Throughout history, revolutions have started in order to cause change. Two major revolutions took place in France and Russia in hopes of creating better political, economic, and social conditions. These revolutions were driven by issues concerning the governments in power and the incompetence of the leader. Both nations looked to better their situation politically, economically, and socially. As the 18th century drew to a close, France’s problems were very evident. A major problem that caused a desire for change in France was that Absolute Monarchy was being challenged by ideas of the Enlightenment. These ideas suggested that an ideal government would rule in the best interest of the people while absolutism kept many people under arbitrary rule. Another cause for change was the infamous Estate system. The nobility and clergy, wealthiest in French society, were exempt from taxation. All of France’s taxes fell on the working class and peasant class who had no representation in government. Along with ideas of the Enlightenment and unequal representation feeding the fire for revolt, France had an incompetent leader in King Louis XVI. King Louis ruled absolutely, ignoring the well being and needs of society. His weak role in power caused France to become bankrupt and also led to many famines which caused inflation and the rise of bread prices. This angered the majority of the population in France, thus starting the French Revolution. The immediate effects of the French Revolution was the removal and beheading of absolute monarch Louis XVI. The Enlightenment ideas used to spark the desire for change in France continued to influence change throughout Europe and the rest of the world. It also created a document in France known as the Declaration of Right of Man and of the Citizen which defined the principles of government and made people dissatisfied with Absolute Monarchy, thus marking the end of absolutism. Although one of the causes for change was the the price of bread rising and inflation, the revolution caused it to rise even more due to the Napoleonic Wars following the revolution. France was unable to stabilize its economy and became bankrupt because of the wars. Napoleon’s 17 years of war following his rise to power after the French Revolution also affected Europe socially because 6 million people died in result of the battles. Furthermore, the French Revolution ended a thousand years of feudalism in France which made it a profound social revolution.The Russian Revolution was the result of an incompetent czar and a weak nation as a whole. The revolution began in 1917, removing Russia from WWI. Many of the people in Russia were poor and hungry and wanting change. Factory workers were unhappy and striking for shorter hours and better wages. Czar Nicholas II lost his support from the people following his actions on Bloody Sunday. The people of Russia lost all hope in their country after their defeat against the Japanese in which was a humiliating loss for Russia. Along with these causes, WWI was the direct catalyst for the Russian Revolution. Russia’s poor performance in the war, along with the stress and cost of war put on Russian society drove the Russian people to want to rebel. The Russians were very unhappy with the government’s ineptitude and lack of concern for its people’s needs. As Nicholas II ignored the needs of the people during difficult times, Vladimir Lenin rose to prominence as the most powerful figure in Russia and the leader of the Bolsheviks which was a Marxist political party. Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks hijacked the Russian Revolution and created a communist society. Politically, Lenin formed the Soviet Union. The revolution also marked the end of autocratic rule and instead, had middle class and intellectuals running the Russian government. Lenin also introduced the NEP which allowed peasants to sell some of their produce for profit and small traders were allowed to run businesses. This encouraged capitalism that helped the stabilization of the economy. Economically, the revolution opened the door for Russia to finally enter the industrial age. New industrial regions appeared quickly in Russia and became increasingly important to the country’s development which led to the organization of the economy. The Soviet Union began to emerge as a world power due to the revolution as well. Socially, Russia’s criticism of imperialism led to nationalist movements in colonized countries. Lastly, because of the rise of communism in the Soviet Union, communism spread rapidly throughout the rest of the world. In conclusion, both the French Revolution and Russian Revolution were attempts to solve issues concerning representation in government and political incompetence. The political, economic, and social effects France and Russia brought on themselves and other nations were significant into helping the nations develop into what they are today.