipedia. After Tito’s death, the economy entered a period of continuous crisis When the Soviet Union fell, no aid came from the West causing a major downturn in the economy. In 1980, the GDP per capita was $17,764. In 1989, it was $16,820 with a 15% unemployment rate. According to the bureau of Labor Statistics, the US had a GDP of $22,922 and an unemployment rate of 5% in 1989 in comparison. And as the 1990’s rolled around, the country could not hold itself together. In 1990’s, Yugoslavia broke up. Under the leadership of Prime Minister Ante Markovi?, the country was trying to shift to a market economy. The socialists within the country lost elections to ethnic nationalists in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia. Slovenia and Croatia both declared their independence on 25 June 1991 for Yugoslavia. On 26 June, units of the Yugoslav People’s Army 13th Corps moved towards Slovenia’s borders with Italy. Local Slovenians organized barricades and demonstrations against the YPA’s actions. The Slovenian barricades successfully blocked the YPA from entering the country. On 1 March 1991, a bloodless skirmish ensued in the town of Pakrac, Croatia. The leadership of the Yugoslav army met with the Presidency in an attempt to convince them to declare a state of emergency which would allow for the YPA to take control of the country. Yugoslav army chief Veljko Kadijevi? declared:"An insidious plan has been drawn up to destroy Yugoslavia. Stage one is civil war. Stage two is foreign intervention. Then puppet regimes will be set up throughout Yugoslavia." Veljko Kadijevi?, 12 March 1991. Kadijevi? implied that the new independence-advocating governments were puppets of the West. Croatian delegate Stjepan Mesi? accused Kadijevi? of attempting to use the army to create a Greater Serbia and stated, "That means war!". A vote was taken on a proposal to enact martial law to allow for military action to end the crisis in Croatia by providing protection for the Serbs. The proposal was rejected as the Bosnian delegate Bogi? Bogi?evi? voted against it. In Croatia, an independence referendum was held on 2 May 1991. 93.24% voted for independence. The independence of Croatia was declared on 25, June 1991. With the Plitvice Lakes incident of early April 1991, the Croatian War of Independence broke out between the Croatian government and the rebel ethnic Serbs of the SAO Krajina who were heavily backed by the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People’s Army. On 1 April 1991, SAO Krajina, SAO of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja wand Western Srijem claimed independence to form Republic of Serbian Krajina. After some fighting, Croats compromised with rebel Serbs to gain the favor western powers, including NATO and the UN. In November 1991, ethnic tensions between Croats and Serbs turned into violence when the Yugoslav army entered the town of Vukovar, Croatia. The Yugoslav army and Serbian paramilitaries devastated the town in urban warfare. Serb paramilitaries committed acts of atrocities against Croats, killing over 200. From 1991 to 1992, the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina grew heated. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s parliament was split on ethnic lines into a Bosniak faction and minority Serb and Croat factions. The controversial nationalist leader Radovan Karadži? of the largest Serb faction in the parliament, gave a grave and direct warning to the Bosnian parliament should it decide to separate. On 9 January 1992, the Bosnian Serb assembly proclaimed a separate Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina which was later called, The Republic of Srpska, and proceeded to form Serbian autonomous regions.The independence referendum was proclaimed unconstitutional by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence on 3 March 1992. On the same day, Bosnian Serbs declared independence again. Bosnian Serbs started to take military action by sieging Sarajevo and attacking other cities. This was the start of the Bosnian war. The war gained attention of NATO, who led a successful bombing campaign against the Bosnian Serbs after ethnic cleansing and genocide was committed by some Bosnian Serb paramilitaries. The war eventually ended when the Bosnia and Herzegovina government made peace with the leader of the Bosnian Serbian armed forces. Bosnia and Herzegovina retained most of its land. The only two republics that were part of Yugoslavia was Serbia and Montenegro. In the 1990’s, there was more bloodshed as Serbia suppressed Kosovo independence movements with brutal action. In return, NATO led yet another bombing campaign which eventually led Serbia to back off. After the fighting, Kosovo declared independence. In 2003 Montenegro voted in a referendum of independence and won which then ended Yugoslavia.


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