The objective of this review is to identifying mycotoxins in human food and their effects on animal and human health. They are present in cereal and cereal products which is determined by the risk analysis. Mycotoxicosis is resulted from the exposure aflatoxin, ergut, tricotenes, ochratoxin, 3-aflatoxin acid and fumonisins. Mycotoxin cause direct effect on brain, kidney, liver and on reproductive system. They are present where climate is hot and humid.
Mycotoxin contamination is world wide significant problem. The economic impact on mycotoxin include loss of human and animal life, increase health care and veterinary care costs and disposal of contaminated food. Postharvest and before harvest is mechanism to control the mycotoxin in feed, it includes different methods such as chemical, biological, physical system depending on their availability. Genera of moulds are aspergillus, penicillium, fusarium and alternaria shows adverse and very diverse effect on human and animal health.
The review focuses on resources production detoriation and control measures of mycotoxins to ensure the food and feed safety.INTRODUCTIONWHAT ARE MYCOTOXINS Mycotoxin are the second type of metabolite that cause adverse effect on human being, animal and crop the result in disease and economic problem, the overall contamination of food and feed with mycotoxin is very big problem, aflatoxin, ochratoxin, trichothecenes, zeaeelenone, fumonisins, tremorgenic toxin, and ergot alkaloid are the mycotoxins of the great agriculture economic importance. some mould re able to produce more than one type of toxin and on the other hand some mycotoxin are cause by more than one species of fungi (M.E.ZAIN.
2010).Most of the mycotoxin are produce three different type genera of fungi, aspergillus, peculium, and fusarium. These metabolite mainly effect of the quality seed, affect germination and viability, seeding vigour root growth, and cleoptile) mycotoxin have four kinds of toxic that are acute, chronic ,mutagenic and tetragonic. (A.A.ISMAIL and I.papnbrock.
2015 The most of mainly describing effect of acute mycotoxin poising is damage of liver and kidney function that cause death of human being. The symptom of mycotoxin are mostly as severe as chemical structure of the compound .some compounds may obtain few symptoms until cause death, at the same time ,other may produce Adverse effect including the necrosis, leucopoenia, and immunosuppression. (J. I. Pitt).TYPE OF MYCOTOXINSAflatoxins, Ochratoxins, Zearlenone, Fumonisins, Trichothecnes, Tremorgnic, Ergot alkaloids, Citrinin, Patulin, Vomitoxin and T2 toxinSOURCES OF MYCOTOXINSMaize and Wheat cause Zearlenone toxin that cause estrogenic and kidney related problem.
Barley wheat and many other commodities cause Ochratoxins A that causes impairment immune system.Maize, rice and peanut cause aflatoxin B1 , B2, G1, G2 that are carcinogenic in nature cause vomiting, anorexia icterus (jaundiced) ascities, oedema of legs massive GIT bleeding. Citrinin is atoxin that is caused by consumption of toxic cheese, sakie, miso and soya sauce that is contaminated by Penicillium citrinium this is also cause by contaminated wheat, rice, corn, barley and rye. Patulin is a toxin caused by the P. expansum, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Paecilomyces fungal species. It is caused by the apple and grape spoilage and it also caused by brain and lungs haemorrhage. Fumonisins is a toxin that is cause by fusarium.
It is caused by corn and corn base product. The symptoms cause by fumonisins or blindness had butting and pressing, constant Circling and ataxia followed by death. Vomitoxin (chemically known as doxynivalenoldol DON) is caused by fusarium.It caused by GIT illness.
OCCURENCE OF MYCOTOXINS IN FOODMycotoxins occurring in food have longer termchrnoid or cumulative effect on health, including the induction of cancer and immune deficiency. There are 5 mycotoxin or group of mycotoxin that occur in food deoxy. All cereal groups contain aflatoxin. Intensive cropping practices and decrease genetic diversity in cereal crop probably contribute to increase preharvest infection of commodities with fungi that produce aflatoxin. (Browen, Chen, Cleveland, russin, 1999, Lillehoj, 1997).
Preharvest contamination of crop with aflatoxin occurs in the temperature and tropical regions, phytoalexin produce by the infected peanut seed increase and inhibited the growth of a toxin but aflatoxin level continue to increase for an additional day. Groundnut seed is predominantly infected with A.Flavus and Aspergillus niger (Gebreselassie, Dareje and Solomon, 2014) As to talk about aflatoxin these are found in cereals spices and nuts (Lancaster et al., 1961 Weideborner, 2001 Reddy, 2010 Iqbal et al ., 2014). These Aspergillus colonized among themselves and produce aflatoxin which contaminated grain and cereal at various step during harvesting or storage fungal contamination can occur in the field, or during harvest transport, storage (Kader and Hussein, 2009).
