Wireless may be short or long [1]. Researchers have

Wireless
Power Transmission Using Microwaves

S.Saravanan, V.Sasirekha,
P.Sathish, Ms.R.Sasikala M.E

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UG Scholar, UG Scholar, UG
Scholar, Assistant Professor

Department of EEE,

Kongu Engineering College,
Perundurai-638060, Erode

TamilNadu, India

[email protected], [email protected],

[email protected], [email protected]

Abstract: Enormous attention is largely gained in recent years
towards a technology called Wireless Power Transmission (WPT).The WPT
harvesting techniques and its applications are generating huge renewed R&D
interests in both academia and industries. This project aims to imbibe WPT
technology with high power rectenna and to attain large coverage, better
efficiency, and high power transmission compared to the previous work. High
power rectenna was modelled and microwave magnetron has been utilized for the
production of waves. A specially made rectenna plate is utilized to enhance the
utility of wave transmission and reduces the signal losses. Hence, the
effectiveness of signal transmission is greatly achieved about 40cm power transmission.

Keywords: Wireless Power Transmission
(WPT), Microwave Power Transmission (MPT), Wireless Sensor Network (WSN).

I. INTRODUCTION

Wireless power
transfer is the transmission of the energy over a distance without, the usage
wires or cables, wherein distances involved may be short or long 1. Researchers
have developed a number of techniques for moving electricity over long distance
exclusive of wires. This paper provides the techniques used for wireless power
transmission. It is a common term that refers to a number of dissimilar power
transmission technologies that use the time to shift electromagnetic fields
2.

Wireless power transmission
is used to power electrical devices in the case where interconnecting wires are
not achievable, hazardous, or are not convenient. For example, the life of WSN
is its node which consists of several device controllers, memory, transceivers,
sensors, actuators, and battery. The transceiver has four states, i.e. 1)
Transmit 2) Receive 3) Idle and 4) Sleep. The major energy trouble of a
transmitter of a node is consuming a great amount of power it’s receiving in an
idle state, as in this state it is always being prepared to receive 3.

However, the
batter has a very short lifetime and moreover in some developments owing to
both practically and economically infeasible or may involve significant resists
to human life. That is why energy harvesting for WSN in replacement of the battery
is the only and unique solution. During wireless power transfer, a transmitter
device source, such as the mains power stripe, transmits power via
electromagnetic fields diagonally an intervening gap to one or more receiver
devices, where it is converted back to electric power and utilized. In
communication the objective is the transmission of information, so the amount
of power reaching the receiver is insignificant as long as it is enough to
facilitate signal to noise ratio is high enough that the information can be received
intelligibly. In wireless communication technologies, generally, only tiny
amounts of power reach the receiver. By distinction, in wireless power, the quantity
of power received is the important thing, so the efficiency (fraction of the transmitted
power that is received) is the more significant parameter 2 3.

MICROWAVE REGION

Figure
1.1 shows that the microwaves are the radio signal which has the wavelength
array of 1 mm to 1 meter and the frequency is 3000 MHZ to 300 GHZ. Microwaves
contain wavelength that preserves is calculated in centimetres microwaves are
good quality for transmitting information from one place to another place
because microwave energy be able to penetrate haze, snow, clouds, light rain,
and smoke. Microwave radiation is still connected with an energy level that is
typically nontoxic except for people with pacemakers 4.

Figure 1.1 Microwave Region of Electromagnetic
Spectrum

II. EXISTING METHOD

Possible methods
of wireless transmission of electrical power 5.

A.
Inductive coupling

B.
Laser 

C.
Radio frequency

D.
Microwave

A. Inductive coupling

In this when
transmitting coil is excited then it generates flux and when receiver coil
receives this flux a potential difference is developed across its terminal.
This is the basic model and its efficiency is very poor hence cannot be used for
large distance transmission 6.

B. Laser

It is a device
which emits light based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic
radiation. Power can be transmitted by means of converting electricity keen on the
laser beam. But in this the laser radiation is hazardous and conversion between
electricity and light is ineffective 7.

C. Radio frequency

Radio frequency
signals to direct current electrical current powered from either an international
or ambient power source 8.

III. PROPOSED METHOD:

 

Figure 1.2 Block Diagram

The
figure 1.2 shows that the purposeful block diagram of WPT consists of two
sections: transmitting section and receiving section.

