Understanding Student Student Number: 173018001 Word Count (excluding Cover

Understanding the role of women in the Nigerianpolitical system: major hindrances as to why women do not engage/contest forkey political offices in Nigeria.    MGMT500/MGMT604 Final Project:Research Proposal    Daniel Ebiojo IdokoGirne American University, MBA (Management Information System) Research Student Student Number:173018001            Word Count(excluding Cover Page, References & Appendices): 3,285BACKGROUUND AND CONTEXTWOMEN POLITICSAlthough section 40 sub section 42 of the Nigerianconstitution provides a platform for men and women equal opportunity todemocratic governance, giving prohibitions to any means of discrimination,facts on ground do not give credits to this standing. Dating back to 2007general Nigeria’s election, only 6% of elected political office where womenbringing the ranking of the country compared to the other west Africancountries very low, being that the sub-regional average is put at 12% which practicallyis a far cry from the 30% recommended in Beijing in 1995. Despite the fact thatwomen constitute about half the population size of the country and have playedvery key roles in the past their participation in formal and informalstructures and processes where decision regarding the use of societal resourcesgenerated by both men and women remains insignificant (Makama, June 2013).

The gleaming issue still is that why are this set bacs still a part of thepolitical system?   Over thecenturies feminist has being stereotyped as dependent, submissive, andconforming making women lack leadership qualities raising the bias of men toportray leadership as command or control instead of a process of mobilizing andengaging humans which can bring a new platform for women leadership (Burns, 1978).The potentials of women to be a part of theadministrative strategic decision makers are high and are sure to bringpositive impact to the system of democratic governance. As in the past from thebirth of the office of the first lady in 17 by the wife of the then Head ofstate Babangida till date we have seen several women with great political ambitions women like NgoziOkono Iwela (finance minister), Dora Akunyili (drugs enforcement agency) etc.have all shown positive intents and worked significantly in their variousoffices. However, in Nigeria the extant National gender policy (NGP)recommended 35% affirmative action instead and sort for more inclusiverepresentation of women with at least 35% of both elective and political andappointive public service positions respectively (oluyemi, 2016).Sources have witnessed that the low response of women in the Nigerian politicalsystem started from the period of pre-colonial masters giving rise to the patriarchalsystem which in the long run have made it seem like men are always meant to beat the forefront and women their subordinates.   The purposeof this research will be solely to look into the hindrances women encounterwith regard to engaging in political run for offices.

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By looking at variouspolitical parties using various research procedure like conducting keyinformant interviews, distribution of questionnaires to see if truly democracyis practiced faithfully.      REARCH QUESTION & HYPOTHESISThis research will be involved in four researchquestions followed by the hypothesis.1.     WHY IS IT DIFFICULT FOR WOMEN TOENGAGE IN POLITICS AS ACTIVE PARTICIPANTS?The null hypothesis in this casewould be that they are not given enough support from this political parties toengage as active as their male counterparts which entail leads to a pullback ordiscourages their efforts.

 2.     IT THE PRACTICE OF DEMOCRACY TRULY APARTHNERSHIP OF EQUAL OPPURTUNITY BETWEEN WOMEN AND MEN?The null hypothesis in this casecould be that since the pre- colonial era the issue of patriarchy has deeplyeaten into the political system to an extent to which we as men no longer seewomen as equal but as subordinates. My expectation here will be to see that asubstantial percentage of patriarchy still very much exist or practiced. 3.     WHAT OPPURTUNITY DO WOMEN HAVE ASTHEY GROW IN THEIR POLIYICAL CAREER IN THIS PARTIES?The null hypothesis in this casewould be that despite the claims of gender equality, due to the presence of”internal democracy” still amongst the party members and officials we see thatwomen are still sidelines I expect to see that most of their career growth iscut short due to such reasons.

