The Treaty of 1876.), distinguishing them from later wave

The present essay is about the Koreans in Japan, but not in general sense, if not in order to attend the guidelines, the essay will be about the term “?????”, the term that in the next paragraph, it will establish, which is his nature and objective of this essay.  The Korean People currently constitute the second largest ethnic minority in Japan following Chinese, the majority of Koreans in Japan are Zainichi Koreans (?????), who are the permanent ethnic Korean residents of Japan, the term “?????”, it is not refers at all population of Koreans in japan, if not only the Korean residents of Japan who trace their roots to Korea under Japanese rule (The Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived Korean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945, Japanese rule of Korea was the outcome process that began with the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1876.), distinguishing them from later wave of Korean migrants who came mostly in the 1980`s, and from pre-modern immigrants dating back to antiquity. The term refers in specific sense to almost always, by ethnic Japanese and ethnic Koreans alike, to a population of colonial-era migrants from the Korean peninsula that settled in the Japanese archipelago and their descendants. (Lie 2008, 8)Before to start, we should establish the background respect the history between the Japanese and the japanese-korean, ontologically speaking, Zainichi should somehow not exist. Reality is more complicated, confusing, confounding. Consider only the basic facts of nationality and name. During the colonial period (1910 –1945), Koreans living on both the Japanese archipelago and the Korean peninsula were Japanese imperial subjects. In spite of colonial racism, Japanese law and official discourse decreed ethnic, Koreans as Japanese nationals and the Emperor’s children. The 1952 San Francisco Peace Treaty restored Japanese sovereignty but rescinded Japanese citizenship for ethnic Koreans remaining in Japan. (Lie 2008, 10)Since the end of the war in Korea (1953) until recent times, we can see the different terms that the Japanese people have used to refer the Japanese-Korean, with the political division in the peninsula of Korea, it was become more difficult refer in one way or in other to this segment, terms as ???, to refer the north Korean people, ??? for Koreans affiliated with North Korea, ???????? in the 1950`s this term reflected in part the population`s overwhelming allegiance to North Korea, ??? sometimes called “republic”,?? to South Koreans, the normative nomenclature in the 1970s and 1980s for the totality of ethnic Koreans in Japan was the rather cumbersome ?????, ??, ???, (resident South Koreans and North Koreans in Japan) though those strongly allied with one of the two Koreas would prefer either???????? or  ????????, when NHK aired a course on the Korean language in 1984, it avoided the two terms and instead opted for han’gul (chung 2010, 40), in the 80`s some people used the term in English Korean to neutralize the split between the two Koreas. The ideology of Japanese cultural and ethnic homogeneity had effectively barred the plausibility in Japan of the term Korean Japanese.How we can see the term used to refer at this segment of population have been very different in the past, however, my essay is not about the history of this term or about the Japanese-Korean in japan through the history, if not, it is about the current situation of this segment of population in Japan and his Social Conditions and Legal Conditions in the present, so with this established is the moment to make one understanding and conscious about this segment of population.    Multiethnic Japan; Despite the ubiquity of ethnic Koreans in postwar Japanese life, many Japanese almost instinctively denied their legitimacy and at times their very presence. Yet this persistent repression of ethnic existence faces the recalcitrant reality of a multiethnic Japan. (Lie 2008, 20)If we see the history of japan trough the time, since the modern Japanese state conquered Hokkaido and its indigenous Ainu, in the 1870 Ryukyu or Okinawa, Qing and Tokugawa, it was absorbed for Japanese Empire, later Taiwan 1895, also annexed Korea, Manchuria and other parts of China, not only the territory of Japan expand if not the japan as country became irreducibly in one multiethnic country.Korean Population in Japan; historically the Koreans in japan had been discriminated and suffered racism, since the Meiji Restauration only several thousand of Koreans were in the main Japanese islands, after that in 1920`s the next cause of more presence of Korean in Japan was the labor Shortage, in this period usually referred to the Korean population how inland or naichi, of course the majority of Korean in the prewar in Japan were farmers, after that in the wartimes, the ethnic Koreans worked in factories and mines, also the women into ammunition, textile and other factories, during the war 239,000 Koreans suffered  injuries and death, and during the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima 30,000 ethnic Koreans died, of course the ethnic Koreans were not quiet and calm people, if not there are in the history numerous cases of uprising and struggle against the Japanese.With these different points, we have tried gave a brief explanation about which is the history between the Japanese and the ethnic Koreans, but now we need see the current situation or at least in the last century, what is the situation of the????? in japan now.Old Generation Vs New Generation; what is the true situation now in japan respect the ?????, it is true that this question only belongs to old generations, or for other side the boom of Korean culture in japan through the media, and the inter-marriage between resident Koreans and native Japanese is now very common, and it is commonly said that the youngest Japanese do not really care if their prospective spouse is a ?????. If opposition comes at all it is usually from an older generation who still feel the legacy and history. There are still some historical issues that refuse to go away and these remain controversial issue.Social Condition; ?????are customarily distinguished from newcomers by both Japanese society and the Japanese state. One may wonder why old-comers who have been in Japan for more than 50 years are still called “temporary” residents.  