The project and to and to serve the mankind

The main objective of
my purpose of application is that to work efficiently and contribute my best
and my ideas in the research or project work in the field of Biotechnology. I
have a keen interest to work with scientists and delegates who are working in
abroad as it is my long term strategy and contribute my best ever efforts for
the development of the project and to and 
to serve the mankind and the world through my valuable contributions in
the field of Biotechnology. This program also gives platform for the young
undergraduates to enhance their laboratory, practical and research experiences
which would be a great honorary opportunity for me and will be more prestigious
to my growing carrier. I would me full dedication and work hard for the
research work.

I am keenly interested
in the field of Microbiology. I possess and always will follow good laboratory
practices during my Microbiology laboratory. I want to contribute to the
research work in the field of microbiology. My area of study and review are the
EXTREMOPHILIC microorganisms and Industrial Biotechnology. My idea is to
produce biofuels from the 2nd Generation agricultural feedstocks which includes
Saccharide wastes like sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, rice straw, food wastes
disposed off. These biomass wastes are a rich source of cellulose,
lignocellulose, hemicellulose etc. The extremophiles are microorganisms that
are robust to various harsh climatic environments. They include thermophiles, psychrophiles,
halophiles, barophiles, acidophiles, alkalophiles, dinococcus etc. My objective
or proposal is the conversion of the 2 Generation feedstock to useful products
such as BIO-FUEL which is an ever increasing demand to the present world. This
could be achieved by the use of thermophilic anaerobes and their enzymes which are
fermented on the lignocellulose, hemicellulose biomass and thereby converting
to biofuels by consolidated bioprocessing technology. However other agriculture
wastes like rice husk and cassava wastes rich in starch can be hydrolyzed with
the help of amylase to glucose and which in turn can be used as a carbon source
for ethanol production. The main objective of using the thermophilic
microorganisms is that to reduce the cost of pre-treatment of the biomass or
the feedstock. The thermophilic bacteria directly utilize the lignocellulose,
hemicellulose as carbon source for the bioprocessing and there no requirement
for the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to be converted to pentose or
hexose sugars. The thermophilic anaerobes and their enzymes are active at very
high range of temperatures up to 60 to 70 degree Celsius, which is an added merit
to the process as the thermophilic enzymes readily convert the lignocellulose
to biofuels without the conversion to pentose saccharides and are resistant to the
fuels which they accumulate. There is no requirement for sparging sterile
oxygen because the thermophiles are anaerobic. Normally, commercially biofuels
mainly ethanol are produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, here thermophiles or
metabolically engineering and expressing the gene of interest into the
heterologous host.

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Various Bio-fuels
produced

There could be many
bio-fuels produced by the use of extremophiles, which includes bioethanol, bio
butanol, bio hydrogen, biogas, biodiesel. All these biofuels can be obtained by
the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. The products/ yield obtained
by this process may be low, but by metabolic engineering and recombinant DNA
modified strains of heterologous host such as modified strains of Escherichia
coli can be used to increase the yield considerably. The metabolically
engineered thermophiles and heterologous strains will definitely increase the yield
and also the biological pathways responsible for byproducts accumulation can be
modified and can be reduced.

Feasible innovative
ideas:

There can be
implementation of small scale bioreactors in the laboratory and the feedstock
are fed into the reactor and are fermented anaerobically by the thermophiles and
the resultant product may be bio hydrogen/ biogas which can be transported
through pipes to the biosafety cabinet and the fuel produced as a product can
be used to light the flame in the cabinet.

Merits of using
thermophiles

1)     
Fast growth rates of the thermophiles
and higher metabolic rate of conversion of biomass wastes to biofuels.

2)     
The thermophilic enzymes are highly
stable and flexible at high temperatures.

3)     
The thermophilic anaerobes are resistant
to high pH and organic solvents and the biofuels that are accumulated.

4)     
Increased solubility of substrates and
activity of enzymes.

5)     
Viscosity of the fermentation broth
decreases with the increase in the temperature.

6)     
Possess unique thermophilic enzymes like
lignolytic, cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic, xylanases systems- produce
enzymes to degrade various polymeric precursors like cellulose and
hemicellulose.

7)     
Facilitate faster in-situ product
recovery.

8)     
Minimum risk of contaminations because
of very high temperatures from diverse microorganisms and other thermophiles.

9)     
Cost effective as no pretreatment of
feedstock required and no sterile oxygen sparger required.

10) 
Isolation of thermophiles is easier.

Some potential pitfalls

1)     
Accumulation of byproducts.

2)     
Low product yield.

Trouble shooting

The accumulation of
byproducts can be overcome by the recombinant genetically modified strains of
microorganisms into host bacteria and also inhibiting or blocking the
biological pathways responsible for byproduct production and enhancing the
product yield.

 

Value added byproducts

There are many varieties
of value added products form extremophiles such as exopolysaccharides,
polyhydroxyalkanoate, polyhydroxybutyrate (inclusion bodies like lipoproteins
accumulation in cells) etc.

Applications:

Exopolysaccharide- food
thickening agent

Polyhydroxyalkanoate
and polyhydroxybutyrate- biopolymer which is widely used is the plastic
industries.

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