Technical University of SofiaEnglish Language Faculty of EngineeringPresented by: Luisa Salcedo VasquezPolicy and Administration in Changing worldAssoc.
Prof. Boyan Jekov2018World Cases 5Smart Citizens – Lifestyles 6Efficiency of resources and cleaner production 7Eco innovation 8Demographic change 8Globalization 9Acceleration technology 9Democracy Overview 10Global climate change is not longer a warning for the future. The effects thatscientists had predicted in the past are now occurring: Particularly in Colombia.Glaciers have shrunk, ocean levels are rising, plant and animal habitats haveshifted, and trees are flowering at changed rates. Our oceans are becoming moreacidic, our coral reef is dying, and many of our beloved oceanic species areendangered to go extinct.I will analyze the role of women entrepreneurs in rural Colombia in the impact ofthe global problem of climate change.
Foster the culture of entrepreneurship andgenerate impact within the community by promoting the development of a visionand entrepreneurial skills that create value for the participants. Through learning bydoing and from experience, tutors and students will generate value for thecommunity by creating new social opportunities through culture and technology.Encourage entrepreneurship and creative thinking as a way of life to search forsolutions that allow the development of opportunities for community. Developentrepreneurial skills and abilities that generate value for them and the community.Promote initiatives that combine innovation, culture and technology. Strengthen theecosystem of entrepreneurship through work in conjunction with the community.Empower the community so that they can exploit the entrepreneurial potential ofyoung people by converting them into agents of change.
The theory developed by the 2010 Cancun Climate Change Conference says weneed to have reduced carbon emissions by 80% before the year 2030 and 100%by 2050 to avoid a raise in average global temperature of 1.5-2.0 degrees celsiusin order to avoid catastrophic, irreversible results that will drastically change ourway of life.
The United Nations explains the that regulations created by the 2015Paris agreement to reduced 5-6 gigatonnes of carbon emissions per year is a goodstep, but still not sufficient avoid the 2 degrees of climate change.We only have 14 years to be able to act! The first step is to develop efforts to beable to access information and education in society in the face of climate change inorder to break down social and political barriers.In 2015, the global development agenda (ODS) was created, which will beimplemented for the next 15 years. This is an inclusive proposal to address thecauses of poverty in order to achieve positive change for the benefit of people andthe planet.It is a Colombian initiative that wants to generate awareness among citizens aboutthe importance of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in our daily lives, inaddition to supporting companies to be more competitive. In this way, we want toempower ourselves while we contribute to others. We want people who are notscientists and want to make the change and do not know how they can act, knowthe solutions that exist in the face of climate change and can be replicated, for thisreason, we want to join efforts to generate solutions towards peace, social andeconomic inclusion and care environment.World CasesINDIABarefoot College has trained hundreds of illiterate or semi-literate women – many ofthem grandmothers – from least developed countries and developing countries tobe specialists in solar energy.
And they have returned home trained to install solarpanels and batteries, which they have learned to maintain and repair, and whichhave changed life forever in their remote villages. And even more, they havetrained other people from the neighboring villages to do the same.FRANCEThe French government said that the commercialization of cars with diesel andgasoline in 2040 will end, as part of a plan aimed at achieving the objectives of theParis international agreement against climate change. “We announce the end ofthe sale of gasoline and diesel vehicles by 2040,” declared the French minister ofthe Energy Transition, Nicolas Hulot.Smart Citizens – LifestylesRecent years have witnessed unprecedented urban growth and changes in thedynamics of cities. According to current forecasts, the trend is for the growth ofcities to continue (UNEP, 2012b). This lesson examines the reasons forsustainable urban development (Section 1.
1) and describes the systematicmethods for decoupling urban lifestyles from the increasing exploitation ofresources (Section 1.2). Section 1.3 determines the link between lifestyles andurban development and Section 1.4 provides a theoretical framework for takingmeasures that facilitate more sustainable urban planning and allow the necessaryconditions for the establishment of sustainable lifestyles.More than 50% of the world’s population lives in cities, where 80% of the world’sgross domestic product (GDP) is generated (UNEP, 2013b). Therefore, it is notsurprising that cities worldwide account for approximately 60-80% of GHGemissions, consume around 75% of natural resources, and produce 50% of globalwaste (UNEP, 2013b).
