The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has several targetstowards the achievement of vison 2030. Vison 2030 aims at plummeting thekingdom’s dependence on oil resources economic diversification, benign publicservice development, and moreover, to make the KSA a number one tourismdestination in the world (Thompson, 2017). The maindesignation area in the KSA is Makkah city—one of the holiest place in theworld. Makkah city has numerous religious and historical places thatattract millions of people every year; for example, the Grand Mosque, Kaaba,and the Well of Zamzam. For the last 10 years, the number of believers duringHajj season average at 2 million (Raj and Bozonelos, 2015).
In addition, hundreds of Muslims perform Umrah every day inMakkah; by 2030—over 35 million worshippers will be coming to Makkah every year(Al-Hashedi et al., 2013; Munir et al.,2013).Amidst achieving this ambitious plan, the KSA will face catch 22, morepeople—more Solid Waste (SW) generation. In 2004, the SW production was at 10.
4 million tons in KSA; by2014, this figure had increased by over 25%. In Makkah city alone, thegeneration of solid waste between 2012 and 2015, increased by almost 30% (MEP, 2005; Hoornweg and Bhada,2012).Vision 2030 is expected is increase the wealthy of people, standards of living,and infrastructure development. All these, coupled with the rapid populationgrowth in the area will lead to continuous increase of solid waste generation.Makkah city doesn’t have proper SW management method. Currently, all theproduced solid waste in Makkah city is dumped in Kakia open dump site. Being anopen dump site, Kakia possess numerous impacts to the environment; there nocontrol mechanisms to manage the leachate which contain vast amount of malignthings like heavy & trace metals, pathogens, that can have diverse effecton human beings (Kulikowska and Klimiuk, 2008;Kajjumba, Aydin and Guneysu, 2017). Also, the landfill gases are released directly into theatmosphere—causing global warming.
????? ????? ((Research aims:It is very vital to choose a SW disposal site thatwill have minimal hazardous effect to the environment. Solid Waste Management (SWM) has fourmain pillars; reduction, recycling, recovery, and disposal (Hoornweg and Bhada,2012). The disposal pillar of SWM encompasses identifying sites thatare complacent with the government regulations, cost effective, andenvironmental friendly. The current solid waste dump site ofMakkah city doesn’t meet the standards of SWM system, and the fact that Kakia dump site will be full by 2020, necessitates the finding ofsuitable site that will be expended as a SW landfill site for Makkah city.Therefore, this study summaries parameters that might affect SW site selectionin Makkah city.
?????? ???? ????? (ResearchMethodology):Although landfill site selection is becoming enormously acomplicated procedure, the use of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis methods canease landfill selection process. This methods can account for manycontradictory criteria specifics (Eskandari, Homaee and Mahmodi,2012). Byreviewing the available literature—factors that might influence the selectionof landfill are analyzed and summarized. This review mainly focuses onenvironmental and geological parameters.??????? ????????? (Resultsand discussion):Landfilltechnique is the most expended SWM technique applied today in most countries.In finding a good site for landfill, grievous care must be taken to avoidenvironmental jeopardy.
Therefore, this segment pays close look to thegeo-environmental circumstances that are key in selecting SW landfill inMakkah.1. HolyPlacesWhile carrying out site selectioncriteria, the Holy Places should be given the priority. To avoid any sort ofpollution, from the landfill, a buffer zone of greater 10 km should be given toMakkah city.
This buffer radius does not only cover the Grand mosque, but alsoall other major holy places like Arafat, Muzdalifa, Mena, and Flags borders ofHoly Area. Therefore, for landfill site selection, a buffer span of 10 kmoffers the best protection. 2. TransportationNetwork The landfill should not be close tothe main road, since blown objects from the landfill may distract road users.However, due to economies of scale, the landfill shouldn’t be far from thepreviously present network. The recommended distance between the landfill andthe major roads is 650 m (Babalola and Busu, 2011; Isalou et al., 2013). Therefore,taking all these into consideration, the optimum sites for landfill are aroundMakkah-Madinah road or around Leith road.
