The mean scores of (9.3 ±1.585)questionnaire was above the theoretical mid-point (61% with a 10-point and 44%with 9-point). However, overall scores were normally distributed and Kolmogorov–Smirnovtest (0.
006) denoted normal distribution. Distributions of student responses todifferent questions are presented in table 1. Prevalence and attitude toward doping The prevalence of personal use ofbanned substances among physical education students is 2.7%. While 6.8% arewilling to use any prohibited substances in the future.
About 49.1% had met someone who was takingdrugs. About 78.
8% are against such a person being presented in their vicinity.Almost 94.1% of the participants think that using prohibited substances isconsidered a kind of fraud and deceit and 85.1% is considered as a form ofaddiction. When the mean scores were comparedbetween those who reported doping use and those who claimed not using doping,the difference was of no statistical significance (Table 2). A majority(204/221, 92.3%) who claimed staying away from doping in the future recordedhigher mean scores than those who willing to use PEDs (Table 2). The differencewas statistically significant.
Knowledge of doping and welcomingfor training Only 28.4% of the studiedpopulation indicated that they had heard of the IOC/WADA list of bannedsubstances. Only 44.3% of who said yes could name drug/drugs on the bannedlist. About 78.5% reported that they are aware about world anti-doping program,only 22.5% could mention the role of this program in terms of control dopingamong athletes by detection, awareness and continuing education to keepfairness, justice and spirit of sport. Around 94.
5 of the participantsconfirmed the importance of knowledge to physical education students in theircareer and general life. Reasons of use & Beliefsregarding doping The most frequently chosen reasonfor doping (55.8%) is the considerable pressure on the athlete by expectationsof others such as coaches, audience, family, friends and even society itself.The distribution of different responses about reasons of doping was presentedin figure 1. While 50% of who reported personal use of doping believed thatdoping use is owing to a very strong desire to achieve the best results and33.
3% of them due to lack of knowledge about the effects of doping. In terms of health consequences, 97.7% ofrespondents reported that using doping substances have negative healthconsequences. Around 14.8% believed that using of doping substances areefficacious in improving performance and considered the reason behind theusage. In this study, just over the half (51.4%) agreed that some of thecurrent top athletes used doping substances.
Interestingly, the same percentage(50%) was recorded among those who reported personal use of doping. Attitudes towards doping preventionand testing In the present study, 41.3% thoughtthat current doping controls cannot detect the athletes who took dope.Moreover, 62% of the respondents confirm that there is a way to deceive thedoping control tests. Sports and doping scandals The most infected sports by doping arein figure 2. About 21% of the responses were related to athletics and Judo,football 17%, then wrestling 12%.
While least marked sports with dopingscandals are in figure 3. Around 26% of the responses were related to swimming,football 18%, then fencing 14%. DISCUSSIONThe use of PEDs has been a problemin sport for long time. It was recommended to further expand the current dopingdata to all geographical and cultural areas to understand the global situationand to allow better comparisons between countries (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013). Up to authors’knowledge, there is no study about doping in this locality. The results ofpresent study could give a preliminary data about the knowledge, beliefs andattitudes of a group from physical education students toward doping tounderstand and consequently could prevent doping among young people in respectto their culture and locality. Prevalence and attitude toward doping The mean overall score indicatedthat no problem to expose beliefs and explicit attitude toward doping. The prevalence ofpersonal use of banned substancesand even that of who willing to use any prohibited substancesin the future in the presentstudy is very small and negligible in comparison to prevalence of earlierstudies taking into account their young age (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013).
This is alsocould be attributed to their culture. We should put in our mind until now theydid not receive any course within their curriculum about doping, this specificcourse will be taken in the last year. The estimates of use among theirmates or any other people around them are significantly more than self-reporteduse.
This percent is consistent with other previous study which explained thathigh percentage of students is familiar with the doping effects mostly throughtheir mates or acquaintances (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013). Most ofstudents (78.8%) are against such a person being presented in their vicinity.Thispercent is higher than that was presented by previous study (47%) (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013).Itis very important that the majority of participants have a negative opinion onthis matter and this could support their ant-doping attitudes. The engagement ofdoping was encouraged by coaches, friends, family members and other athletes.From prevention point of view, minimization of the behavior towards the use ofbanned substances could be encouraged by surrounding peoples (Dunn and Thomas 2012).