When the child starts to pick up language? He starts earlier than mostof us think and ends much later than we think too, because there is an end ofsound and grammar acquisition, but there is always some new world learn,therefore, it is an ongoing process.The child starts learning language by imitation and experimenting with babbling,then he uses a one word sentence, next atwo word sentence, and later a whole sentence where he begins to expand his languagewhich is not confined to speaking, but also to reading and writing skills too.Many scientists studied languages acquisition and developed theories aboutvocabulary, discourse, and grammar acquisition which is not just applicableonly to the English language, but also to other languages too. Literacy is notrestrained in its use in education or at work, it is part of our everyday lifein malls, restaurants, and even within the same families where literacypractice is encouraged to help the child to grasp and understand the use oflanguage, to have confidence in delivering deliver his messages properly in writtenand spoken form, and to express his intentions and personality according to theimage he wants to deliver to the people around him.The orthography system of the English has its downsides which cause somedifficulties that the child needs to overcome to have a good command over thelanguage, but it has its upsides that simplify the learning of this language.Currently English is an international language that is not just used by nativespeakers but also by non-native speakers.
Through the course of learning English there are different andcommon problems that both speakers face because two third of the childrenaround the world are born in bilingual environment.The language was among the first inventions of the human being, it hasits various systems that represent every nation around the world in its culturesand accomplishments which have been passed on through generations. allowing the newgenerations to express their own time by their own terms which gives thelanguage new words and uses, caused the language to change constantly accordingto people’s need. The theories about language acquisition were an effort of many scientiststhat study one language perspective at the time grammar ,discourse…etc.
Gettingthose bits and pieces into the jigsaw of language acquisition gives us the bigpicture and its complexity and wondering nature. Language is a mean of communicating and expressingthoughts and ideas. The need of a spoken language emerged first by makingsounds that represent pictures which address the auditory system, then lettersand words that address the ophthalmic system of the human being. The necessityof a writing system aroused from the need to record events and communicate itwith different people across the different period of time, different writingsystems were developed across the word which varies in its complexity.(Webster,1806)It relates symbols or pictographs to letters,syllables and sentence to communicate written language .
Learning to speak and write are intertwined, the childstarts the process of learning to speak by imitating other people around him,so Speech is important in developing language skills, improving vocabulary,receiving and producing language, furthermore, understanding the connectionbetween spoken and written language is essential to organize and deliver themeaning of the message in a more efficient and coherent way. (www.lob.ca). Orthography is “the accepted way of spelling and writing.”(www.cambridgedictionary.
org) or “The art of writing words with the properletter according to standard use “(www.meriam-wbster.com) . Ina perfect language, letters correspondwith sounds, but the English language is a syllabic language and has its characteristics,it consists of twenty-six letters written from right to left in a sideways topto bottom. In a perfect language every letter corresponds to a sound, however,some of them correspond with more than one sound. (Webster, 1806).Theinconsistencies in the English orthography made English a challenging languageto acquire even for children who are mono-lingual English native speakers,because many inconsistencies were not just at the level of the letter and theirpresentation of more than one sound, but also at the level of words.
Historically the English language is a dialect; its position was elevated andbecame an international language spoken by many tongues as a mother language orsecond or foreign language, it came into contact with English like Latin,German, French, Danish which brought many words into the language and changingother words meaning pronunciation and use, For example: the word colonel has Frenchand Italian origin, In French, it is coronel, but in Italian it is colonello,now it is written in the Italian way and spelled in the French way. Building onwhat is previously written the grapheme-morpheme relationship in English isopaque due to the loan words, which were largely absorbed by the Englishlanguage causing frozen spelling for a massive amount of word which makes theprediction of its pronunciation and writing very hard.(www,youtube.com)There areother difficulties that face not just children but adult too, for example some soundsstayed or disappeared ,the /f/ sound in words like: cough, enough, through orthought, other sounds were lost at the beginning of the words in words like:wrong and knee, some letters become silent when pronounced for e.
g. Psychology,Island. Daughter, furthermore words have swallowed syllables e.g. Vegetable ispronounced vegtable (www.thought.com),and some English letters give many different pronunciations for the same letterfor e.g.
the words bear, ear, and heart.The English orthography stabilized through thecenturies mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helpedin the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document thepronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference betweendifferent standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.(www.youtube.com)The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help todifferentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar ,morphemes likeinflections stay the same with different words e.
g. sides, derived.(allington,mayor,2012) Studies in various aspects of language led todevelopment of new methods of teaching the English language based on differentperspectives that was adopted by many institution and was pointed out for itsefficiency even among parents, one of those perspectives is social perspective,which depends on the need and the necessity of the child to express hisemotions, needs, and his social identity in the society. How children acquirelanguage is contentious between the anthropologist, sociolinguists,psychologists…
etc, and there are many perspectives of their studies one ofthem is the social perspective toward how a child acquires literacy and whatthey do with literacy in their everyday life, and since spoken and writtenlanguage are closely related literacy is a part of a wider communicativepractice, and using literacy in this sense involves exchanging knowledge with asocial-network, parents or caregivers who have their essential role the way thechildren acquire language, and how they get involved in practices that willhelp the children to gain literacy in a more effective way like storybookreading which studies shown that it supports the child language development,and literacy practice later in life.(www.2.sfasu.edu) There are many other reasons that affecthow child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, thesociety that he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, thelevel of their education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning,and social class, religion, the position of the child in the family, and how hedeals with the difficulties that he faces which is part of the childpsychology. The literacy of the child at an early ageis strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to hisor her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that isintertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices ona frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction oradventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring thelanguage in children is their relationship with their parents and their parentbeliefs about literacy.
Many activities are used by parents at home or in schoolthat facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging childrenin songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting withchildren in conversation to see how they understand literacy and literarytexts, furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically tolearn written and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learningand make it more appealing to him(www.2.sfasu.
edu).The literacy practice of English has also existed inbilingual communities that are affected by religion, social class, schoolsparent’s educational level, and the bilingual children may have someimpediments in learning English for example if their other language is writtenfrom right to left, not from left to right they may start writing English fromright to left, or they may think about the subject in one language and write itin another or they may code-switch during writing. In the end every child has the right to have the bestof his or her learning experiences, because it affects their whole life andhaving difficulties in learning and writing should be treated starts as a little human with theability and the need to express his thoughts, ambition and the right to definehimself as somebody with possibilities