The site can also be located betweenLeith and old Makkah-Jeddah roads, or between old Makkah-Jeddah roads andIbrahim Al-Khalil roads.1. GreenCoverSaudi Arabia is mainly occupied by adesert. All the green vegetation should be protected from any pollution, sincethe KSA has invested a lot in planting such vegetation.
The major greenvegetation cover is in North, Northwest, West, Northeast, and East of Makkah (Alqurashi and Kumar, 2014). Consequently,the most favourable and suitable sites for landfills selection is in thesouthwest and south of Makkah city. 2. ResidentialAreasThe optimum distance of landfill sitefrom residential and urban areas is 2 km. This distance does not only safeguardthe people from the diverse effect of landfill, but it also provides financialbenefits (Naset al.
, 2010). By zooming into the distribution ofurban areas in Makkah which is influenced by the topography, there is aremarkable increase in urbanization in the North, Northwest, Southeast and Eastof Makkah. The urban growth is oriented towards the north and east directionswith some sporadic extensions in west direction. Therefore, the mostencouraging and suitable sites for landfills of SW are in the Northwest andSouthwest of Makkah city. 3. SlopeCriteriaTopography affects the drainage,water contamination, and capacity of the landfill. Slightly raised topographies(elevation of 8-12 %) are preferred for landfill construction.
The topographyof Makkah lies between 120 m and 1.9 km above the sea level. The study arearises from the west towards the east and the north forming mountainouslandscape. The west and southwest parts of the study area is a flat with anaverage of 98m to 250 m above the sea level. The middle part stands at anaverage altitude of 300m (Dawod et al.,2014). Consequently, northwest or south orsouthwest regions of Makkah offer the best alternative for landfill site.
4. RainfallAlthough humans don’t have controlover rainfall, locating a landfill in regions that experience heavy downfallswill be catastrophic. Makkah is in the “rain shadow” with either dry orsemi-dry winds. Thus, apart from winter season (with 50mm of rainfall), thequantity of rainfall received in the area is low. The regions that experiencemore than 60 mm of rainfall are generally not suitable for landfill location (Dawod, Mirza and Al-Ghamdi, 2013).
Zooming intothese maps, maximum rainfall was received in the west and southwest regions(105 mm), while the northwest and southwest regions had the least amount ofdownfall (50 mm) (Awadallah, 2012). So, thenorth-western and south-western parts of Makkah city off the best odds oflandfill location. 5. GroundwaterWellsGroundwater wells provide the worldwith fresh water; thus, a landfill should not be near wells that are used bypeople on daily basis; otherwise these water sources will be polluted byleaching water from the landfill. Analysis of major well in Makkah city likeZamzam well shows that the water depth is about 35 m. To prevent such watersources from contamination, the ideal distance should be 10 km (Han et al.
,2014).6. AirportsFlying living things like birds loveto feed at landfill; constructing a landfill near plane filed can therefore bea problem, since these birds hit the engines of the plane. The closest airportto Makkah is located 70 km west in Jeddah City (Fadaak and Merdad, 2002).
Thus, thisfactor may not be considered during landfill selection in Makkah city. 7. Natural protectedareasThe Saudi Wildlife Commission (SWC)is responsible for rehabilitating rare and threatened species. The commissionmanages 15 areas.
Of these, Mahazet El-Seed (200 km northeast) is the only onenear the Makkah. Since this protected area is more than 15 km away from Makkahcity, this factor is does not affect landfill selection in Makkah. 8. Historicaland Archaeological SitesThese sites are destination formillions of tourists; therefore, landfill must be far from such sites.
Majorityof the historical sites in Makkah are situated west of the central part. Forgood results, a buffer radius of 4500 m is always preferred (Nas et al.,2010).
9. LandformStabilityStep areas are not suitable forlandfill construction since such areas are not stable. In the western andsouth-western parts of Makkah, the landform is stable compared to that in theeastern and north-eastern parts (Dawod et al.,2014). Therefore, the western andsouth-western parts are better candidates for landfill construction.10. Flood ProbabilityWhenever flooding occurs, the runningwater settles in the valleys, so landfills should not be in such places.