Figure
1.3 shows the transmission section, the microwave power source generates
microwave power which is prohibited by the electronic control circuits. The
waveguide circulator protects the microwave resource from the reflected power,
which is connected through the co-ax waveguide adaptor. The tuner contests the
impedance between the microwave source and transmitting antenna. Then, based on
the signal broadcast direction, the attenuated signals are separated by the
directional coupler. The transmitting antenna emits the power frequently
through open space to the receiving antenna.

Figure
1.3 shows the receiving element, the receiving antenna receives the transmitted
power and converts the microwave power into DC power. The impedance matching
circuit and filter is provided for locating the harvest impedance of a signal
source which is equivalent to rectifying circuit. This circuit consists of
Schottky barrier diodes which convert the received microwave power keen on DC
power.

Figure 1.3 Transmitting and
Receiving Sections

Working:

A
rectenna is a rectifying circuit, a special type of antenna that is used to
convert microwave energy into DC current. Its elements are usually aligned in a
mesh pattern, to offer a distinct appearance from most antennae. We can
construct simple rectenna by using a Schottky diode placed between antenna
dipoles. The diode (a uni -direction device) rectifies the current induced in
the antenna by the microwaves signals. Rectenna is highly efficient for
converting microwave energy into electricity. In laboratory environments,
efficiencies above 90% have been observed. Scientists also tried to convert
electricity into microwave energy using inverse rectenna, but efficiencies are
very low. Only in the area of 1%. With the advent of nanotechnology and MEMS,
the size of rectenna elements can be brought down to the molecular level. A
rectenna consist of a mesh of dipoles and a mesh of diodes for absorbing
microwave energy from a transmitter and converting it into electric current.

RECTENNA
DESIGN

In emergent, this design, the PBG antenna, DGS LPF, and
rectifier circuits were every first fabricated, designed, and characterized
alone.

Table 1.1 
Rectenna Efficieny For Various Diodes at Different Frequency

Frequency
(GHz)

Schottky
Diode

Measured Efficiency
(%)

Calculated
Efficiency (%)

2.45 9

GaAs-W

92.5

90.5

5.8 10

Si

82

78.5

8.5 11

GaAs

62.5

66.2

 

The rectenna is
a passive element which consists of an antenna, rectifying circuit with a low
pass filter between the antenna and rectifying diode.Schottky Barrier diodes(GaAs-W, Si, GaAs) are usually used in the
rectifying circuit due to the fast reverse recovery time and lower forward
voltage drop and good RF characteristics.The rectenna efficiency for various
diodes at a different frequency is shown in table 1.1.

Figure 1.4 Rectenna Design

Figure 1.4 shows the rectenna used in the project. Rectenna
has divided two copper plates with Schottky diode which acts as a resistor
between two plates. Likewise, we have positioned 10 setups in parallel such
that we have placed 10 resistors in parallel which intone act as the conductor
with high absorption power since resistors in parallel act as a conductor.

RESULTS
AND OBSERVATION

A. Stage 1

Initially, the circuit has been connected and a project was
made to run. Firstly an incandescent lamp is used which needs high power but
the magnetron emits only less radiation because it is in open condition and
therefore the lamp does not glow.

Figure 1.4 Initial Stages without
Waveguide Circulator

B. Stage 2

In order  to  make 
the radiation  high ,the entire
setup is placed in a closed container which makes  the 
electron  to move  faster. 
Therefore, the incandescent lamp into enclosed surface like micro oven
and this increase the radiation level in micro oven, the lamp glows.

Figure 1.5 Entire Setup Inside the Micro
Oven

C.  Stage 3

Finally,
waveguide circulator is used as an enclosed surface to send the radiations in a
particular direction at certain distance. So, the high watts incandescent lamp
is replaced by the low watts CFL lamp and the output has been obtained as shown
in figure 1.6.

 Figure 1.6 Using Waveguide
Circulator

Table
1. 2 Distance Covered Vs Voltage

S.No

Distance(cm)

Voltage(volts)

1

35

32

2

50

30

3

65

22

4

80

18

5

100

8

 

In
table 1.2 we have presented the wireless power transmission with distance and
voltage in which when the distance increases the voltage get decreased. This is
shown in figure1.5. The decrease in voltage absorbed by the rectenna is due to distortion
of microwaves in the air medium.