Aflatoxin contamination of wheat and barley is commonly happen by the result of in appropriate storage (Jacobsen,2008). In milk aflatoxin is generally at 1 to 6 % of the total content of the food stuff(Jacobsen,2008), AFTs infant human following consumption of aflatoxin contaminated food such as egg, meat and meat product ,milk and milk product (Bennet and klich, 2003 Piemarini et al., 2007).EXPOSURE OF MYCOTOXINSAs to talk about exposure to mould and there toxic metabolite is a threat for human and animal health, Exposure to mycotoxin can result through inhalation, ingestion and dermal exposure. It shows many symptoms like dermatitis, mammary loss, balance issue, acid reflex, cough, rhinitis, nose bleed and headache.
As a matter of fact that the air is through to be a common source of pathogenic allergenic fungi (Perlroth et al; 2007).Due to this hospital have implemented a number of measure such as fungi from air to reduce exposure for patient at risk of fungal infection. Such measure include using high efficiency particulate air filter and laminar air flow system (Anaissie et al; 2002).Fungal colonisation of food is also through to be important source to exposure to fungi from which patient respiratory or digestive system is colonized.
Contaminated water using in food production process may be a root by which fungi or introduce into food (Paterson et al; 2009 and Hageskl et al., 2006). Preventive measure include sterilizing or disinfecting food where possible, and banning some particularly contaminated food such as soft cheezes for high risk patient (Bouakline et al 2000). In some cases, such as study by drinking water has been confirm as at least one of the source of fungal infection acquired in hospital. In other case fungal species that has been isolated from drinking water or involved, but drinking water as the infection source has not been confirmed. (Warris et al., 2003 and Anaissie et al 2001).Long term exposure to FBI leads to carcinogenicity as show by Gelderblom et al, where rats were fed during 26 month as diet containing 50 mg FBI/kg feed.
After 18 month the first sign of carcinoma in the liver (hepato-carcinome) where visible to treated rats and not in control animal.As to talk about aflatoxin, foetal rat telencephalon cell were expose during the early development period and during and advance maturation to different concentration of OTA. A term day treatment at 50Nm cause general cytotoxicity in both mature and immature cell. Exposure of mice to capital OTA (50 mg/kg daily for six week) induce hypo cellularity in the bone marrow leading to diminished number of precursor for erythrocyte, white blood cell and mega karyocyte exposure to high doses also lead to bone marrow hypo cellularity with maximum decrease in granulocyte monocyte progenitors of 25 % leading to the conclusion that OTA myelotoxicity but not cytotoxic 129.EFFECT OF MYCOTOXINS ON HEALTH Fungal infection called mycosis. Aspergillus Fumigatus is very common mould in hay and silage (Coie et al.
, 1977). Human granulo monocytic progenitors, obtainer from umbilical cord blood, were exposed to various concentrator of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS). Human erthroblastic progenitors were exposed to DAS at various concentration. Concentration DAS indicate total cytotoxicity, partially inhibited cell growth, decreased amount of haemoglobin and porphyrin. Disease is cause by the impairment of cilia in respiratory tract. Mycotoxins cause pulmonary and respiratory disorders. Fumonisin is causative agent of oesophageal concerin human. Fungi cause cytotoxicity in human.
Aflatoxin cause significant mitogenic affect on human, lymphocytes. Ochratoxins of fungi cause chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN) in North Africa. In 1987 (IARC) International Agency for Research on Cancer found that human carcinogenicity is caused by aflatoxins. So aflatoxin are classified as group 1 carcinogens. It cause toxic live, injury, toxic hepatitis 10-60% is mortality rate in acute phase.Those countries in which hot and humid climate aflatoxins cause encephalopathy and fatty degeneration of viscera similar to Rye syndrome.
The clinical picture includes fatty liver, kidney and severe cerebral edema. Jaundice is fragment during neonatal period. Defficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with aflatoxin in serum risk factor for neonatal jaundice. In recent studies aflatoxins were detected in brain, lungs of children who had died from various diseases. Acute food poisoning is caused by arthrinium sp., called mouldy sugarcane poisoning.
