The level ofMindfulness, Hand-eye coordination and strength among elite fencers MOUSA AHAMAD 1; BILALSAADA 2; QUSAI ALSHAMAILEH 3; MAHMOUD ABUSAMRA 4; AIDA A. AL AWAMLEH 5 .
The University of Jordan , Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Instruction and Supervision, Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the level of mindfulness and hand-eye coordination, strength among elite fencers, also to determine whether the gender differences inmindfulness were existed, The subjects of this study consisted of sixteen elite fencers, Five Facet MindfulnessQuestionnaire (FFMQ) Arabic version used toassess mindfulness ( FFMQ) , also hand grip dynamometer to assess strength and Hand-eye coordination manual dexterity tomeasure hand eye coordination . The results indicated thatthe level of mindfulness was moderated and there is no statisticallysignificant relationship between strength, Mindfulness and hand-eyecoordination. Furthermore, gender differences were observed regarding strengthKey words: Mindfulness (FFMQ) , hand-eye coordination, Elitefencers Introduction popular press or thepsychotherapy literature Mindfulness in the pastdecade has enjoyed huge surge in it’s popularity,whether in popularpress or inpsychotherapy literature (Didonnaa , 2009 ; Shapiro & Carlson, 2009). Mindfulness of thesport performance at thelast period has become one of themost popular research.
By increasing the critical component of peak sport performance , awareness , (Jackson , 1999; Ravizza, 2002), some of the researches have suggestedthat mindfulness exercises may assist to generatethe flow or the state of thecomplete focusing on the task orevent at hand. (Aherne, Moran, & Lonsdale, 2011; Kee & Wang, 2008)mentioned that the hypothesized thatmindfulness – based on for sports areeffective for the reason that they help athletes to direct their attentionto the current athletic task, while when minimizing external distractions ( Gnardner and Moore 2012 ) .( Brown and Ryan , 2003) mentioned that theyfound that the increase of mindfulness psychological will be by the increase of awareness of one’s current experience ( The similarities of mindfulness to the other psychotherapy – related constructs as an example for that mindfulness is similar to metallizaion (Bateman & Fonagy, 2004, 2006; Fonagy & Bateman, 2008), the development of the process of understandingone’s own and others behavior in terms of the individuals’ feelings, thoughts ,and the desires to both constructs emphasize the temporary, the subjective andthe fluid nature of the mental states and both of them are thought to influencethe effect of regulation and the cognitive flexibility (Wallin, 2007)Five mindfulness facets can be mentioned as follow : the first point is that the observing that refers to noticing , sensing to thee experience which occurred at current time such as thoughts and emotions. The second element is describing , which refers to labeling the internal experience with words. Lebow, J. (2008).
The third point is the actingwith the awareness, that involves focusing on persons activities at acertain moment as it opposes the mechanicalbehaving. The fourth element isthe non-judging of the inner experiencethat refers to the taking of a non – evaluative stance toward the privateexperience. The fifth point is the non – reactivity of the inner experience that refers to noticing thoughts and feelings without showing reaction towardthem ( Baer, et al.
, 2006). Thecoordination of the hand – eye isused in many sports activities; especially in sports like fencing. It’s a greatsport which can improve the hand – eye coordination (Kogler (2005) he explainedthat Fencing sport is one of the complex sports also he explained that a goodfencing performance can be achieved by advance perceptual and cognitiveabilities like attention of the coordination , making of decision andvisuospatial memory. Fencing needs the coordination between the hands, the feet and the eyes. The side congruency of the hand and eyepreference is considered as an essential for efficient hand – eye coordinationwhich contains sighting and aiming.
The researches have found that theincidence of the left – eydness was 47% for the group that threw it with byusing their right hand and wrote by their left hand but the rate was 55% forthe group that threw it withtheir left hands and wrote withtheir right hand . Porac C. (2016 ).Another research contend that the hand and eye preference on the opposite sides according to the body which leads to a better coordinated performanceespecially for some sports such as boxing and fencing. These researches argue that the sighting eyeis controlled mainly by the visual centers in the hemisphere for the same sideof the head where the uncrossed optic fibers travel to the brain on the sameside of the hear which thought to be as a dominant processers of the visualinformation hand movement which controlled by the hemisphere that controllingthe coordination actions.
As an example for that is that if some one is left –headed and right – eyed the right hemisphere alone will direct hand – eyecoordination. As a transfer of the information between the hemispheres is notinvolved for the left _ handed right – eyed action ther (porac, 2016) .Fencing is divided into three major branches depending uponthe weapons employed. The fencing is divided to three different types ofweapons used which are foils, sabers and epees. Just a few of the cognitivestudies focused mainly on various aspects of fencing such as mindfulness , hand– eye coordination (Azemar. etal.
