There is increasing evidence indicating that using nutritional genomics will improve overall public health. This is achieved by reducing the risk of monogenic, and common polygenic diseases through diet alteration. Research into human genome sequencing has allowed for the identification of around 1000 mutations that are responsible for human disease. These genes can account for multifactorial diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. These mutations are known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms. They allow for potential sites of phenotypic variance due to genome plasticity and through interaction with the environment. This means that they are not always to blame, but they are likely to predispose an individual to develop the associated disease. The environment can also play a large role in shaping genetic expression. It can exert a pressure on the genome which will lead to its eventual evolution. New technologies have been developed which allow precise and accurate readings of biochemical alterations occurring in the body. These technologies have also aided in knowledge of the nutrient-genome reactions between health and disease. They will create room for research in genome-customized nutrition for disease prevention and therapy. Advancements in bioinformatics will help predict disease risk, and identify individuals who can benefit from changing aspects of their diet. Nutrition is a very important factor in the genetic background for impairing or improving the likelihood of developing a metabolic disorder. Identification of genes and genetic expression would be best used for nutritional assessment by developing dietary guidelines which are tracked by the World Health Organization. Past and current guidelines did not consider the vast differences in individual response to nutrient intake. For instance, inconsistencies in dietary fiber intake has been explained by the presence of a common single-nucleotide polymorphism, M235T, located in the Angiotensinogen gene. This nucleotide variation is linked to changes in blood pressure after consumption of a dietary fiber. Utilizing nutritional genomics for individual assessment would help to improve health in certain individuals with high genetic predisposition to develop a pathological condition. This personalized nutrition would highlight the relationship between nutrition and the ways it acts on the genetic background to predispose to metabolic disorders.