The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, and the knowledge of how parents treat children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are very little. It is well known that parents are important in child care. Several authors (compare Louw et al. 1998; Pretorius, 2000) agree that parents as primary caregivers are the most important socialization agents in a child’s life. Quality of time with children is very important. There are four recognized primary parenting styles that are authoritative, authoritative, permissive and uninvolved parents. Parents’ thoughts and behaviours themselves need to be positive to educate children and parents are people who can tell them what to do and what they cannot do, as well as models for children. In order to educate children, parents must ensure the physical well-being of a child, stimulate the intellectual development of children, promote good and responsible behaviour, provide emotional safety and give moral and spiritual direction (Gerdes, 1998). Bornstein (1991) states: “Parenting manifestly influences the course and outcome of children’s cognitive and communicative achievements as well as their social and emotional adjustment”.
Parenting is about providing a warm, secure home life, helping the child to learn the rules of life (for example, how to share, respecting others, etc.) and to develop good self-esteem. A child may have to be stopped from doing things they shouldn’t be doing, but it is just as important to encourage them to do the things a parent wants them to do (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2004). The family system approach is based on individual behavior itself and addressed in family context. (Mirsalimi H, Perleberg SH, Stoval E, Kaslow NJ. 2003) The family undergoes changes and development over time, through which they are able to achieve a state of homeostasis.(McLead J. 2003) Children with ASD are also faced with developmental challenges affecting the function of parents and families, causing deep pressure for all family members. (Roa PA, Beidel DC. 2009). Parents and family members are the main communication partners of
children with Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD. As we know it is not easy and it is very challenging for parents to manage and understand the behavior of ASD children. The cost of maintaining ASD children is also high. Early action is important to help children with this ASD, but the response to the treatment varies, and it is not yet known which treatment is appropriate for these ASD children. Several studies have reported that parents of children with ASD, their lives have become more difficult and disappointing, as these children have long-term illnesses and disabilities (Bouma and Schweitzer,1990; Koegel and Schreibman,1992; Randall and Parker,1999).
Parents may experience increased stress, depression, anxiety, financial problems and it can affect their spouse or neighborhood relationships as well as lowering their self-efficacy and self-esteem (Fitzgerald et. Al. 2000; Symon,2001). This can also be caused or exacerbated by the lack of knowledge about dealing with these ASD children. When individuals access unhelpful information, this may frustrate them even further (Nicholas and Marden,1997).