This project expounds research findingsregarding road safety issues in Nairobi, Kenya.
The aim of this project is tolearn how data analysts/traffic police officers collect data and what kind ofdata they record in a particular incident or accident. This will help thepolice/government minimize the amount of injuries and deaths related to roadaccidents within Kenya, and hopefully other African countries will adopt thesesolutions.According to the National TransportSafety Authority (NTSA) an estimated 3,000 deaths from road crashes occurannually in Kenya.
The economic cost of road crashes is 5.6% of the GDP, whichis 300 billion Kenyan shillings annually (www.ntsa.
go.ke).For this research to be carried outa few interviews took place – these interviews involved traffic police officers,the deputy inspector general of police (DIG) and the officer commanding policedivision (OCPD), on what methods they use to carry out data analysis after anaccident. Once this data has been compiled it will then be provided on softwareknown as Tableau which helps show data analysis.Roadaccidents have an enormous impact to citizens, as they are sudden and violent andoften lead to both physical and mental damage. This affects the generalpopulation, and in turn the government, in terms of healthcare and provision.
Kenya,in East Africa is ranked among the countries with poor road safety standards,based on a 2017 WHO (World Health Organization) report which was based on roadsafety globally (Joseph Muraya, 2017). The age groups that was most affected interms of fatalities was between 20-44 years, with the peak age being 30-34. Nairobi County was also the county with themost fatal crashes in 2017, recording a total of 670 deaths, with a majority of497 being pedestrians. The accidents are caused by many factors including drunkdriving, bad roads, and motorists failing to obey road regulations, among otherreasons· To provide the government of Nairobi with the necessary informationin the form of data analysis, to help reduce the number of road accidents.· To help traffic police and data analysts in Nairobi Countyestablish enhanced safety protocols for motorists.· To determine howuseful dataanalysis and big data can be, especially in traffic relatedincidents.· To establish how substance abuse such as alcohol caninfluence accident rates among motorists in Nairobi.· To determine the budget of implementing enhanced systems andbuilding better roads.
· To show data analysis via software known as Tableau.Data visualization is arepresentation of data in a visual manner such as in graph form, XY plot(scatter plot), a heat map or something equivalent with a main goal of makingthe data easy to digest and make the analyst, consumer or marketer understandthe patterns easier and getting insights from the data itself. Data analysis tools are the main foundationfor any digital business, as they allow businesses to understand what thecustomers are doing on the website or app, therefore an accurate tracking oftheir actions within the data analytics tool is essential for any onlinebusiness.Data visualization allows to get tothe core of the data which helps unveil some patterns that cannot be easilygrasped/deciphered by just looking at something for e.g. a table, and helpsconnect a lot of data sources in to one single place therefore allows analysis,which can be very demanding if performed individually.Data Analytic tools are veryimportant as they are critical components which enable better understanding ofdata, such tools include:· Google analytics: Like MixPanel, Google Analytics provides traditionaldata analytics as the main focus is key metrics such as user activity overtime,and how much time is spent on things for example a app or website.
· Google tag manager: Isa simple and reliable tag management system which integrates easily withexisting systems and is useful for tracking and analytics on websites.· Adobe Analytics: This is a leading solution for applyingreal time analytics and detailed segmentation across marketing channels.· Kiss Metrics: Is what is called a behavioural analyticssystem and assigns website visitors unique ID’s.· Mix panel: Like Google Analytics, MixPanel as well providestraditional data analytics.· Tableau: Tableau is a data visualization software focused onbusiness intelligence· Drip: Is one of the first email platforms to bring marketingautomation · Optimizely: Enables businesses to deliver continuousexperimentation and personalization across websites and connected devices.This study was limited as therewere occasions during interviews when respondents were unwilling to provideinformation, especially on the sensitive topic of road accidents. There was suspicionthat this information was going to be used in an inappropriate manner althougha consent form and approval letter were used to help attain the interview (see appendix); in addition, it was difficultto access these respondents due to poor weather conditions.
Road accidents in general cannot becompletely prevented, but measures can be taken to ensure a good amount ofreduction in these accidents. Recently the NTSA (National Transport and SafetyAuthority) has been working towards curbing accidents by installing trafficcameras on many of the busy roads in Nairobi and various sub counties. Thiswill enable them to apprehend traffic offenders and reckless drivers. Drunkendriving is also one of the biggest causes of accidents, therefore the NTSA hasbegun introducing breathalyzers to identify drunk drivers.
Known as theAlcoBlow handheld breath control tester, it is an efficient way to see whethera person has consumed alcohol more than the legal limit. Passenger Service Vehicles in Kenyaare notorious for reckless driving and ignorance when it comes to observingtraffic laws, and are involved in a majority of the road accidents that occurwithin Nairobi. Because of this there has recently beena night travel ban introduced for PSVs, in order to decrease the number ofaccidents that occur at night.
NTSA has also rolled out an enforced set ofrules for driving schools to ensure rigorous training is completed. This is sothat the motorists are prepared and are able to adhere to all rules; this willhelp novice drivers learn all necessary driving skills to avoid the tragicevent of an accident. In Nairobi, the roads are not in the greatestof condition- problems like potholes, unmarked roads, and incomplete roadconstruction due to contractors not being paid. Due to these infrastructureissues, cars tend to swerve to avoid damaging their vehicles. This can bechanged as the government can implement new ways to ensure roads areconstructed well and to ensure road contractors are paid on time to have workdelivered on schedule.
Other developed countries like theUnited Arab Emirates (UAE) have the world’s best road safety measures andexcellent infrastructure, these measures together with road safety awarenesscampaigns improve road user behavior. Kenya as a country can adopt measureslike the United Arab Emirates by adding radar systems to roads, instant finesif rules are broken and introduce E-licenses (electronic licenses) to ensuremaximum road safety.The data collected for time of day indicatesthe highest incidence of accidents at around 7pm.
It is important for theauthorities to consider high-risk times of day in their prevention measures andto allocate resources accordingly to provide more cover at times of increasedrisk. This could include traffic control measures, higher police presence onthe roads at these times, or investment in road infrastructure to alleviatecongestion in high-traffic areas. Given that certain causes play asignificant factor, for example intoxication or lack of awareness of roadrules, other initiatives could be helpful.
Firstly, a campaign of educationaimed at public awareness of the issues and to make the public aware of theextent of these problems, and their consequences. Commonly flouted road rulescould be part of this programme to ensure all road users are aware of the law. A similar programme could be aimedat offenders who have broken the law, many countries operate some sort ofre-education programme for minor offenders, such as compulsory attendance ofdriving classes for speeding or similar offences.Escalation of existing proceduressuch as routine stops and breath tests could be focused on problem areasindicated by the collected data, in order to ensure they are conducted wherethey will have the most effect.