Transit oriented Development (TOD)
proposes compact mixed used development to maximize the use of urban land within
10 minutes of walk to high quality public transit. TOD comprises of housing, retail,
offices, and other amenities. The concept is new to the Indian context and was
introduced in July 2015 by MoUD through amendment of Delhi Master Plan 2021 with
an aim to address housing shortage for EWS, LIG, and MIG with concern of rising
pollution and traffic congestion in the city. TOD basically improves NMT scenario, reduces
traffic and parking congestion and land consumption.
Even though, a powerful tool, there
are several barriers which question the efficiency of TOD. Finance,
institutional capacity, governance, etc. Recently, Mumbai has seen rise in tall
buildings in the places like Elphinston road, and other where due to increased FSI
has people have built multi storey buildings with blank wall of around eight storey
high standing in front of 3m wide road resulting in lack of light and
The situation arises because every
TOD action plan states “What to do” but lacks to explain “How to do”. Somewhere
the answer also lies in the context of the issue where the solution needs to be
tailored according to the place and problem. Also at global level for e.g.
Brazil, there has been issues related to gaps in systematic financing. One
reason can be lack of comprehensive understanding and implication of TOD.
Further, the economic, political will and stakeholder capacity also play an
important role in effectiveness of TOD. Also the parking provided in the TOD
zone is unclear about the part allocation to support public transport riders.
And if the parking has to be given, then private vehicles will be continue to
Several questions arise while
implementation of TOD. For e.g.
mere proposition of development along Transit stops and corridor lead to actual
we provide higher FSI in the TOD zones, who are the actual beneficiaries?
kind of diversity (socio-economical, socio-cultural, etc.) are we supporting?
the local real estate ready to take benefits of the TOD?
to ensure equity in actual sense through inclusive TOD?
there political capacity and willingness to embrace TOD?
is stakeholders’ willingness and capacity to consider TOD?
core city areas implement TOD? If yes then, how?
Hereby, considering at the challenges
in implementing Transit Oriented Development, A new study from The World Bank
suggests “3V Approach” while considering a neighbourhood for TOD Proposal. The
3V is an acronym for three values a neighbourhood should have, such as Transit
Connectivity, Quality of Urban Environment and Market Potential to identify the
possible stations to make actual sense of the Transit Oriented Development.
These three factors are simple considerations, whereas the task is vast and
requires to consider the study into a larger context of Indian Scenario if we
want to implement a successful TOD.