2007) , and also left handed versus righthanded athletes (Harris 2007). Soabout 90% of human beings usedtheir right hands (right – handed) which means that the left – brain dominates for motoring skillsbecause of the wide majority of people are right – handed , Coon & Mitterer( 2011, 2008). Now the relationship in comparison between the mindfulnessand the cognition can be considered as an important toped of the research thatis only began recently to unravel. So the aim of this study is to determine the level ofmindfulness , hand eye coordination and thestrength of fencing player .Also To determine whether the gender differences in mindfulness were existed within samples of fencing players. In addition to that the current studyaimed to address differences of using one of the two hands at fencing regarding to hand eye coordination and strength.
We hypothesize that the fencing players have a good mindfulnessand strength, good hand eye coordination and there is a gender and handedness differences regarding tohand eye coordination, strength and mindfulness , in this study Iwill attempt to find the relationship between both of the strength ofmindfulness and the hand – eye coordination among the elite fencers. Material and MethodsParticipantsParticipants Study sample consists of sixteen nationalfencers (Jordanian National Team), aged between ( 14 – 23) years 8 males (M = 16.87 , SD = 3.52 ) and 8 females ( M = 15.12 yr , SD = 2.03 ) . Research Instruments and Procedure The Arabic version of The Five Facet MindfulnessQuestionnaire (FFMQ) is used to assess mindfulness. It is consisted of a 39items of higher scores that indicate the greater levels of mindfulness (Baer,et al.
, 2006, al awamleh 2015). The five facets were observed described , acted with awareness, also; non – judging of theinner experience and non – reactivity to inner experience . we used acoefficient of an internal consistency so we can determine the reliability ofthe Arabic version of the (FFMQ) in accordance with the Cronbach ) alpha result. The coefficient of the internal reliability of the Arabic Version of the (FFMQ) indicated that the stability of the test wasacceptable. The significant level that was reached due to the reliabilityvalues were (** 0.69) . Hand grip dynameters was used for the measuring of themaximum isometric strength for the hand and arm muscles. Because handgripstrength is an important factor or element for the fencing players.
Procedure :the dynamometers must be held at the hand that should be tested. The arm shouldbe in the right angles and at the same time the elbow must be by the side ofthe body. The dynamometer can be adjusted if that is required – as the baseshould rest on the first metacarpal while the handle should be rested on themiddle of the four fingers. When the athlete is ready he should squeezes thedynamometer with maximum isometric effort then this step will maintain for aboutfive seconds. During this step no other body movement is permitted. Steadiness Tester Hole Type used to assessHand-eye coordination( Fig 2).The athletes mission here is to hold a metal – tipped stylusin a nine progressively smaller holes that differ in size as follow ((1.
312; 0.187; 0,109; 0;093; 0;078; 0.0625) inches taking inconsideration not to touch the holes from the inside. On the other hand aSilent Impulse Counter Model 58024C was used to detect any errors. Hand-eye coordination manual dexterity 10 s Measure by SteadinessTester, Hole Type Model 32011Figure1. Fig. 2.
Steadiness Tester, Hole Type, Model 3201 All the tasks wereadministered individually in the Jordan fencing federation, all the data were systematicallycoded and subject to ” SPSS ” package .The study was grantedapproval from the University of Jordan, Jordan Fencing Federation and parentsof the sample, all participants gave informed consent and were fully debriefedafter study Results and Discussion Theresults indicate the values of means and standard deviation for the Mindfulness(MS) scale. The higher score recorded on observing subscale. Whereas the lowerscore is Non reactivity toward fencing players experience. Overall the level ofMindfulness scales appeared to be moderate the results are included in table (1) below. Theonly explanation for that is the level of mindfulness wasmoderate there is no strategies to appliedmindfulness (Mazahreh, .2016) Aherneet al.
(2011) found that the importance of mindfulness in concentration alsoCompetitive athletes record higher on the mindfulness subscale observing. The results can help sport psychologists whendelivering mental skills programs. Also understanding athletes differences inmindfulness can help to make better decisions (Kee,& Wang, 2008) The current study was also interested whethermales and females report similar or different levels of strength regarding tohandedness According to theT-test coefficients analysis. the result showed that there were no significantdifferences in strength regarding toright hand, were as significant differences were found regarding to left hand between gender category.
On the other hand there are no significantdifferences in hand-eye coordination between gender categories. To examine thequestion that investigated the relationship between mindfulness, hand-eyecoordination and strength table 3 shows the Pearson’s correlation coefficientsof mindfulness and hand-eye coordination and strength of elite fencers. Our findings here do not prove anysignificant association between mindfulness, hand-eye coordination and strengthof elite fencers, significant association between mindfulness,hand-eye coordination and strength of elite fencers, Table (3): relationship between mindfulness and hand-eye coordination andstrength of elite fencers Conclusion In this study, the focus wasmindfulness of elite fencers and the handedness differences for the eye handcoordination, strength. The researchers suggested that the differences ofmindfulness of athletes must be further investigated. In addition to that , theinfluence of variables that was taken in consideration such as the gender, eye– hand coordination and the strength experiencemust be examined to offer better insight for the relationship betweenthese factors. Acknowledgments We would like to thank fencingfederation in Jordan for a grant to support this research and the university ofJordan faculty of physical education. Aherne, C.
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