This project expounds research findings
regarding road safety issues in Nairobi, Kenya. The aim of this project is to
learn how data analysts/traffic police officers collect data and what kind of
data they record in a particular incident or accident. This will help the
police/government minimize the amount of injuries and deaths related to road
accidents within Kenya, and hopefully other African countries will adopt these
According to the National Transport
Safety Authority (NTSA) an estimated 3,000 deaths from road crashes occur
annually in Kenya. The economic cost of road crashes is 5.6% of the GDP, which
is 300 billion Kenyan shillings annually (www.ntsa.go.ke).
For this research to be carried out
a few interviews took place – these interviews involved traffic police officers,
the deputy inspector general of police (DIG) and the officer commanding police
division (OCPD), on what methods they use to carry out data analysis after an
accident. Once this data has been compiled it will then be provided on software
known as Tableau which helps show data analysis.
accidents have an enormous impact to citizens, as they are sudden and violent and
often lead to both physical and mental damage. This affects the general
population, and in turn the government, in terms of healthcare and provision. Kenya,
in East Africa is ranked among the countries with poor road safety standards,
based on a 2017 WHO (World Health Organization) report which was based on road
safety globally (Joseph Muraya, 2017). The age groups that was most affected in
terms of fatalities was between 20-44 years, with the peak age being 30-34. Nairobi County was also the county with the
most fatal crashes in 2017, recording a total of 670 deaths, with a majority of
497 being pedestrians. The accidents are caused by many factors including drunk
driving, bad roads, and motorists failing to obey road regulations, among other
To provide the government of Nairobi with the necessary information
in the form of data analysis, to help reduce the number of road accidents.
To help traffic police and data analysts in Nairobi County
establish enhanced safety protocols for motorists.
To determine how
analysis and big data can be, especially in traffic related
To establish how substance abuse such as alcohol can
influence accident rates among motorists in Nairobi.
To determine the budget of implementing enhanced systems and
building better roads.
To show data analysis via software known as Tableau.
Data visualization is a
representation of data in a visual manner such as in graph form, XY plot
(scatter plot), a heat map or something equivalent with a main goal of making
the data easy to digest and make the analyst, consumer or marketer understand
the patterns easier and getting insights from the data itself. Data analysis tools are the main foundation
for any digital business, as they allow businesses to understand what the
customers are doing on the website or app, therefore an accurate tracking of
their actions within the data analytics tool is essential for any online
Data visualization allows to get to
the core of the data which helps unveil some patterns that cannot be easily
grasped/deciphered by just looking at something for e.g. a table, and helps
connect a lot of data sources in to one single place therefore allows analysis,
which can be very demanding if performed individually.
Data Analytic tools are very
important as they are critical components which enable better understanding of
data, such tools include:
Google analytics: Like MixPanel, Google Analytics provides traditional
data analytics as the main focus is key metrics such as user activity overtime,
and how much time is spent on things for example a app or website.
Google tag manager: Is
a simple and reliable tag management system which integrates easily with
existing systems and is useful for tracking and analytics on websites.
Adobe Analytics: This is a leading solution for applying
real time analytics and detailed segmentation across marketing channels.
Kiss Metrics: Is what is called a behavioural analytics
system and assigns website visitors unique ID’s.
Mix panel: Like Google Analytics, MixPanel as well provides
traditional data analytics.
Tableau: Tableau is a data visualization software focused on
Drip: Is one of the first email platforms to bring marketing
Optimizely: Enables businesses to deliver continuous
experimentation and personalization across websites and connected devices.
This study was limited as there
were occasions during interviews when respondents were unwilling to provide
information, especially on the sensitive topic of road accidents. There was suspicion
that this information was going to be used in an inappropriate manner although
a consent form and approval letter were used to help attain the interview (see appendix); in addition, it was difficult
to access these respondents due to poor weather conditions.
Road accidents in general cannot be
completely prevented, but measures can be taken to ensure a good amount of
reduction in these accidents. Recently the NTSA (National Transport and Safety
Authority) has been working towards curbing accidents by installing traffic
cameras on many of the busy roads in Nairobi and various sub counties. This
will enable them to apprehend traffic offenders and reckless drivers. Drunken
driving is also one of the biggest causes of accidents, therefore the NTSA has
begun introducing breathalyzers to identify drunk drivers. Known as the
AlcoBlow handheld breath control tester, it is an efficient way to see whether
a person has consumed alcohol more than the legal limit.
Passenger Service Vehicles in Kenya
are notorious for reckless driving and ignorance when it comes to observing
traffic laws, and are involved in a majority of the road accidents that occur
Because of this there has recently been
a night travel ban introduced for PSVs, in order to decrease the number of
accidents that occur at night. NTSA has also rolled out an enforced set of
rules for driving schools to ensure rigorous training is completed. This is so
that the motorists are prepared and are able to adhere to all rules; this will
help novice drivers learn all necessary driving skills to avoid the tragic
event of an accident.
In Nairobi, the roads are not in the greatest
of condition- problems like potholes, unmarked roads, and incomplete road
construction due to contractors not being paid. Due to these infrastructure
issues, cars tend to swerve to avoid damaging their vehicles. This can be
changed as the government can implement new ways to ensure roads are
constructed well and to ensure road contractors are paid on time to have work
delivered on schedule.
Other developed countries like the
United Arab Emirates (UAE) have the world’s best road safety measures and
excellent infrastructure, these measures together with road safety awareness
campaigns improve road user behavior. Kenya as a country can adopt measures
like the United Arab Emirates by adding radar systems to roads, instant fines
if rules are broken and introduce E-licenses (electronic licenses) to ensure
maximum road safety.
The data collected for time of day indicates
the highest incidence of accidents at around 7pm. It is important for the
authorities to consider high-risk times of day in their prevention measures and
to allocate resources accordingly to provide more cover at times of increased
risk. This could include traffic control measures, higher police presence on
the roads at these times, or investment in road infrastructure to alleviate
congestion in high-traffic areas.
Given that certain causes play a
significant factor, for example intoxication or lack of awareness of road
rules, other initiatives could be helpful. Firstly, a campaign of education
aimed at public awareness of the issues and to make the public aware of the
extent of these problems, and their consequences. Commonly flouted road rules
could be part of this programme to ensure all road users are aware of the law.
A similar programme could be aimed
at offenders who have broken the law, many countries operate some sort of
re-education programme for minor offenders, such as compulsory attendance of
driving classes for speeding or similar offences.
Escalation of existing procedures
such as routine stops and breath tests could be focused on problem areas
indicated by the collected data, in order to ensure they are conducted where
they will have the most effect.