This term reflects the desire of many Koreans to someday return to their mother country, especially after World War II, when the Allied Powers defeated Japan, liberated Koreans in Japan had a strong desire to go back to Korea.  However, those ambitions faded over time.  ?????, now in their fourth generation, are permanent residents of Japan, and many of them no longer have a desire to go back.  Despite this, the term has survived, reflecting the reality of institutional discrimination by the Japanese state and Japanese society. (Suzuki 2005, 2)Legal Condition; The nationality of first generation?????, changed several times over a relatively short period of time.  First, prior to Japan’s colonization of Korea, all people lived on the Korean peninsula shared Korean nationality.  When Korea became part of Japan in 1910, all Koreans became subjects of the Japanese emperor.  In 1952, when the San Francisco Peace Treaty took effect, ????? lost their Japanese nationality, and those who could not or did not go back to the Korean peninsula became stateless.  As foreigners, they were allowed to apply for citizenship via the naturalization process.  However, due to widespread discrimination against Koreans in Japan, this has proven very difficult for many?????.  Despite stringent naturalization criteria for?????, the number of naturalized?????, has gradually increased since the 1990s. (Chung 2010, 65)Non-naturalized????? did not have a nationality until at least 1965 when Japan and South Korea normalized diplomatic relations.  ?????, who pledged political allegiance to South Korea, regardless of their geographical origins in the North or South, obtained South Korean nationality.  ????? who have geographical origins in the North and have neither pledged allegiance to the South nor have not yet become naturalized Japanese citizens have no nationality, since the Japanese government has yet to establish diplomatic relations with North Korea.  These people, though they do not have a legal nationality, consider themselves to be overseas North Koreans.  Currently, both North and South????? have gained legal status as special permanent residents of Japan, which was also a product of the Japan-ROK diplomatic agreement (Japan – Republic of Korea Relations).Since establishing diplomatic relations with South Korea in 1965, the Japanese government has taken some steps to further integrate????? into Japanese political and social life.  In the late 1970s, the Japanese government increased????? access to social security benefits, and in 1982, the government granted permanent resident status to those Koreans (and their children) who had established residence in Japan before the end of World War II.  Nearly a decade later, the government extended this right to third generation Koreans in Japan.  Most recently, in 1993, the government halted the practice of fingerprinting Koreans and other permanent residents during alien registration procedures. (Suzuki 2005, 3)  Sources of Identity Problems; we can see that the identity problems inside of the ????? are present, but the if we see through the history since 1952 until the present many things about this search of identity for the ????? have changed, the ideas of the first and second generation in comparison that the fourth and fifth generation there are very different and antagonist, the first and second generation considered that they had been strongly tied to their homeland, but what happen with the change of the ideas since the first generation until the most recent generation, we can attribute this change some events happened in the history, the first change occurred during the Cold War, when the relationship became entangled in the international stage with the separation of the Korean peninsula into North and South, the second change occurred with the establishement of the organizations as Soren in 1945, is associated with the North and Mindan, formed in 1946, is closely tied to the South. (Htun, Tin Tin 2012, 15)If it is true that types of changed happen in the international stage how say the author, but I cannot agree with that, because we need see that the sources of identity problems, beyond of the international stage has not only one emotional charge of the both sides, if not also have one social context very strong, why only the Korean people under the Japanese Rules are discriminated, and the others segment inside of the Korean population why are different?, this question will be resolve or at least I will make the try to resolve with the establishment of three concepts created for Bauman.    These two organizations began s for Koreans living in Japan quickly became political outlets for the two competing regimes on the Korean peninsula.  These organizations also have a social function as providers of social capital among members (financial support, ethnic schools, assistance in finding jobs, etc.) and as suppressors of assimilation into Japanese society.   The two organizations until very recently, both Soren and Mindan have assumed a rigid anti-assimilationist stance, emphasizing that ?????identify as overseas Koreans above all else. Maybe the first generation of Korean considered the naturalization to be taboo and betrayal of one´s Korean heritage but the new generations have become so “Japanized” that they are no longer interested in remote “homeland” politics.   