The debate over whether the globalization is positive or negative for developing nations has intensified recently. Today there are an increasing number of nations which participate in globalization process and a considerable part of them are developing countries. While some critics argue that globalization is detrimental to developing countries because developed countries have an advantage in cross-border trading, some people argue that developing countries like China have a dramatic improvement of economy and technology compare with 30 years before. Due to the convenience of effects which is negative to developing countries provided by globalization, some opponents claim that globalization hurts the developing world. Although globalization has some negative effects on both developing and developed world, it is beneficial to developing countries through economic growth and technological improvement.
Globalization allows developing countries to have economic growth which reflects in the better income and lifestyle those countries’ citizens have. Those developing countries who join in globalization processes like China, Brazil, and India, their economy developed at a very fast rate. This kind of rapid economic growth benefit people who live in those countries because of income increasing which also lead to a better lifestyle. Because globalization increases foreign investment, Tomohara and Takii (2011) illustrate that foreign companies tend to pay more than local companies, people are much more willing to work for foreign companies, in order to match the salary paid by foreign companies, local establishments will increase their wages. Bigman (2007) also indicates the similar views that foreign investment is the key to develop the economy, especially in developing countries. Moreover, with the income growth, both government and people have the ability to choose a better lifestyle. For instance, India government’s investment in education is increasing (Bigman, 2007). Such a solution, can increase the number of skilled workers and educated people by enhancing education status which is no doubt lead to a better lifestyle. In addition, with better income, people will have more chance to choose the education, job and living environment that they want. For example, the number of Chinese overseas students rose by nine times during 1995-2003 (Dee, 2014). Scilicet, far more people in China choose to go aboard for educating or working which may lead them to a better lifestyle. In conclusion, globalization benefits developing countries by improving the income level and bring people the right to choose their way of life.
Globalization also deeply improves technological level of developing countries because of the transfer of manufacturing industries. According to the World Bank’s report, Chinese high-technology exports grew from $4304 billion in 1992 to $554273 billion in 2015 (World Bank, 2017a). World Bank (2017b) also illustrates that the proportion of high-technological exports in manufacturing exports of China grown from 6% in 1992 to 31% in 2005. These data indicate that the technological level of developing country like China has a great improvement. Another important factor of globalization is the transfer of manufacturing industries which means transnational corporations tend to establish new factories in a low-cost region. And those new factories will train many skilled workers because of their own requirements. Base on the research created by Alfred, Mensah and Badu in 2016, about 91% people in the research agree that globalization benefits the skill training system which allows the number of skilled workers increase. In addition, transfer of manufacturing industries also allows high skill workers especially experienced workers to immigrating with the factories or training new workers online. In general, globalization enhances the knowledge transfer between developing and developed countries by transferring the manufacturing industries. Therefore Alfred, Mensah and Badu (2016) explain that globalization provides opportunities for people in developing countries to learn skill and knowledge through immigration and Internet. In summary, globalization truly improves developing countries’ technological level by the manufacturing industries transfer from developed countries to developing countries.
However, some opponents claim that globalization negatively affects developing countries as it increases the gap of the economy and reduces the job opportunities through the improvement of technology. Firstly, many believe that globalization increases the income inequality between developing and developed countries. For example, the income inequality gap between wealthy entrepreneurs and less wealthy entrepreneurs is widened by trade because wealthy entrepreneurs benefit more from globalization as they invest more. To support this opinion, Foellmi and Oechslin (2010) illustrate that the income inequality between members, including countries and individual, which participate in globalization are increasing. Nevertheless, although it may be true that wealthy countries especially developed countries benefit more from globalization, evidence suggests the income inequality between developing countries and developed countries has reduced, Ruffin (2009) indicates the income inequality between developed and developing countries has decreased because of the rapidly economy growth of developing countries such as China, and India. According to the research of World Bank(2017c), Chinese GDP has a dramatic change from 1094 trillion dollars in 1999 to 11199 trillion dollars in 2016. Moreover, Chinese policy of economy like One Belt and One Road drive both Chinese and countries’, which around China, economy. Consequently, the income inequality between developing and developed countries has decreased through globalization increases the cross-border trade which allows all countries obtain profits. In addition, some experts claim that globalization reduces job opportunities as it encourages technological improvement which allows auto machines replace people’s work. Sen (as cited in Zhou, 2015, p665) explains that labour-intensive advanced technology may eliminate the job which requires low-level skills like works in developing countries. In other word, hundreds of millions of people especially poor people in developing countries will lose their job due to the technological improvement in the globalization process. However, advanced technology will create the new job and transfer workers to new work. To support this viewpoint, Bessen (2015) states that technological improvement actually increases the entire occupations because it will not substitute people completely, in the interim, it will reallocate people to fresh works and create new works and the occupations which related to them. For instance, auto teller machines’ installation does not decrease the numbers of bank employees and in contrast retain teller occupations (Bessen, 2015). To summarize, as the increasing evidence support, globalization benefit developing countries through it decreases the income inequality between developing and developed countries and increases the occupations.
In conclusion, globalization is conducive to developing countries as it enhances the economy and technology in developing countries. People in developing countries obtain a number of profits such as higher income and better lifestyle through economy growth during globalization process. In the interim, globalization helps developing countries acquire significant improvement in technology through manufacturing transfer from developed countries to developing countries. Furthermore, new occupations which created by technological improvement enhances the degree of education and salary level that developing countries’ citizens have because of the high-skill requirement of these works. While some critics believe globalization is detrimental to developing countries because it increases the income gap between developing and developed countries and eliminates jobs in developing countries, globalization actually reduces the income inequality and offset jobs’ quantity as it created global trade and new jobs. Therefore, globalization provides opportunities which allow developing countries to learn advance ideas and techniques from developed countries to eliminate poverty. Since globalization will never disappear, it is better to consider how to handle it.