Wang education on female in venture creation. Pihie (2009)


Wang and Wong (2004)
reported entrepreneurial aspirations to have increased due to the
macro-environmental changes since the 1980s, particularly with the current
success of Internet-based businesses where the large number of woman start up
their own business and the most of them are students. Almquist and Angrist (1971) explained that
the amount of education they have, the type of work they do, and whether the
mother works at all or is active in leisure pursuits should affect the girl’s
adult aspirations. Where, Verheul
et al., (2012) reported that having at least one self-employed parent
positively influences not just an individual’s preference for self-employment
but also his or her self-employment status. Thus, entrepreneurial parents seem
to inspire their children to become entrepreneurs. The social learning and the
cognitive developmental literature support this issue, as it is well known that
the family is one of the most influential contexts of socialization in
childhood and adolescence (Dryler,
1998). Moreover, other researchers suggest that less educated women
without managerial experience can acquire entrepreneurial skills through
socialization with a successful family member entrepreneur but this skills
relatively poor than the educated women with a successful family member
entrepreneur (Orhan and
Scott, 2001).


role models explanation as relating to a human capital, where girl children may
acquire relevant experience in entrepreneurship by working in their parents’ businesses
(Afrin et al. 2008).
There also explained that children inherit preferences for being an
entrepreneur, which could be genetically, but also socially if their parents
serve as role models for their children. The final explanation relates to a
financial situation in that family funds may substitute for access to formal
credit markets where successful entrepreneurs may transfer financial wealth or
the family business to their offspring, thereby relaxing capital market
constraints that may limit their entrepreneurial activities (Hoffmann et al., 2015). Scherer et al. (1989)
found that the presence of a parent role model was associated with increased
education and training. However, there seems to be no research that separates
fathers and mothers’ level of education on female in venture creation.

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Pihie (2009) found that the women
had moderate score on all constructs related to entrepreneurial intention and
self-efficacy in the aspects of management, financial and marketing. A female
with effective entrepreneurial aspiration mainly shows higher scored in
entrepreneurship intention and self-efficacy it shows meaningful variation from
those who do not have positive aspiration (Bandura,1977). Sometime, they shows
moderately scored on attitudes towards entrepreneurial career (Akmaliah and
Pihie, 2009) and also in perceived behavioral control. it is suggested by many
authors’ that to enhance women entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy
(Gibson, 2004) and certain teaching strategies needed to be conducted and the
university policy makers should add more value to their women graduates by
integrating the elements that can enhance the development of entrepreneurial
intention and self-efficacy in the aspects of management, financial and
marketing competencies as they can choose entrepreneurship as a career choice (Gatewood,


Despite of the rapid
growth in the number of women-owned enterprises and their increasing collective
impact on society and the economy, relatively few studies have been conducted
that  factors  which are affecting women to start
entrepreneurial business in general or comparing them to men (Brush, 1992). It is not
surprising that higher percentage of men have started and operated their own
businesses. Moreover, even though women have owned their own enterprises
throughout history (Phan,
et al., 2002), public policy and popular press interest in the
phenomenon of women as business-owners have been relatively recent (Brush, 1992).


Scott and Twomey, (1988); and Gibb and Ritchie, (1982) explained
that entrepreneurial career precipitating events have looked at the factors
affecting business-ownership by individuals in general. They have  looked at samples of graduates and would be
entrepreneurs respectively (Carland and Carland, 1991), and neither of them
have stated whether their samples include both male and female or male
respondents in particular, thus maintaining the old assumption that men and
women go through similar experiences prior to setting-up(Praag, 1999) their own
businesses. Although recent research on gender differences suggests that there
are significant differences in the orientations and motivations of male and
female entrepreneurs (Brush,


Women entrepreneurs are
not a homogenous population (Kumar, 2016). The nature of business creation by
women varies according to factors relating to educational institution,
subjective matter or the area of study, economical, political, and
socio-cultural configurations ( Robaro and Mamuzo, 2012), particularly in
relation to policies, attitudes, and traditions in the fields of enterprise and
women’s work. Personal factors also clearly play an important role (Kohlberg,


Women entrepreneurs’
backgrounds, motivations, and the difficulties they face vary, as do the types
and extent of support to which they have access. Further the factors
influencing the aspirations for, and the perceptions of acceptability and
feasibility of business-ownership vary in dimensions between men and women
although, gender inequality is extremely variable both between and within
cultures. Scott and
Twomey, 1988; Greenberger and Sexton, 1988; Learned, 1992) have
mentioned about the importance of positive social attitude toward starting an
entrepreneurial business. Business-ownership on business aspirations vary in
dimensions between men and women in developing economies (Peris et al., 2012).
It is necessary to identify the major factors affecting women entrepreneurial
in developing countries in order to gain an understanding of the phenomenon of
business-ownership by women.


If we briefly explain
the overall literature, we can get those factors which get the most priority to
set up a woman own entrepreneurial business. Those are: support from family,
internal motivation, strong social network, educational institutional support
and government support and strategies which help to think about their own
entrepreneurial business and as well as work as the essential element for rapid
economic growth.



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