This more than 35 percent, or overran their budgets

This article is
derived from analysis of about 210 large software projects at or above 10,000
function points in size that were reviewed by among 1995 to 2017.(Note
that 10,000 function points are roughly comparable to 1,050,000 statements in
the C, C++, C# programming language.) It is tough during
analysis to pick out successful or unsuccessful methods from projects that
are more or less average. However when polar opposites are examined, some
very interesting differences stand out. The phrase polar opposites refer to
projects at opposite ends of the spectrum in terms of achieving cost, schedule,
and quality targets. When projects that were late by more than 35 percent, or
overran their budgets by more than 35 percent, or experienced serious quality
problems after delivery are compared to projects without such issues, some
interesting patterns can be seen. Of the 210 projects examined, about 25 were
considered positive in that they accomplished their cost, schedule, and
quality purposes. Almost 50 had delays or overruns below 35%, while about 175
experienced major delays and overruns, or were finish without accomplishment.
The projects included systems software, information systems, subcontracted
projects, and security applications. This distribution of consequences shows
that large system development is a hazardous undertaking. Indeed, some of the
failing (projects) were inspected during study while working as an expert observer
in breach of-contract trial involving the failed projects. These large submissions
included both systems software and information systems. Both corporations and

agencies were
included. In terms of development methods, both waterfall development cycles
and spiral development were included. The newer agile methods were not
included because such methods are seldom if ever utilized on applications
larger than about 1,000 function points. Table 1 shows six major factors
noted at opposite ends of the spectrum in terms of failure versus success as
they were revealed in the study analysis. The author and his colleagues were
commissioned by clients to examine the software development practices, tools
utilized, quality, and productivity results of various projects. Thus, this
article may be biased toward the topics examined. We were not commissioned to
examine other kinds of issues such as poor training, staff in experience, or
poor personnel practices. There are, of course, many other influential
factors besides these 6 in this report. Indeed, several prior books by the
author cited more than 100 factors. But these six key factors occur so
frequently that they stand out from factors that occur only now and then. For
additional studies on recent project failures other than the mention factors.
Before dealing with the patterns observed on the successful and failing
projects, it is desirable to discuss some of the differences between project

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and projects assessing
since these are the key aspects connected with both success and fiasco. The
phrase project management tools has been applied to a large family of tools
whose primary purpose is sophisticated scheduling for projects with hundreds
or even thousands of overlapping and partially interdependent tasks. These
tools are able to drop down to very detailed task levels, and can even handle
the schedules of individual workers. A few examples of tools within the
project management class include Artemis Views, Microsoft Project, Primavera,
and Project Manager’s Workbench. However, the family of project management
tools is general purpose in nature and does not include specialized software
sizing and estimating capabilities as do the software cost estimating tools.
Neither do these general project management tools deal with quality issues
such as defect removal efficiency. Project management tools are useful, but
software requires additional capabilities to be under full management
control. The software cost estimation industry and the project management
tool industry originated as separate businesses with project management tools
appearing in the 1960s, around 10 years before software cost estimating
tools. Although the two were originally separate businesses,


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