 4.     WHAT ARE THE STRATEGIES THAT WOMENNEED TO IMBIBE OF GET ACCUSTOMED TO IN ORTHER REACH A LEVEL PLAYING GROUND WITHTHEIR MALE COUNTERPARTS TO ATTAIN SUCH KEY POSITIONS?The null hypothesis here would bethat a grassroot reformation strategy from the family schools and culture tobreak the barrier which are nurtured from very young age i.e encouragingchildren despite their gender to see themselves as people of same relevance tothe society at large bearing in mind being able to give equal support at anypoint in time. In addition to this research /studywe will also be considering the following issues and questions:·       As women in various political parties willbe approached to fill up questionnaires, personally the researcher would wantto know or put into account if leadership education was something which wasbeing taught to them and if not, how did they find a way to break through this”GLASS CELLING”.·       Also, the study will like to know whattheir male counterparts feel about the issue of women putting out that they donot get enough support as them and their advice to women?         LITERATURE REVIEW     over the past years there has been aserious deliberation on the issue regarding women leadership however fromcolonialism came the point of women’s autonomy and traditional positions. TheBritish most times found women autonomous, they instituted a “Victorianframework” which circumscribed making them loose autonomist nature giving birthto patriarchal system, for example looking at the northern part of Nigeriacolonialism encouraged expansion of Islamic ideals making them exclude womenfrom politics and other public affairs (Awomolo, 1997) (sue Ellen Charlton, 1989).This patriarchal system which has eaten up virtually into every practices,systems and sectors in Nigeria bringing up a structure of gender inequality andmany other negative effect on the economical and socio-cultural values of thecountry.

On the surface it looks like gender has no significant role and thatthe country is presumably gender neutral, and potential women are equal totheir competitors; however, this remains an untapped dream of liberal pluralist (sue Ellen Charlton, 1989)cited in (Awomolo, 1997).     Nature of Politics in Nigeria In Nigerianthe nature of politics is characterized by way of violence, it’s miles said tobe very violent for those with the hearts and minds of stone, can face up tosuch violence. we’ve witnessed and heard approximately violence that transpireseach election season, a woman, certainly would now not need to get worried inwhich includes she has lots to lose, health wise and beauty clever. If maximumladies hold to assume this manner, there is no way any female might need to takepart in politics, or allow any family member of hers to take part. there arenumerous extra elements not point out, but it’s miles believed that the aboveelements are principal factors hindering women political participation, howeverit is time to do so by calling on all girls to learn the way to take part inpolitics (neighborhood, nation, country wide or international levels) (Amu, 2016).

     Women’s engagement in politics in Nigeriais essential as it is a known fact that no country can make a fast growth whenone half of the country’s population are under- represented, underminedeconomically and potentially weak, while the other half is economicallydominant and politically powerful. That which is been said is that women lackthe competence and the right amount of sophistication to hold themselvesagainst their male opponents and have failed to key into the major agendas ofthe country. Looking from the side of this political parties, they do havemanifestos from their constitution stating that both men and women have equaland full support from the party, manifestos of some of this parties also affirmin favor of men example: APC (all progressive party) one of the major politicalparties in Nigeria, section 16.     Increasingrepresentation in population and economic positions has been recognized as adevelopmental goal giving big ups to the Beijing platform for recommendation ofthe 30% target for women in National parliament which was implemented andshould have had positive impact if was fully implemented (Amadi, 2007).     Fromthe table below, it is clear that all parts of the world, women have beenhistorically discriminated against electoral issues. the good news is thatmarginalization can be addressed through concerted efforts. Thus, somecountries now have female heads of state such as Germany and Liberia (Igbuzor, 2011)Table: DEMOCRATIZATION OFSUFFRAGE IN SELECTED COUNTRIES COUNTRY MALE UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE FEMALE UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE AUSTRALIA 1903 1908 CANADA 1915/18 1920 GREAT BRITHIAN 1877 1928 SWEDEN 1923 1921 PORTUGAL 1911 1974 JAPAN 1918/19 1947 NIGERIA 1922 1979 FRANCE 1869/71 1946 ITALY 1925 1940  SOURCE: OTIVE IGUZO R,REDEFINING WINNING: WOMENS EMERGENCE IN POLITICAL LEADERSHIP POSITIONS.     Seeing the issue of marginalization in thepast and how efforts have been made to eliminate it the percentage rate ofchange has not been really significant from a statistical point ofview/perspective.

