There are various political systems around the world,political systems that each country are governed under. The most commonpolitical system there is, is a democracy.
A democracy in a traditional sense,is a political system that allows each individual person to participate; thisis where each citizen of a country can participate voting system where people hasthe right to choose their leaders, and to hold their leaders accountable fortheir policies and their conduct in office. It is the people who decide whowill represent them in parliament, and it is the people that decides who willhead the government at the national and local levels. They do this by choosingand voting between competing parties, through regular free and fair elections;the government is based on the consent of the governed. In a democracy, thepeople are the sovereign and they are the highest form of political authority;it is the people that holds the power to the leaders of government, who onlyhold power temporarily as every term there are elections and a new head getselected.
It is in a democracy that laws and policies require majority supportin parliament before being made and enacted; this means that once a law is put forwardfor consideration it cannot be enacted if not enough people agree with it. Itis only when a new law or policy has undergone through a voting system in theparliament, would that law be passed, and so will be judged if it’s a just andfair. Based on the Democracy Index, almost one half of all the countries in theworld are considered as a democracy a democracy, with some of the having a hybridor flawed version of democracy but a democracy nonetheless (The Economist,2016). Another type of political system is a Monarchy and it isthe most common form of governance starting from the ancient times, to earlyparts of the 20th century; where the country is ruled over by ahereditary king or hereditary queen. When people hear the word monarchy, mostpeople will think of the political systems of medieval European nations.Monarchies are where rulers are not usually chosen by the voice of the publicor people, or by their representatives. A monarch is often the head of thestate until she or he abdicates their throne, or until their eventual death. Ina surmountable of cases, a monarch is and always is the final word in thegovernment; the king or the queen of that nation’s monarch always has the finalsay when it comes to governance of the nation, and can enact laws or policiesgiven by them.
There might also be functionaries in order to make decisions andbe able to run the political system, but the monarch will always have thediscretion when it comes with the laws, and how they are enforced. There are differenttypes of monarchies, same as with other political systems. The most common typeof monarchy that a lot of people know is the absolute monarchy, where themonarch has the ultimate say when it comes to the matters of the government;the king or queen that is currently on the throne has all the power, and hasall the capability under their fingers. However, most monarchies in the modernpolitical systems does not follow this method of system anymore.
Constitutionalmonarchies are now the most common of monarchies where in this type of monarchythe ruler is the head of state, but there is a constitution that limits thepower, and it is others and not the monarch that creates the laws; examples ofthis is the UK, Denmark, Spain, and Sweden where the monarchs are nearly alljust symbolic rather than actual rulers of their countries, and governing poweris now in the hands of the national parliaments. There are currently around 40monarchies in the world right now such as Spain, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates,Malaysia, the United Kingdom, and Japan. Although the monarchs in thesecountries are just figureheads and just largely symbolic, these countries arestill considered current monarchies (RoyaltyMonarchy, 2018).
Another common political system is a Republic and theoreticallyspeaking, a republic is a political system where the government remains mostlysubject to those who are being governed. Most people define any politicalsystems where the citizens legitimize the government, such as the US, a countrywhich people would consider a republic. A lot of people believe that any formof governance where the ruler of a country is not based on heritage, orauthoritarian governance is a republic. Sometimes, a representative democracymight be considered or thought off as a republic. The main or basiccharacteristic of a republic is that the government is subject to the people itgoverns, and where the leaders can be recalled; the state is ruled byrepresentatives of the citizen body.
The idea that the sovereignty lies andrests with the people, though who is included and excluded from the category ofthe people has varied across history. A republic is then very similar to ademocracy, where no one person has all the power under their fingers, but is asort of collective; the government head is elected through a voting system andwould only be in power for a couple of years, 10 years in office, and would bereplaced by a newly elected head. Most of the countries in the world are consideredrepublics, examples of sovereign states are Colombia, Mozambique, andPhilippines, and the United States of America (Ranker, 2018).On the other side of the coin of a republic is apolitical system that is wholly opposite and it Communism. This is a politicalsystem where the all the property is public, and the government owns andcontrols practically everything; the government owns and controls themanufacturing, production, rates of exchange, transportation, means ofdistribution of property, and various industries of the country. A societywhere all property is held in common and which in theory is classless. The wordcan also refer to the policies of various states controlled by communistpolitical parties, although they may differ greatly from the hypothetical modelposited by philosophers such as Marx.
This is a system where people shareequally from the benefits of their labour, and they receive resources they needfrom the government. Communism is supposed to make everyone under communistcontrol equal, having no difference between the rich and the poor. Communiststates are often dominated by a group of people or by a single party. A plannedeconomy is often part of the governing class, and in many cases resources aretaken and then redistributed to others, at the top of the system. Sometimes,communists call themselves as workers’ states, or socialists, but there arevery real differences in their operation. In most cases, citizens are requiredto do certain jobs, or have some of their life decisions; concerning where theycan live, or what jobs they can do dictated by the state itself. Currently,there are only 5 communist countries that remains in the world; China (People’sRepublic of China, Cuba (Republic of Cuba), Laos (Lao People’s DemocraticRepublic), North Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea), and Vietnam(Socialist Republic of Vietnam) (ThoughtCo, 2017). Similarly, another political system where the peopledoes not have any power of say is a political system called a dictatorship.
This political system is an authoritarian form of government, and the dictatoris the main individual ruler of the country. There might be other associates,and those who work under the dictator, but it is solely the dictator himself orherself that can make most of the decisions, and usually also has people toenforce decisions such as laws or policies that he or she chooses. Sometimes,the dictatorship political system is run by a small group of people, anddictators are not restricted by constitutions or parliaments. The people thatare under dictatorships are usually not consented in any way or form. Whenthere is an election, it is usually affairs in which the dictator is the onlycandidate.
As of today, according to the PlanetRulers website, there are 49dictatorships currently in the world; 21 in Africa, 18 in Asia, 7 in the MiddleEast, 1 in Europe, and 2 in the Americas (PlanetRulers, 2017).