United Nations and International InvolvementAging and the social, economic, and political repercussions of insufficient solutions has been increasingly gaining widespread attention. Over the years there have been numerous efforts to implement permeating policies to tackle this issue that has been unfolding in China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, SIngapore, Taipei, Thailand, and Viet Nam.The repercussions of an unmanaged aging population stem mostly from enduring stigmas and discrimination against the older generation within the workforce. Ageism, as it is commonly known, is one of the most impenetrable barriers to action and effective public health policy. Age discrimination leads to an increased number of those of the older generation unemployed, discourages returns, and affects older people’s physical and mental health. This places a strain on social welfare programs and also raises concerns regarding topics like human rights and sustainable development.Main intergovernmental organizations include the World Health Organization’s Global Strategy and Action Plan on Ageing and Health, the International Federation of Red Cross, International Federation on Aging, and Help Age. Their technique has focused on collaboration and coordination with hopes of casting widespread awareness within the public. However, little efforts have been made to target specific regions but rather, have shown a global view and initiative concerning cultural stigmas, pervasive and insidious, influencing social behaviour, values, and norms. As of now progress for the older generation is deeply unequal in regards to the legal and political frameworks. 69th World Health Assembly held in Geneva:At the 69th World Health Assembly held in Geneva 2016, several resolutions were introduced that touched on promoting healthy aging and combating stereotypes brought on by ageism. One of the primary topics discussed was laying the groundwork for pursuing health-related Sustainable Development Goals. Delegates agreed to prioritize universal health coverage and to work with actors outside of health related organizations to address the social and economic causes of health issues. This implied a greater focus on equality within and between countries to keep one another accountable in providing the necessary services and reforms.Sustainable Development Goals:As outlined in Goal 8 of the Sustainable Development Goals: Promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all, this initiative would require societies to create conditions for economic stimulation, job opportunities, decent working conditions, and environmental protection for the whole working age population. Among the 8 target goals listed, two focused on ageism. They are:By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal valueProtect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employmentLikewise, Goal 10 of the Sustainable Development Goals also touches on promoting social equality: Reduce inequality within and among countries. It highlights that income inequality has increased by 11 percent in developing countries from 1990 to 2010. This increases barriers to economic and social growth by increasing poverty, decreasing strong performance, and greatly harms an individual’s’ sense of fulfilment and self-worth. Their initiatives are to:By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population at a rate higher than the national averageBy 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other statusEnsure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regardAdopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equalityFinally, Goal 11: Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable touches upon the effort to provide all people social and economic advancement which subsequently protects older people. Targets include:By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older personsBy 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situationsAdditional efforts by the IFRC, IFA, and HelpAge have been made to increase public knowledge about the impacts of ageism. Their strategy has been collective action to: endorse and commit to the implementation of legislation against age based discrimination; commit to inclusive and equitable provision of health and social care services across the life course; and the inclusion of older people in efforts to tackle ageism. The IFA has become a global point of connection between ageing expects and policy makers. Through its growing global reach via a large membership base of NGOs, the corporate sector, academia, individuals and governmental network, the IFA is uniquely placed to view the social and economic consequences of population ageing in the context of both its opportunities and challenges including healthy ageing, age-friendly cities, health and social system change, labour market forces and the care continuum.Asia-focused Efforts:During the IFA’s Conference in Copenhagen, 2006, members focused on the Asian Pacific Region. One of the models used was the 2002 Madrid Plan of Action on Ageing where the priority focus was on how “older people must be full participants in the development process and also share in its benefits”. Organizations like the Coalition of Services of the Elderly (COSE) highlight that older people require assistance both from family members and other reference groups to advocate for their own benefit. The key is to promote organization among older people. In Korea, Helpage with the support of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Korean Government has initiated a “home care” program in 10 countries of Southeast Asia. In the Philippines, they established the Community-Based Program of the Elderly. In Bangladesh, organized older people monitor the government’s implementation of mandated services for older people.Organized poor older people are capable of performing a number of services within their own community such as care-giving, being health workers, managing micro-enterprises, being peer counsellors, managing a “burial fund,” fundraising, promoting social activities (ballroom dancing, aerobics, parties) and most importantly being advocates on both a local and national level. At the same time, organized older people need to network with other NGO’s – workers, urban poor, farmers, women’s groups – many of which also have older people both as members and in leadership positions to lend support for issues of common interest. The UN General Assembly Proclamation on Ageing (1992) urged the support of national initiatives on ageing in the context of national cultures and conditions. In 1994, the Asia and Pacific Ministerial Conference in Preparation for the World Summit for Social Development adopted an agenda for Action which agreed that government policies should integrate the elderly in society and address income security, housing, a supportive environment and participation in society. This was again emphasized