The changes such as public policies, legal provisions, structural

The civil service is the spine of the government of
any nation and the major deliverer of its policies and projects for development
and progress.  It is through the civil
service that governments ensure the effective provision of crucial public services
such as access to health care, food and education to all its people. There is a
strong connection between a productive civil service and tangible social
development especially in eliminating rooting out poverty. It is so important
that over the years there have been various initiatives and efforts to
strengthen and revitalize the capacity of the Nigerian civil service i.e. its
ability to govern and deliver services in an efficient and cost effective
manner.

An analysis of the literature on the reform process
to date in Nigeria shows that the major reforms have been mainly dictated by the
perceived need to align with international best practices hence the focus has
been on strengthening institutions through positive structural support and
process changes such as public policies, legal provisions, structural
arrangements and renewed commitments.  (See compendium of bureau for public sector
reforms, strategic plan of the FCSC). This has been in line with the prevalent
thinking worldwide and especially amongst the donor community that countries
with strong institutions are wealthier and more developed than their
counterparts therefore, efforts have been directed towards strengthening
institutions and changing the rules of the game.  The reforms have promised optimal standard
practices but they don’t provide all that these practices require such as buy
in and the appropriate behaviour, mindset, commitment and supportive
culture.     In the few instances where
behaviour and culture have been addressed the solution has focused on improving
pay and welfare and creating ethics codes (see Ayida report and civil service
handbook AND SERVICOM INDEX).   GENERALLY
RECOGNISED THAT SERVICE CHARTERS AND ETNICS CODE WILL NOT IN OF THEMSELVES MAKE
PEOPLE INNATELY MORE ETHICAL OR PRODUCE DEEP BEHAVIOUR CHANGE

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It appears that it has been assumed that the
appropriate behaviour and reorientation of the civil servants would happen by
default or by the steps enumerated above.  
The chronological flow of the reforms shows that this has not been the
case. As far as governance proficiency is concerned, unfavourable behavioral
changes being stronger in their potency have overshadowed the impact of the
positive structural changes.

Behavioural based culture change is too important
to be left to develop by default.  It has
to be a specific policy objective and this highlights the importance of the
leap study.  NOT SURFACE BEHAVIOUR
CHANGE-DEEPER THAN THAT People will be put at the centre of governance reform
and enable people to be active participants in change. Clearly people and their
behaviours are the foundational infrastructure. True behavioural change requires changing the underlying driving force
or attitude, not merely rearranging the prevailing observable behaviour.

It needs to go beyond pay, welfare and surface
behavioural change to an inside out change connected to the core intrinsic
motivational drivers of the civil servant. 
When addressed, culture strengthens all other pillars and allows you to
deal with the root cause of underachievement. OTHER BARRIERS INCLUDE

In reviewing the literature, there is a possibility
that the authors had a blind spot to behavioural cultural issues in the sense
that they considered the process and structural issues to be far more important
and neglected to detail the efforts geared towards behavioural and culture
change.  The questionnaires and focus
groups will shed light on this.

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