The was the e-mails. These personalized and persistent e-mails

The importance of advertising during the electioncampaign was so important and relevant that without it, would not be the samehistory. As an example, what would have happened if Obama only had 75% of theresources he had for advertising? According to Gorenz, Franz and Ridout (2010) the results were being different, for instance inNorth California and Florida, Barack Obama would have lost and in Indiana, wherehe had a razor-thin win of 28,000 votes out of 2.8 million, would be reduced bymore than 22,000 votes. In contrast, Obama lost Missouri by only 4,000 votes,that means that if he could invested more in advertising maybe we could haveadded this state into his column (Gorenet al.

, 2010). Mass media also had an effect during the U.S.presidential election. Although the consumption of public television hasdecreased from 55.1% of households in the U.S. in 1999 to 32% in 2013, thenumber of viewers of Obama’s presidential inauguration of 2008 reached 37.

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93million, only overpass by Ronald Regan in 1981 with a total of 41.8 million ofviewers (Statista,2017). In terms of fundraising the Obama ’08 campaign brokeall the records. In words of Michael Luo (Michael Luo, 2008) Barack Obama bought in nearly $750 million for hispresidential campaign, a record amount that exceeds what all of the candidatescombined collected in private donations in the previous race for the WhiteHouse. So how did they raise all this money? One key factor was the e-mails.

These personalized and persistent e-mails were signed by a variety of Obama’scampaign members, such as David Plouffe, Valerie Jarret, John Podesta, MichelleObama and of course the candidate himself. (Cogburn -Vasquez, 2011). The marketing also took place here, for instance ifyou contributed with $50, you will receive a distinctive Obama’s item, such asa jacket (Cogburn & Espinoza-Vasquez, 2011). As we can see in Figure 3, the total amount raisedin the presidential election held in 2008 reached about 1.

75 billion U.S.dollars. This amount duplicates the quantity raised in 2004 and triplicates thequantity raised in 2000.

It is important to mention that the majority of thecontributions were made by individual contributors (88%) (Opensecrets, 2013) and $500 U.S. million dollars were raised digitally (Michael Scherer, 2012).