The for the treatment of infectious diseases, yet, the

The rise of multi-drug resistant bacteria is currently one of the
greatest threats to global public health. As a prove, most clinically relevant
Gram-negative pathogens are reluctant to several of the antibiotics used to
treat the infections they cause, which includes in several cases last line antimicrobial
treatments (Santajit and Indrawattana, 2016). Mobilization of resistance genes is one of the factors that has
contributed the most to this phenomenon (Deng et
al., 2015; Gillings, 2014; Hall et al., 2017) since pathogenic bacteria
often owe their resistance phenotypes to genes harboured on MGEs (Hall et al., 2017). With more and more data being retrieved,
it is now obvious that the human use of antibiotics exerts effects on the
abundance of MGEs, both in the environment and the clinic (Gillings et al., 2017). Resistance determinants
present in environmental compartments have been proved to be the source of many
of the resistance genes present in pathogenic bacterial species (Forsberg et al., 2012; Gillings, 2014). Anthropogenic
activities related to the use and disposal
of antibiotics have contributed, and still do, to the selection of new resistance determinants
in environmental reservoirs (Wellington et al.,
2013). These new determinants can potentially be horizontally
transferred to pathogens as it has already been the case for many of them (Forsberg et al., 2012) and nowadays, we, human
beings are exposed to potentially new antibiotic-resistant environmental determinants
by several routes such as crops exposed to contaminated sludge or manure (Wellington et al., 2013). As pointed out by
Wellington et al. (2013), when bacteria pass through the human gut they have
plenty of opportunities to allow antimicrobial resistance genes to be
transferred horizontally to the gut microflora, bacterial species with
potential to become opportunistic pathogens. We rely on antibiotics for the
treatment of infectious diseases, yet, the use and misuse of these compounds has
resulted in the enrichment of resistance mutations and acquired resistance
genes rendering antibiotics ineffective and, thus, we are heading as a society
towards a postantibiotic era where our
quality of life and life expectancy are
at risk. Microorganisms do not respect geographical borders and, thus,
resistance needs to be tackled at a global scale.

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