The level ofMindfulness, Hand-eye coordination and strength among elite fencers MOUSA AHAMAD 1; BILAL SAADA 2; QUSAI ALSHAMAILEH 3; MAHMOUD ABUSAMRA 4; AIDA A.
AL AWAMLEH 5 .TheUniversity of Jordan, Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Instruction and Supervision, Abstract: The present study aimedto investigate the level of mindfulnessand hand-eye coordination, strength among elite fencers, also to determine whether the gender differences inmindfulness were exist, The subjects of this study consisted of sixteen elite fencers, Five Facet MindfulnessQuestionnaire (FFMQ) Arabic version used toassess mindfulness ( FFMQ) , also hand grip dynamometers to assess strangth and Hand-eye coordination manual dexterity tomeasure hand eye coordination The results indicated thatthe level of mindfulness was moderate and there is no statistically significantrelationship between Mindfulness and hand-eye coordination, strength.Furthermore, gender differences were observed regarding strength Key words: Mindfulness (FFMQ) , hand-eye coordination, Elite fencers Introduction Mindfulness in the past decade has enjoyed a huge surge in its popularity, whether in popular press or in the psychotherapyliterature (Didonnaa, 2009; Shapiro & Carlson, 2009). Mindfulness ofthe sport performance in the last period has become one of the popular research.
By increasing the critical component of peak sport performance , awareness , (Jackson &Csikszentmihalyi, 1999; Ravizza, 2002), some of the researches have suggestedthat mindfulness exercises may assistant to generate flow or state of the complete focusing on the task or event at hand. (Aherne, Moran, & Lonsdale,2011; Kee & Wang, 2008) mentioned that hypothesized that mindfulness –based interventions for sports are effective for the reason that they help athletes to direct their attention to the current athletic task,while when minimizing external distractions ( Gnardner and Moore 2012 ) .(Brown and Ryan , 2003) mentioned that they found that increase of mindfulness psychological will –being by the increase of awareness of one’s current experience ( The similarities of mindfulness to other psychotherapy – related constructs as an example mindfulness is similar to metallizaion (Bateman , 2004, 2006; Fonagy , 2008), the development of theprocess of understanding one’s own and others behavior in terms of theindividuals’ feelings, thoughts , and the desires to both constructs emphasizethe temporary, the subjective and the fluid nature of the mental states andboth of them are thought to influence the effect of regulation and thecognitive flexibility (Wallin, 2007) Five of the facets ofthe mindfulness are : the first pointis that the observing that refers to noticing , sensing to theeexperience which occurred in current time such as thethoughts and emotions. The second elementis the describing , which refers to labeling theinternal experience with words.
Lebow, J. (2008). The third point is the actingwith the awareness, that involves focusing on persons activities at acertain moment as it opposed the mechanicalbehaving. The fourth element is the non-judging of inner experiencethat refers to the taking of a non – evaluative stance toward the privateexperience. The fifth point is the non –reactivity of the inner experience that refers tonoticing thoughts and feelings without showing a reactiontoward them ( Baer, et al.
, 2006). Thecoordination of the hand – eye is usedin many sports activities; especially in sports like fencing. It’s a greatsport which can improve the hand – eye coordination (Kogler (2005) he explainedthat Fencing sport is one of the comlex sports also he explained that a goodfencing performance can be achieved by advance perceptual and cognitiveabilities like attention of the coordination , making of decision andvisuospatial memory.
Fencing needs the coordination between the hands, the feet and the eyes. The side congruency of the hand and eyepreference is considered as an essential for efficient hand – eye coordinationwhich contains sighting and aiming. The researches have found that theincidence of the left – eydness was 47% for the group that threw it with byusing their right hand and wrote by their left hand but the rate was 55% forthe group that threw it with their left handand wrote with their right hand .
Porac C. (2016 ).An other research contend that the hand and eyepreference on the opposite sides accordingto the body which leads to a better coordinated performanceespecially in some sports such asboxing and fencing. These researches argue that the sighting eyeis controlled mainly by the visual centers in the hemisphere for the same sideof the head where the uncrossed optic fibers travel to the brain on the sameside of the hear which thought to be as a dominant processers of the visualinformation hand movement which controlled by the hemisphere that controllingthe coordination actions. As an example for that is that if some one is left –headed and right – eyed the right hemisphere alone will direct hand – eyecoordination.
As a transfer of the information between the hemispheres is notinvolved for the left _ handed right – eyed action ther (porac, 2016) . Fencing is divided intothree major branches depending upon the weapons employed. The fencing isdivided to three different types of weapons used which are foils, sabers andepees. Just a few of the cognitive studies focused mainly on various aspects offencing such as mindfulness , hand – eye coordination (Azemar. etal. 2007) ,and also left handed versus right handed athletes (Harris2007). So about 90% of all human beings usedtheir right hand (right – handed)which means that the left – brain dominates for the motor skillsbecause of the wide majority of people are right – handed , Coon & Mitterer( 2011, 2008).