     Affirmativeactions have been taken to remove continuous setbacks / obstacles to politicalprogress which will entail reduce historical imbalance. Also, severalempowerment forums and mass mobilization campaigns have been initiated to breaktradition and stereotypes of women’s role. In spite of several of some of thisstrategies that have been initiated to which Nigeria is a signatory, they arestill flashing issues of gender inequality at all levels of decision making (oluyemi, 2016).  SIGNIFICANCEOF THIS STUDY     The resultof this study will be reverberated to the benefit of Nigeria at large and thepolitical parties, being that women play a vital role in the society andconsidering the fact that they do constitute about half the population of thecountry. Grassroot education for kinds of different genders to see themselvesas equal to fit into any position of their choice, here breaking the barrier ofcultural / family effect. Furthermore, this will also erase the issues ofinternal democracy within each political party hence forth suppressing theissue of women working /striving 10 times more to run on equal level playingground as their male counterparts.The research will equallybe bene?cial to NGOs, students and authorities’ businesses on gender relatedproblems together with Inter-parliamentary Union, United internationallocations’ department for the advancement of women (DAW) Committee for theremoval of all form of Discrimination against ladies (CEDAW) as it will aidthem of their search for gender equality.

similarly, the tips and pointers soas to be pro?ered on this observe will assist enhance the extent of politicalparticipation of women in Nigeria. (STELLA, 2015)     Itsgoing to be very much beneficial to the aspiring youths who want to getinvolved in politics when women who have acquired some previous positions inthe government initiate some mentoring programs which will prepare them for allobstacles keeping them competent, sophisticated and most importantly motivatedenough keying them into the major agendas of the country for attracting morefemale and male supporters. For the researcher, this study will help him/herunderstand the areas which are lacking in the aspect of women politics inNigeria, as he/she is aspiring to venture into politics someday, and seeing intosome missing issues concerning this topic. Thus, some time later in future newtheories on how this issue will be solved may be uncovered (Regoniel, 2015)           METHODSRESEARCHMETHODS, DESIGN AND METHODS     First ofall, all political potential parties and empowerment groups will be identified (Aydinel, 2015).     Thisresearch will involve the two (2) major parties in Nigeria and for theempowerment groups a random selection will be done selecting just two (2)groups giving them all an equal opportunity to be selected.

     In thisstudy the resarcher will be using a cross-sectional design to survey thevarious political parties and empowerment groups. This will be done at a periodnear to the general election of the country when all parties are active to makesure that the sample size is equally distributed, and all members available.Five (5) women and five (5) men are selected from both political parties makinga total of ten (10) persons per political party. The research will be moreexploratory being that we need to get detailed information/ data and feedbacksform our samples. Also from the sample a key informant interview will bescheduled and conducted for some specific persons from various sample size. Theinterview will be a semi-structured interview, with more open-ended questionsso as to get detailed required information from interviewee. Aself-administered questionnaire will be distributed randomly to ten (10) womenfor the various empowerment groups. The questions will be slightly open-endedalso in other for sample size to say how the truly feel about this issue.

Fromthe party sample size, a case narrative will be carried out with severalsuccessful women who have been able to break major boundaries they have facedand whose story can illuminate how prospects will navigate through political,public and personal hindrances and adopt best practices that can promote genderstability and equality. REARCH ETHICSThe researcher has to ensure that he/she getsappropriate consent signed from respondent as a surety of their understanding andacceptance to be involved in this study ensuring that he/she is not beingforced but get involved at their own free will. Also, required approval fromthe sample area (political parties) is relevant to ensure that they are no mixup or denials given on attempt to conduct exercise/study. Questionnaires whichare distributed to sample will be shared or given to those who are willing andfeel they want to be part of the study.

Lastly it is imperative that theevaluation process does not in any way harm (unintended or otherwise)participants.  CONCLUSION     Major hindrances as to why women do notengage/contest for key political offices in Nigeria wasa bit tasking to find articles that ae related to this topic being that most ofthe article online where mostly generalizing the political system of Governancewhile I was researching from the aspect of the political parties andempowerment groups. This research will also improve motivation for women as theywill be able to understand thee hindrances they face and how to overcome themalso for the younger generation, they will be opportune to get leadership andempowerment education as the grow without the issue of patriarchy andelimination of culture. By the development of these proposal we will begin to seegradual positive results politically and economically in the nearest future.           REFERENCE LIST (n.

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