The photosynthesis. (Wernegreen et al, 2012). 1. Zooxanthellae using

The importance of Zoxanthellae and Chlorella as food


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This research is based on the studies of importance if Zooxanthellae and
Chlorella which are example of Protista that can serve as food sources for
human and animals especially aquatic animals. There are many kinds of food that
has been produced using Protistas such as calcium carbonate for plankton and
bread for human. Zooxanthellae are a
good source to provide more energy to the aquatic animals especially toward sea
anemone and corals. All types of tropical sea anemones harbour zooxanthellae
that host anemonefishes, which supply the anemones with energy-rich
photosynthetic compounds for respiration, growth and reproduction nutrient
supplement decrease the dependency of the zooxanthellae. (Roopin et al, 2009).
On the other hands, Beijernick in 1890s shows that Chlorella was known as one
of the earliest forms of life, was the first microalga to be isolated as a pure
culture. (Gouveia et al, 2007). Chlorella has various health
benefits, such as assisting disorders such as gastric ulcers, wounds,
constipation, anaemia, hypertension, diabetes, infant malnutrition and neurosis.
(Fradique et al, 2010)

Zooxanthellae as food sources for aquatic animals

Zooxanthellae is the
brown-yellow algae that exist in coral’s gastro dermis, and is the common name for
Symbiodinium genus. Most
zooxanthellae are found in dinoflagellates because their genus cannot be easily
distinguish between their Symbiodinium. (Muller-Parker et
al, 2015) Phototrophic dinoflagellates, zooxanthellae are produced
endosymbiontly in many marine invertebrates (Johnson, 2011). Photosynthetic
dinoflagellates named zooxanthellae apply sunlight to make their own inorganic
carbon. To gain metabolic
energy towards animal’s host, zooxanthellae need to experience translocation of photosynthate. (Dubinsky et
al, 2011). Typically, zooxanthellae live between hosts-derived membrane
cell undergo comparable rate in culture of photosynthesis. (Wernegreen et al, 2012).

1. Zooxanthellae using 100x

These protists give
nutrients for the coral polyps that protect them, giving the corals ability to
secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton, in symbiotic
interaction (Stanley et al, 2001). Protists were rich in forefended
environment and the compounds needed for photosynthesis which provided by
corals. Nutrient-poor environments were predominant over this type of symbiotic
relationship. The dinoflagellate symbionts will vanished due to loosing algal
pigments in operation called coral bleaching. The colonies that were uncovered
to full sunlight has low-pigment content of zooxanthelle rather than has low
group of zooxanthellae. (Smith et al, 2013).

The data has been shown
that all corals through all depth are bleaching due to change in light and
temperature with various kinds of colour which are white, tan, or mottled to
the human eye. (Fitt et al, 2000). Experimental income show that a raise
in temperature significantly affect the total number of zooxanthellae by reducing
it per polyp (Staiger, 2015).  This
explicates why reef-building corals do not reside in waters deeper than 20
meters: deficient light reaches those depths for dinoflagellates to
photosynthesize. There are two
types of bleach colony of zooxanthellae that were found which are normal
pigment content of zooxanthellae and high densities of low-pigment zooxanthellae
in a colony (Grasso, 2015). Photosynthesis,
nitrogen and phosphate help zooxanthellae to develop more carbohydrates and
oxygen. Some science expert also explain that photosynthesis fasten the output
of calcium carbonate for the
coral’s skeleton (Feldman, B., & Feldman, M., 2013).

Zooxanthellae are found
mostly in corals, jellyfishes (Tridacna gigas, T. squamosa, T.
crocea, Hippopus hippopus, H. porcellanus and Corculum cardissa) and
sea anemones (Aiptasia sp.) because they need symbionts such as dinoflagellates
to survive (Savage et al, 2002). As a
result, research shows that a clam may harbours one or
more genotypically distinct zooxanthellae, with one or more taxa which has dominant ability occurring
at a time. (Carlos et al, 2000). This
may increase the production of zooxanthellae at the same time will give
mutualistic interaction towards marine living things such as plankton to give
food sources.

Chlorella as an agent to fight disease

Other than Zooxanthellae,
Chlorella sp. also can act as a supplement for other
organism. It has the highest
amount of B12 for important healthy nerves and tissues especially for people
who likes to eat vegetables. (Clifford, 2012).  It also have
high in protein that able them to stimulate immune system and lastly help human
to protect against deadly allergic reaction. (Agyei, 2012)

2. Chlorella under 10x


Chlorella consists of 45% protein, 20%
fat, 20% carbohydrate, 5% fiber, and 10% minerals and vitamins. (Song et al, 2012).
Chlorella is a eukaryotic cell that has strain NC64A, and its viruses which are
eleven of them all contain significant levels of 5-methyldeoxycytidine (Blanc e al, 2010). The example of Chlorella
viruses are Chlorellastrains NC64A
and Pbi, Micromonas pusilla and Chrysochromulina
spp. (Van Etten, 2011) There are many types of Chlorella found on earth
such as:-


Chlorella autotrophica           
Chlorella lewinii         
Chlorella minutissima
Chlorella pituita         
Chlorella pulchelloides          
Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Chlorella rotunda
Chlorella sorokiniana
Chlorella singularis    
Chlorella volutis         
Chlorella vulgaris.     
Chlorella variabilis    

Table 1: The types of Chlorella

 Chlorella grew in a specific condition which
are surrounded by various light intensities based on the studies on the algae
and other microorganisms rates of metabolic processes have been expressed
variously in terms of unit ceil volume, unit dry weight; unit cell number, unit
cell nitrogen, or unit chlorophyll. (Perez?Garcia et al, 2010). The suitable
condition for the growth of Chlorellas are temperature must be around 36°C and
the optimal pH 6.0~7.0. (Yeh et al, 2012). On the other hands glucose,
galactose, acetic acid, ethanol, acetaldehyde and pyruvic acid may provide as
the carbon source to support the growth under both moody and bright conditions
for chlorella (Yeh et al, 2012).

It also have highly
quantity of protein and contains a largely amount of vitamins and minerals,
pigments, fatty acids, and growth factor. (Fan et al. 2014). All species of Chlorella contain the monosaccharide
glucosamine as the main constituent of the rigid cell wall (NEMcovA et al, 2000). Chlorella contains
numerous nutrients, including antioxidants, it is thought to exert ant-oxidative
functions by remove free radicals created by various environmental factors such
as smoking. (Lee et al, 2010). This can help in producing
the supplement to make it useful as one of medicine

Studies shows that the
intake of Chlorella resulted in detectable reductions in body fat percentage,
serum total cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels. (Mizoguchi et al, 2008). It also promote healing
and non-specially enhance the immune system. (Merchant
et al, 2001). The cholesterol level
of blood of hypercholesterolemic patients also can be reduced by the
consummation of Chlorella. (Kwak, 2012).  Some hypothesis also have proven that
Chlorella also a good medium to increase the lutein level of human
erythrocytes. (Miyazawa et al, 2013).


In conclusion, kingdom Protista is
important in producing a lot of food sources. A lot of other food sources also
has been produced by the existence of Protista such as seaweed as known as
brown algae. In particular aspect, zooxanthellae and chlorella are not excluded
because they are example of protists. Zooxanthellae are an important food for
aquatic animals for example fishes and planktons as they contain high amount of
carbohydrates and oxygen. Chlorella also important for reducing our number of
patients globally because each country’s government has been introduced this
medicine is beneficial especially to boost the immune system and help to fight