The the development of the process of understanding one’s

 The level of
Mindfulness, Hand-eye coordination and strength among elite fencers



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University of Jordan
, Faculty of Physical Education,  Department of Instruction and Supervision,




The present study aimed
to investigate the  level  of  mindfulness
and  hand-eye coordination, strength  among elite fencers, also  to determine whether the gender differences in
mindfulness were exist, The subjects of this study consisted of  sixteen elite fencers, Five Facet Mindfulness
Questionnaire (FFMQ)  Arabic version  used  to
assess  mindfulness ( FFMQ) , also  hand grip dynamometers  to assess strangth and  Hand-eye coordination manual dexterity to
measure  hand eye coordination

The results indicated   that
the level of mindfulness was moderate and there is no statistically significant
relationship between Mindfulness and hand-eye coordination, strength.
Furthermore, gender differences were observed regarding strength

Key words:  Mindfulness (FFMQ)  , hand-eye coordination, Elite fencers



     Mindfulness in the past decade has enjoyed a huge surge in its popularity, whether in popular press or in the psychotherapy
literature  (Didonnaa, 2009; Shapiro & Carlson, 2009). Mindfulness of
the sport performance in the last period has become   one of the popular research. By increasing the critical component of peak sport performance , awareness , (Jackson &
Csikszentmihalyi, 1999; Ravizza, 2002), some of the researches have suggested
that mindfulness exercises may assistant  to generate flow  or state of the complete focusing on the task or event at hand. (Aherne, Moran, & Lonsdale,
2011; Kee & Wang, 2008) mentioned that hypothesized that mindfulness –
based interventions for sports are effective for the reason that they help athletes to direct their attention to the current athletic task,
while when minimizing external distractions (  Gnardner and Moore 2012 ) .(
Brown and Ryan , 2003) mentioned that they found that   increase of mindfulness psychological will –
being by the increase of awareness of one’s current experience (  
The similarities of mindfulness to other psychotherapy – related constructs as an example mindfulness is similar to metallizaion (Bateman , 2004, 2006; Fonagy , 2008), the development of the
process of understanding one’s own and others behavior in terms of the
individuals’ feelings, thoughts , and the desires to both constructs emphasize
the temporary, the subjective and the fluid nature of the mental states and
both of them are thought to influence the effect of regulation and the
cognitive flexibility (Wallin, 2007)

Five of the facets of
the mindfulness are : the first point
is that the observing that refers to noticing , sensing to thee
experience which occurred in current time such as the
thoughts and emotions. The second element
is the describing , which refers to labeling the
internal experience with words. Lebow, J. (2008). The third point is the acting
with the awareness, that involves focusing on persons activities at a
certain moment as it opposed the mechanical
behaving. The fourth element is the non-judging of inner experience
that refers to the taking of a non – evaluative  stance toward the private
experience. The fifth point is the non –
reactivity of the inner experience that refers to
noticing thoughts and feelings without showing a reaction
toward them ( Baer, et al., 2006). The
coordination of the hand – eye is used
in many sports activities; especially in sports like fencing. It’s a great
sport which can improve the hand – eye coordination (Kogler (2005) he explained
that Fencing sport is one of the comlex sports also he explained that a good
fencing performance can be achieved by advance perceptual and cognitive
abilities like attention of the coordination , making of decision  and
visuospatial memory. Fencing needs the coordination between the 
hands,  the feet and the eyes. The side congruency of the hand and eye
preference is considered as an essential for efficient hand – eye coordination
which contains sighting and aiming. The researches have found that the
incidence of the left – eydness was 47% for the group that threw it with by
using their right hand and wrote by their left hand but the rate was 55% for
the group that threw it with their left hand
and wrote with their right hand . Porac C.  (2016 ).

An  other research contend that the hand and eye
preference on the opposite sides according
to the body which leads to a better coordinated performance
especially in some sports such as
boxing and fencing. These researches argue that the sighting eye
is controlled mainly by the visual centers in the hemisphere for the same side
of the head where the uncrossed optic fibers travel to the brain on the same
side of the hear which thought to be as a dominant processers of the visual
information hand movement which controlled by the hemisphere that controlling
the coordination actions. As an example for that is that if some one is left –
headed and right – eyed the right hemisphere alone will direct hand – eye
coordination. As a transfer of the information between the hemispheres is not
involved for the left _ handed right – eyed action ther (porac, 2016) .

 Fencing is divided into
three major branches depending upon the weapons employed. The fencing is
divided to three different types of weapons used which are foils, sabers and
epees. Just a few of the cognitive studies focused mainly on various aspects of
fencing such as mindfulness , hand – eye coordination (Azemar. etal. 2007) ,
and also left handed versus right handed athletes (Harris
2007). So about 90% of all human beings used
their right hand (right – handed)
which means that the left – brain dominates for the motor skills
because of the wide majority of people are right – handed , Coon & Mitterer
( 2011, 2008). 


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