Aflatoxins cause deleterious effects on sexual maturation, growth, maturation of the follicles, level of harmons, gestation and growth of fetus (Kourousekos and Lymberopoulos, 2007, Turner et al., 2007, Gupta, 2011). Aflatoxin proved to be teratogenic to most animal species (WHO, 1990; Wangikal et al.
, 2005 ; Gupta , 2011). High concentration of aflatoxin in umbilical cord cause low birth weight, Kernicterus, cause death in some cases.Early symptoms of hepatotoxicity of liver caused by aflatoxin fever, malaise, anorexia, abdominal pain, vomiting and hepatitis, acute poisoning is rare and exceptional case. (Etzel, 2002)Chronic toxicity cause immunosuppressive Inflamatory cytokine expression and splenic lymphocyte phenotypes in male Reduce efficiency of immunization in children lead to enhanced risk of infection caused by Aflatoxin. Aflatoxin is major causative agent of toxicity in man through. (Hendrickse 1997).
Different studies shows adverse effect of aflatoxin on liver, testis and epididymis (Agnes and Akbarsha, 2007) (Faisal et al., 2008). Kidney and heart abnormality in brain cells, Mitochondrial DNA (Verma, 2004).
Effect on brain chemistry have been found (Bbosa ., 2013). Aflatoxin cause immune suppression, growth retardation, cancer (Gong et al., 2004; Williams et al.
, 2000; Cotty and Jaime Garcia 2007) AWARENESS CREATIONThis could be a long term intervention strategy as has been advocated by WHO (2006) and James (2005). To ensure food safety and local education and assistance to ensure that food grain and animals feed on harvested correctly dried completely and store completely. Awareness of what mycotoxin are and the danger that may pose to human and animal health could be done through government bodies, private organization and non-government organization. National media network such as radio and television programme as well as feature in newspaper in magazine, seminar and workshop could be use as avenues and bridges of information and exchange and dissemination between researches and population respectively such event also serve as forms to as post and preseut range work and define and streamline areas of future studies. WHO (2006) has put plans in place to focus on field project strengthening awareness raising and educating consumer matter related to mycotoxin in Africa among others. It is imperative that critical evaluation of intervention strategy is done to put into consideration sustainability, cultural acceptability economic feasibility, ethical implication and overall effectiveness of potential intervention considering the challenges and current need reginal expert meeting into 2005 on aflatoxin with particular reference to Africa and other countries made certain recommendatives that could be instrumental in dressing or reducing mycotoxin contaminating.
The consultation noted that achievement of mycotoxin reduction and control is dependent on the consulted effort of all actors along food production chain. Multidisciplinary approach are therefore article. The meeting recommended continued mycotic awareness is public health issue strengthened laboratory surveillance capacity as well as establishing early warning system.CONCLUSIONFungi cause human illness in different ways. Mycoses are the best-known diseases of fungal etiology, but toxic secondary metabolites produced by saprophytic species are also an important health hazard. The term mycotoxin is an artificial rubric used to describe pharmacologically active mold metabolites characterized by vertebrate toxicity.
Moreover, even when mycotoxins are detected, it is not easy to show that they are the etiological agents in a given veterinary or human health problem. Nevertheless, there is sufficient evidence from animal models and human epidemiological data to conclude that mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health, albeit one that is hard to pin down. The incidence of mycotoxicoses may be more common than suspected. It is easy to attribute the symptoms of acute mycotoxin poisoning to other causes; the opposite is true of etiology. It is not easy to prove that cancer and other chronic conditions are caused by mycotoxin exposure. In summary, in the absence of appropriate investigative criteria and reliable laboratory tests, the mycotoxicoses will remain diagnostically daunting diseases.
Adaptation in higher trophic levels, such as mammalian species, has been crucial to survival as well. Monogastric animals from fowl to domestic companion animals to humans have been susceptible to a number of mycotoxins. Besides the loss in productivity and toxicity tests with very high doses, studies demonstrated a relative resistance of ruminants to the adverse effects of a number of mycotoxins, opening the door for research into adaptive mechanisms in these species.
The key to determining how the ruminant species adapted to mycotoxins has been through studies on the metabolic pathways in the rumen environment. Besides the demonstrated effects of mycotoxins on humans or animals some important aspects of toxicology and control have still resided in the realm of the unknown and unexplored. For example, there has been a general paucity of data on mycotoxins classified as carcinogens in humans by IARC, and currently there is a genuine concern over the carcinogenic potential of OTA and F, for which few regulations exist worldwide. Only with continued research on understanding the effects and modes of mycotoxin action in various species, have regulations and control strategies been forthcoming.