and endorsed by the 5th Asian and Pacific Ministerial Conference on Social Development held in Manila in 1997 which called for an accelerated implementation of the Agenda for Action. In Singapore, an appointed Elderly Commission made eight policy recommendations on four aspects of the elderly including housing, social security, elder care and retirement. In India, new legislation provides needs based maintenance, a minimum level of financial security, health care and protection of older people’s property. In 2003, the Philippines passed an “Expanded Senior Citizens Act” which provides, among other things, housing, health care, education and discounts on transportation and even basic food commodities. Japan has passed a law to prevent abuse of older people. India, Nepal, and Bangladesh have provided some form of non-contributory pension for older people.In sum, there has been increasing progression for elder care from total family reliance to organizations like ESCAP, ASEAN and Madrid cum Shanghai Plans of Action for Older People to which member countries subscribed to a plethora of “National Plans of Action”.Bloc AnalysisUNESCAP has five subregions, four of which have offices in order to provide effective programs and tackle key issues that countries face through consulting, training workshops, and projects in the field. These five areas are East and North-East Asia, North and Central Asia, the Pacific, South East Asia, and South and South-West Asia.East and North-East AsiaThis region consists of six member states–China, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation–, and two associate members–Hong Kong and Macao. This region is dealing with the ageing crisis head on, for between 2010 and 2040, China is poised to lose about 90 million workers, which is about ten percent of working population. In addition, Japan and South Korea are seeing some of the fastest ageing in Asia and the Pacific; thus, policy and structural reform are critical.North and Central AsiaAfghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan work within this regional office to fulfill various instructions of the UN. It appears that many countries are either borderline ageing societies or are already ageing; for example, Azerbaijan’s, Kazakhstan’s, and Tajikistan’s populations of 65 years and older are 6.6 percent, 7.7 percent, and 3.3 percent, respectively. Nonetheless, Russia, Armenia, and Georgia have larger populations–14.3 percent, 11.3 percent, and 16 percent, respectively. Though this demographic change is taking place in Asia, at a quicker pace than the rest of the world, North and Central Asia are not experiencing this trend as intensely as Japan. However, this is not to say that this region must not prepare for the future.The PacificThis region encompasses the various island nations in the Pacific. Ageing is a significant issue, as life expectancies have increased and fertility rates have dropped. Age pyramids, which shows the distribution of a population by age brackets, indicates that by 2050, many countries will not resemble the classic pyramid with a wide base. Rather, they would look like vertical towers, and some might have wider tops. Therefore, it is crucial that these poorer countries receive enough resources to make appropriate preparations and effective policies to combat this South East AsiaAustralia, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, Timor-Leste, and Vietnam make up this region. The elderly population is set to increase more rapidly in less developed regions than more developed. In fact, Vietnam and Thailand have only taken nineteen and twenty-two years, respectively, to transition into an aged society. Southeast Asia has to find solutions, as medicine will improve and be easier to access in the coming years.South and South-West AsiaAfghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Turkey comprise the next bloc. By 2050, this region will see those over 60 years make up 19.3 percent of the population, more than double the share of 8.7 percent in 2016. It has only taken Sri Lanka 25 years to move from an ageing to an aged society. Consequently, this region, too, must address the root causes of rapidly ageing societies. Committee ObjectiveDuring the conference, the Chairs would strongly encourage delegates to focus on the economic and social impacts of an aging population. Specifically, we believe that many of these issues hold a similar root cause: ageism. Focusing on the repercussions of ageism will provide ample points of discussion. Delegates are encouraged to focus on how countries in the Asia and Pacific can promote, enforce, and keep accountable those participating in Sustainable Development Goals. Likewise, delegates should investigate into what specific goal in the 17 listed for the Sustainable Development Goal should be prioritized.By the end of the conference, UNESCAP should reach resolutions for keeping Asia and Pacific countries accountable, solutions to combat social discrimination against the elderly, and proposals to promote both greater social and economic development.TOPIC B: Countries with Special NeedsKey Terms: Economic Development: This is the process by which a country betters its citizens’ well-beings economically, politically, and socially. It is not to be confused with economic growth in which a country’s wealth increases; rather, economic development not only focuses on quantitative growth, such as GDP, imports, and exports, and qualitative, like the access to education.Least Developed Country (LDC): These are low-income countries faced with significant obstacles to sustainable development. They are sensitive to economic changes and natural disasters and lack human capital. 47 countries are currently listed by the Committee for Development (CDP) as LDCs, eleven of which are member states in ESCAP. This list is reviewed every three years.Natural Barriers: They are physical features and elements of the landscape that prevents mobility, development, and social progression. Such examples are mountains, swamps, deserts, and icefields.Man-made Barriers: This term refers to the human construction created through social construction and organization of businesses, government, and society that prevent optimal economic development.Millenium Development Goals (MDG): The United Nations established eight MDGs which range from drastically reducing extreme poverty rates to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal education by 2015. This forms a guideline agreed to by all countries and leading development institutions. The United Nations is also partnering with governments, civil societies, and other organizations to generate momentum beyond their target date. Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): otherwise known as the Global Goals, SDGs are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030. In total, there are 17 goals which build upon the work done with Millenium Development Goals.