Challenges in the Future; in lacking Japanese citizenship ?????are faced with numerouschallenges, such as receiving social welfare benefits, obtaining employment, and encountering hate speech. The unemployment levels among ?????is about double that of the Japanese national average, some believe that the unemployment rate is higher because ethnic Koreans switch jobs frequently, typically working in the service industry. Other of the challenges that the ????? are also not allowed to hold government positions that exercise public power or decision-making on behalf of the public.The government and nationalistic groups take on the stance that individuals with the authority to influence the public and use revenue collected from the public should be the citizens. However, a counterargument is that perhaps citizenship should not the be-all end-all of defining who is or is not Japanese, or even who is a good candidate for the position in question. A lack of legal citizenship because of one’s ethnicity does not completely justify preventing perhaps well-qualified individuals to take leadership positions, or even jobs that may not have a connection or relation to one’s citizenship. Furthermore, special permanent residents also pay taxes to the government that supports these local governmental institutions. ????? had their nationality arbitrarily stripped from them after the war, and it has been a struggle to obtain Japanese citizenship without giving up their ethnic diversity and identity. Most were born in Japan, have lived in the country for their entire lives, pay taxes, speak Japanese, and understand Japanese culture. For other side the ????? also are targets of hate speech from ultra-right wing, ultra-nationalistic Japanese groups such as the Zaitokukai and the Action Conservative Movement. While this type of hate speech affects ?????, their encounters of such protests would typically be sporadic events. Meanwhile, most ?????face subtle and indirect micro aggression discrimination on a more frequent basis. Micro aggressions are generalized and damaging insults based on stereotypes, attitudes, or actions. (Young-min Cho 2016, 30)Conclusion; more than tried create or promote a campaign for better understanding about minorities´ histories and rights among the public to grow tolerance and acceptance, as many theorists argued, it is necessary the establishment of the three principles basic that are minimum tolerance, mutual solidarity and human equivalence, with this and one national law about minorities, will be enough to step by step the Japanese society will be more open and tolerant. Minimum Tolerance; hat’s means that the main idea to human rights should be, not the unification of the different segments of population inside of one concept put inside of one law, if not the true goal it is reach that the people can be live together but at the same time have the conscience that the people maybe that live at his side could be different not only in his aspect, if not in his religion, in his nationality, in his behavior, but at the end is always necessary establish the framework of minimum tolerance, this concept was created for Zygmunt Bauman Polish Sociologist to represent that many time the spirit of laws or rules, it is not create one framework of tolerance if not for the contrary is make that the concept of tolerance disappear of the context, because is more easy if you have happy all the biggest segment of population, that if you treat that all segments of population would be important in the same degree, it is not important if you are the biggest segment or the smallest segment, the minimum tolerance should be guarantee to all persons, and if you guarantee this tolerance so you can take the next step and establish the concept of mutual solidarity.Mutual solidarity; the second concept that any country but more Japan should establish, it is the mutual solidarity, once that the country created the framework of tolerance inside of that concept should exist the solidarity, what is this? again this concept was created for Bauman, and he explain that the mutual solidarity is the expression of tolerance, how explain this, so simple, if you have tolerance the solidarity will be the reaction when that tolerance will be violated for other groups or segment in the society, the solidarity not only with other citizens if not also the part of government and social groups, because many times this type of social groups, also official institutions of part of government exist, but they don’t make anything to explore and consolidate the framework of tolerance and solidarity, to make that the social gaps disappear and with that give pass to the third concept and the last human equivalence.Human equivalence; this third concept is the final step, that Bauman developed, in his sociological theory explain that this final stage could be represented for the Human Rights, and of course that expression in many countries, and in this case in Japan the human rights are recognized, but his applications as in others countries, is with the goal of unify the social differences, but this concept of human equivalence said that difference should be highlight to create in consequence tolerance and solidarity.How we can see in the first part of this essay try about the ideas of other authors about the ?????,  but my true intentions is say that with the establishment of these three concept, maybe many issues of ethinicity and race, it will be able to resolve in the future.References Chung, Erin Aeran. “Immigration and Citizenship in Japan.” Immigration and Citizenship in Japan, 2010, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511711855.001Htun, Tin Tin. “Social identities of minority others in Japan: listening to the narratives of Ainu, Buraku and Zainichi Koreans.” Japan Forum, vol. 24, no. 1, June 2012, pp. 1–22., doi:10.1080/09555803.2011.637635.Kazuko Suzuki. “Koreans in Japan (Zainichi Koreans).” ExEAS – Teaching Materials and Resources, Department of Sociology Texas A University, 2005, www.columbia.edu/cu/weai/exeas/resources/koreans-in-japan.html.Lie, John. Zainichi (Koreans in Japan): diasporic nationalism and postcolonial identity. 1st ed., University of California Press, 2008.Young-Ming Cho. Koreans in Japan: a Struggle for acceptance. Chicago Unbond – International Inmersion Program Papers, Department of Law Chicago University, 2016, https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.co.jp/=1=1026=international_immersion_program_papers. 

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