Thereare three main water basins in Makkah city, Numan basin; Ibrahim valley thatextends northeast; Uranah valley which abuts Ibrahim basin in the northeast,and meet each other in the north and east directions (Subyani, 2011; El Bastawesy et al., 2013). While analyzinga suitable site for landfill, these wadis must be considered to avoidpollution—since some of them contain water that is used by pilgrimages. 11. Land subsidence When some land experience external orinternal force, it sinks. This characteristic is not appropriate for landfillsince the occurrence of subsidence can cause pollution of the environment. Thepresence of soluble rocks like limestone, gypsum, or salt makes the landsusceptible to subsiding.
Makkah city shows no sign of these rocks (Al Solami etal., 2006); therefore, this parameter doesn’tinfluence the evaluation of optimum site in the area. 12.
GeologyWhile analyzing the geology of thelandscape in relation to landfill, one of the main focus is to analyses theavailability of cover materials like sand. The geology of Makkah city isgoverned by Pre-Cambrian (diorite, granodiorite, and quartzdiorite), Tertiaryand Quaternary rocks (gravel, alluvial, tallus, sands, basalt, and sataa rocks)(Dawod et al.,2014). Quaternary rocks mainly cover thebiggest western parts of Makkah city. Igneous and sedimentary rocks in Makkahcity are more in the north, central, eastern, and south. The presence of largedeposits of sand in northwest and southwest parts of Makkah city makes itappropriate to locate solid waste storage facility in those places.
13. Seismicity in MakkahAnalysis of seismic archives showsthat Makkah city can be categorized as a non-seismic zone (Al-Haddad and et al., 1994). The occurrenceof seismic motions from nearby fault lines can be a disaster to the currenturban development. In the past, Makkah region has experienced numerousearthquakes ranging from 3-6.9 on Richter scale (Osman, 2012).
By retrievingthe literature, major earthquakes in Makkah happened in 859, 1121, 1191, 1269,1408, 1630 and 1710; with the toughest in 1121 (estimated at 12 on the Mercalliscale). Seismic measures show that major earthquakes happen in Red sea and movein the western and southern direction. This place is 150 km away from Makkahcity; therefore, it can be concluded that Makkah is a moderate seismic zonewith less effect on landfill selection. 14. Meteorological ConditionsThe effect ofmeteorological conditions strongly affects the landfill site choice.
Thepresence of these high temperatures facilitates the formation of LFG, whichgases can help to reduce on the operation cost of the landfill (Chen et al.,2010). The maximum hourly temperaturessurge from 46.
5 to 48.7 °Cin Makkah city. The eastern parts of Makkah city have lowest temperaturescompared to western parts. However, all these temperatures ranges favor thelocation of landfill (Abdou, 2014). Therefore, usingtemperature as a guiding parameter, the landfill can be located anywhere. Astemperature favors the formation of LFG, wind facilitate its transportation tonearby areas. In the western and southwestern parts of Makkah, wind swingsbetween southwest and northwest; while in the central zone—wind blows northwestand southeast.
In the east of central area, wind strikes between northwest andsoutheast; while south of Makkah city wind direction is overriding in the westdirection (Fadaak and Merdad, 2002). The landfillshould be in direction opposite (in relation to central part) the winddirection; southwest and northwest offers the best site. ??????? ((Summary This paper summaries the factors that might affect landfillselection in Makkah city.
Among these include; holy places, infrastructureutilities, transportation network, green cover,residential areas, topographic features, rainfall and other meteorologicalconditions, groundwater wells, airports, natural protected areas, historicaland archaeological sites, seismic, landform stability, flood probability, landsubsidence, and geological aspects. Screening through the effects of theseparameters shows that temperature, airport, gazetted areas, and seismic have noeffect on landfill selection in Makkah. ???????? (Recommendations):From summarytable the most favorable locations for a landfill is in the North, West orSouth of Makkah. As the management is looking for optimum location to constructnew landfill by 2020, these results present an insight on the best landfilllocations.