By 2050, almost 70% of the world population will be urban population and will bemostly young (UNEP, 2013a). According to the International Resources Panel, inthe coming years, up to 60% of the infrastructures needed to cope with the growingglobal urban population in 2050 will be built (UNEP, 2013a).Unite Virtual Learning Environment / Sustainable Cities and Lifestyles – Module 4.Page 7 – 9.Efficiency of resources and cleaner productionAlthough the consumption of raw materials in the region is relatively low, LACfaces pressures to supply raw materials for other regions (mainly Asia), while tryingto meet the demands of its own industrial transition (UNEP, 2013b). ). The impactsof unsustainable industrial production and the extraction of resources threaten thebase of LAC economies and negatively affect societies and the environment.
Within the framework of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, manyobjectives and goals require greater efficiency of resources and the disconnectionof economic growth and the use of materials.Applying a life cycle approach allows the identification and prioritization of concreteways of minimizing resource inputs and optimizing processes. Approaches topromoting RECP can include: adoption of environmentally sound technologies,changes in production methods, substitution of raw materials, development of newproducts, recovery of energy and materials from waste.
Unite Virtual Learning Environment / Efficiency of resources, cleaner productionand eco-innovation – Module 4. Page 7- 8.Eco innovationEco-innovation will be one of the tools to create business models that incorporatesustainability in all business operations based on life cycle thinking andcooperation with partners through the value chain. It implies a coordinated set ofmodifications or new solutions to: products (goods / services), processes, marketfocus and organizational structure. The changes will ultimately improve thecompany’s performance and competitiveness (see also Figure 3) **.Through this method, eco-innovative companies create value for the business, theenvironment and society in general. The result is a more flexible company that isable to respond to changing market trends and be ahead of its competitors. Insteadof gradual short-term improvements, which only generate progress and limitedbenefits, eco-innovation represents a long-term strategic drive towardssustainability.
Unite Virtual Learning Environment / resource efficiency, cleaner production andeco-innovation – Module 4. Page 11.Demographic changeThere will be an increase in population, aging, urbanization and expansion of themiddle class, which will bring a transformation of value chains.
It will imply agreater demand for resources and a reorganization of the cities.By 2050 in Colombia, it is expected that the population will be 63 million inhabitantsaccording to DANE projections and 80% of that population will live in cities, achallenge for access to water, energy and food.GlobalizationThere will be an expansion of the economy internationally. Colombia will beintegrated into the global market and value chains. There will be a greater flow ofhuman and financial capital.Challenges:1. Increase in exports (potential food). It is expected to quadruple exports.
2. More trade agreements and foreign investmentBy 2030, Colombia is expected to occupy the 31st position among the countrieswith the highest GDP.Acceleration technologyTechnology transforms society, changes the way people live and interact. This ishow the challenge of Colombia lies in the investment in science and technologythat translates into economic and social development.”The relevant technologies for development in the year 2030 will be informationtechnologies, automation and manufacturing technologies, resource technologiesand health technology” (National Intelligence Council, 2012).Reconciliation is the opportunity to start investing in our human capital,empowering the indispensable knowledge to achieve a better society and, in thisway, have the probability of creating cooperative networks to stimulate social,economic growth and care for the environment . Human talent can lead us towardscooperation between the different actors of the country’s economy.
Understandingthat the generation of shared value is the result of satisfying the needs of allstakeholders.Likewise, the platform seeks that the people trained can access the information,regardless of their geographical location and create support networks to market,encouraging young people in the country, that the field is a life option and thusdecreasing the education gap that exists interrupting regional progress.Democracy OverviewThe word means, literally, power (kratos) of the people (demos).
The worddemocracy has always indicated a political entity, a form of state and government.Tocqueville perceived American democracy in a sociological key, as a societycharacterized by equality of conditions and predominantly guided by an “egalitarianspirit”.Social Democracy: the set of primary democracies -small communities andconcrete voluntary associations- that vertebrate and nourish democracy at its base,at the level of civil society.
1According to the global ranking of the Democracy Index (2015)2, the answer isUruguay, which is located in position N°19, being considered a “completedemocracy”. Interestingly, it is in a position above the US. While the second LatinAmerican country on the list is Costa Rica and shares the 23rd. position togetherwith Japan.
Chile is in third place.The previous results are confirmed by the Democratic Development Index (2015)of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation3.1 Tocqueville in his work Democracy in America2http://www.isie.tn/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Economist_Intelligence_Unit-Democracy-Index-2015.pdf3 http://www.idd-lat.org/2015/downloads/idd-lat-2015.pdf