Throughout 1991). The emergence of cities and growth of

Throughout History humans have
migrated from one place to another in search of better livelihoods. Until
1900, 219 million, or 13.6 percent of the world’s population, lived in urban
areas, which had populations of 5,000 or more (United Nations, 1973). By 1950,
the world’s urban population had increased to 734 million; it reached 1,352
million and 3,198 million in 1970 and 2000, respectively (United Nations,
1991). The emergence of cities and growth
of urban population is considered as the major developments of the nineteenth
century. Urban population in 1900 comprised of (219 million) 13.6 per cent of
the world’s population. By 1950, the world’s urban population increased to 734
million and thereafter 3,198 million in 2000 (United Nations, 1973). Today the
urban population comprises of 4.027 billion which is approximately half (54.298
per cent) of the world’s population and is estimated to increase to 66 per cent
of the world’s population by 2050 (United Nations 2016).  

Malaysia’s rate of
urbanization stands at 6.8% which is the second highest in the world. Having a
total population of 31.19 million (2016 census). According to the World Bank Malaysia’s
urban population comprises of 23 million people which is 74% of the total
population. This high rate of urbanization and large volume of urban population
makes Malaysia a very compelling country to study from the urban development
point of view.

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Migrants play an important
role in Malaysia’s history and culture. Malaysia had an early influenced by
Indian and Chinese migrants in the 3rd century. In 1511 Malaysia was
colonised by the Portuguese and followed by the Dutch in 1641 and the British
in 1824 thereafter Word War II brought the Japanese invasions to Malaysia.  It was only in 1957 on the 31st of
August Malaysia attained its independence and a Federation of Malaysia was
created. Having a diverse history of migration, today Malaysia’s migrants
comprise 0.2% of the total population (Migration Survey Report, 2016). International
migrants, who move from abroad to Malaysia, account to 11.6 per cent of total


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