Tanzania Ocean and contains many important rivers and lakes.

Tanzania has many major landforms and sources of water that surround it. Some landforms include Mount Meru which is an active volcano, Mount Kilimanjaro which is a dormant volcano, and the Usambra and Pare mountain ranges. The Gregory Rift is a major landform because it’s the eastern section of the Great River valley. Ol Doinyo Lengai is another native major landform to Tanzania; it is the only volcano in the world to produce netrocarbonatite lava. Tanzania is bordered by the Indian Ocean and contains many important rivers and lakes. Lake Victoria is considered the largest lake in Africa, and it is theorized to be the source of the Nile River. Lake Tanganyika is the second deepest lake in the world. Countries such as, Burumdi, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, and the democratic republic of Congo all border Tanzania. This means all country affairs are significant to one another, if one country fails economically the others suffer from lack of trade. Tanzania is described as, “One of the largest countries in the world and ranks 31st among all the countries in terms of area” and, “population” (Lawrence). This means Tanzania holds a major influence over trade and economics due to its high demand exports and large work force. Tanzania is still considered “one of the largest countries in sub-Saharan Africa” (Briggs and Widman). Briggs and Widman both describe it as a landform that can cover more than four times the size of Britain, and is larger than Uganda and Kenya combined. With such a large body of land, there is much economic opportunity in regards to mining for natural resources or utilizing land for agriculture.There are many religions within Tanzania; the major two are Christianity and Islam. Both have similar followings. Africa hosts various languages within their territory. Tanzania is no different; they have no dominantly spoken language within their borders. Swahili is spoken the most, but by a small percentage of the population. English, Chaga, Mozonde, and Datoga along with dozens of other languages are also spoken. Their average income rate is about 68 cents per hour, which makes them one of the lowest wage countries in the world. (Wage indicator foundation) They start their school year at the beginning of January and end it in November; they also enlist children at the age of seven. School is divided into three sections, primary, lower secondary, and upper secondary. Primary lasts seven years and takes in kids when they turn seven until they turn 14. Lower secondary school takes in kids who are 14 until they are 18. Upper secondary school takes in 18 year olds and educates them until they’re 20. Not everyone however enrolls in school at the age of seven, some don’t go at all. 11% of Tanzanian children have no form of formal education because they never went to primary school. 15% attain incomplete primary school education, and 26% of 15-24 year olds haven’t completed primary school education. That’s more than one fourth of the total 15-24 year old population. Even with children going to school, some are still not educated. A baffling 17% of kids in primary school aren’t educated, and 56% of teens and adults aren’t educated in secondary school. (World Bank 2014)In Tanzania 7% of women are married by the age of 15, and 37% are married by the age of 18. This internationally ranks Tanzania as the 21st highest country that promotes child marriage.(Girls not brides) Divorce rates have increased from 1.01% to 2.1% in the recent 2000’s according to the National Bureau of Statistics.(Dausen) For every set of 1000 Tanzanians 36 have children, this means their population increases by 2.75% annually. (CIA world factbook-Tanzania) Citizens own very little, scraps of clothing and food are common day possessions along with hunting tools. Tanzania is very poor and in 2010 lost 3 billion dollars in trade between their export and import rates. Agriculture is a major trend in Tanzanian society, the export of gold, diamond, and silver is also a major source of income. Recently Tanzanians have abandoned their jobs as farmers and this has led to the decline of commerce for the country. This is furthering Tanzania’s poor living environment. They have alliances with many bordering countries. This was started with the “Nonaligned movement” in 1961. Recently economic and regional cooperation has been agreed upon by Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. This will hopefully aid in taking Tanzania out of its economic rut. Tanzania’s form of government is a unitary Presidential democratic republic. This means the President is both the head of the state and the head of the government. Currently the president of Tanzania is John Magufuli, and the prime minister is Kassim Majaliwa. The Civic United Front, National Convention for Construction and Reform, Party of Democracy and Development, Revolutionary Party, Tanzania Labor Party, and the United Democratic Party are all examples of the major political parties in Tanzania (Index mundi). The country works under a dominant multi-party system, the party in which the president is under determines what the country is under during their time in office. Tanzania freed itself from British oppression, and promoted anti-slavery movements eventually eradicating it from its territory completely. Tanzania doesn’t have a stable form of government, the country is very poor and the government fails to make a profit in their export to import trade off. In 1822 the United Kingdom signed a treaty to abolish slavery; this didn’t fully abolish slavery however for another 60 years. In 1890 an anti-slavery decree was passed, in 1897 Sultan made slavery illegal. During the periods 1905-1907 a major Mali rebellion left 300,000 rebels dead. From 1914-1918 Africa contributed to the “Great War” through Tanzanian military labor (Shillington). In 1963 Zanzibar became a member of the United Nations and received independence from the United Kingdom. Zanzibar also established a constitutional monarchy. In 1995 Tanzania held its first multi-party election.

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