 

 

Figure 1.5 Distance
Vs Voltage Curve

IV.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

A. ADVANTAGES

1.    Entirely eradicate the existing
high-power transmission line towers, cables etc…

2.    The transmission and distribution cost
becomes less.

3.    Hence, the efficiency of this method
is very much higher than wired transmission.

4.    The power failure as a result of
short circuit and fault of cables would never be present.

5.    The power can be transmitted to the
places where the wired transmission is not a feasible.

6.   
Capability
to charge vehicles such as for industrial vehicles and golf carts.

7.    Substantiate and alter to loads.

 

B. DISADVANTAGES

1. 
Still under production and development.

2. It does not give sufficient
energy to charge          enormous vehicles and types of equipment.

3.  Transmitting distance is unreliable.

4.  
Heat loss takes place.

5. The intervention of microwaves
with a present        signal.

V. APPLICATIONS

1.   
Used in cordless
tools, automatic wireless charging for mobile robots and instrument this
eliminates complex mechanism.

2.   
Easy and neat
Installation – there is no cable running here and there, just start up the
wireless device.

3.   
Mobility –
within the wireless range user device can be moved easily.

4.   
The ability of our technology to transfer
power efficiently, safely and over distance can improve products by making them
more reliable, convenient, and environmentally friendly.

 

VI. CONCLUSION

Wireless Power Transmission (WPT)
was   successfully achieved up to the
distance of 1 meter and beyond with the help of the high power rectenna and
proposed with higher lumens. It is difficult to find inductors and capacitors
that are capable of working at higher power levels. However, safety is needed
to be concern for the further extension of the project and modification is required
for higher end design. Configuration on the cost factor and design constraints,
including noise factor are to be considered and suggested to concern for the
further development.

 

 

REFERENCES

1Wireless power transmission, A. Vijay Kumar, P.Niklesh,
T.Naveen, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications
(IJERA).

 

2Review Paper on Wireless Power Transmission, S.D.
Rankhamb, A. P. Mane, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR).

 

3Wireless
Power Transmission Using Microwaves, Jayshree Sonawane 1, Sonal Benare2, International
Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, Vol.
5, Issue 3, March 2017.

 

4Wireless charging of mobile phone using microwave, Priya
A. Rewaskar, Prof. Dinesh Datar, International Journal of Computer Science and
Mobile Computing, Vol.3 Issue.4, April- 2014, pg. 427-432.

 

5Review papers on Wireless Power Transmission, Yogesh Parmar, Amit Patel, Jayant
Shah, International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology
(IJSRET), and ISSN 2278 – 0882 Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2015.

 

6Wireless Power
Transmission: An Innovative Idea,  Vikash
Choudhary, Satendar Pal Singh ,  Vikash
Kumar and 4 Deepak Prashar, International Journal of Educational Planning &
Administration. ISSN 2249-3093 Volume 1, Number 3 (2011), pp. 203-210.

 

7Wireless Power
Transmission to UAV using LASER Beaming Prem Anand T P, R.Pandiarajan, P.Raju,
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Research, ISSN 0973-4562
Vol. 5 No.1 (2015)

 

8Secured
Wireless Power Transmission Using Radio Frequency Signal, B. Renil Randy,
M.Hariharan, and R. Arasa Kumar, International Journal of Information Sciences
and Techniques (IJIST) Vol.4, No.3, May 2014.

 

9Efficient 2.45 GHz Rectenna Design with High Harmonic
Rejection for Wireless Power Transmission, Zied Harouni, Lotfi Osman and Ali
Gharsallah, IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7,
Issue 5, September 2010.

 

105.8-GHz Circularly Polarized
Dual-Diode Rectenna and Rectenna Array for Microwave Power Transmission, Yu-Jiun
Ren and Kai Chang, Fellow, IEEE, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and
Techniques, VOL. 54, NO. 4, APRIL 2006.

 

11A Compact Dual-Polarized 8.51-GHz Rectenna for
High-Voltage (50 V) Actuator Applications, Larry W. Epp, Member, IEEE, Abdur R.
Khan, Hugh K. Smith, and R. Peter Smith, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory
and Techniques, VOL. 48, NO. 1, JANUARY 2000.

 

 

 

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