of forts in Greater Mumbai and Mumbai Metropolitan Region:
as per geographical setting and construction systems with reference to Mumbai
defence (or defence) and coastal fortification are measures taken to provide
protection against military attack at or near a coastline (or other shoreline)
for example, fortification and coastal artillery. Because an invading enemy
normally requires a port or harbour to sustain operations, such defences are
usually concentrated around such facilities, or places where such facilities
could be constructed. Historically the term ‘battery’ referred to a cluster of
cannon in action as a group, either in a temporary field position during a
battle or at the siege of a fortress or a city.
the simple definition of hill fort, there is a wide variation in types
during middle ages. They would be functional as defensive strongholds when
there were tensions and undoubtedly some of them were attacked and destroyed.
The fort in Mumbai may be classified under following types based on the
topography and construction systems and genera systems:
Contour: the classic hill fort; an inland location with a
hilltop defensive position surrounded by artificial ramparts or steep natural
slopes. Examples: Sion Fort
Promontory: a linear earthwork across a narrow neck
of land leading to a peninsula with steep cliffs to the sea on three sides;
Examples: Riwa Fort, Dongri fort.
An island fort is
constructed on rocky outcrops of mountains partly submerged in the sea. These
were mainly used as naval depots and ship building yards to control maritime
This type if built on a
hill or a mountain or on the spurs of mountains, strategically located near
trading routes. Primary purpose of the forts was defence.
the middle ages, forts were predominantly constructed with cylindrical bastions
and turrets which gave rise to dead zones which is a sheltered area from
defending fire, because direct fire from other parts of the walls could not be
directed around the curved wall. To prevent this, what had previously been
round or square turrets were extended into diamond-shaped points to give
storming infantry no shelter. The ditches and walls channelled attacking troops
into carefully constructed killing grounds where defensive cannon could wreak
havoc on troops attempting to storm the walls, with emplacements set so that
the attacking troops had no place to shelter from the defensive fire.
Figure 2: Line-of-fire shown for star
forts and non-star forts, indicating the ‘dead’ zones created by the latter.
Inspired by figure of Lynn, John A. ‘the trace italienne and the Growth of
Armies: The French Case.’ In ‘The Military Revolution Debate’ ISBN 0-813
The portion of land/
hill top selected fort fortification was dominantly an elevated mass, to
provide a wide view of field for surveillance and defence. The height of
fortification walls are in proportion and differs as per the elevation of the