Suicide prevention is given a low priority inmany Western Pacific countries due to competing health problems, stigma andpoor understanding of its incidence and etiology. Little is known about theepidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior in the Philippines and althoughits incidence is reported to be low, there is likely to be under-reportingbecause of its non-acceptance by the Catholic Church and the associated stigmato the family. One of the studies in suicide made by Redaniel et al (2011) aimsto investigate trends in the incidence of suicide in the Philippines, assesspossible underreporting and provides information on the methods used and thereasons for suicide. According to the study the incidence of suicide in malesincreased from 0.23 to 3.59 per 100,000 between 1984 and 2005.
Similarly asstated by the sudy, rates rose from 0.12 to 1.09 per 100,000 in females.Amongst females, suicide rates were highest in 15-24 year olds, whilst in malesrates were similar in all age groups throughout the study period. Also,the majority of cases are single (53-74%), but 61-84% of these were in arelationship. Half of cases of the study were either students or otherwiseunemployed (23-29% and 14-26%, respectively).Asstated by Redaniel et al (2011), between 9-22% of suicide admissions reportedseeing a psychiatrist prior to the attempt.
Based on looking at the mentalhealth of people who attempted suicide, 78.7% have adjustment disorders, 7.1%schizophrenia, and 6.2% manic depression (18).
Only 24% and 38% reportedintoxication with alcohol or prohibited drugs, respectively, prior to suicide(16). Most cases admitted in hospitals (34-56%) overdosed in drugs, such asisoniazid (INH) and paracetamol, or ingested chemicals (27-51%) in the form ofcommon household products such as sodium hypochloride and organophosphates. As eloquently stated by Redaniel et al (2011),the most commonly used methods of suicide were hanging, shooting andorganophosphate ingestion, in non-fatal attempts, the most common methods usedwere ingestion of drugs, specifically isoniazid and paracetamol, ororganophosphate ingestion. Poisoning is the most common methodused in suicide attempts (16-19%). It is also stated that family and relationship problems were the mostcommon precipitants. According to Redaniel et al (2011) “while rates were lowercompared to other countries, there is suggestive evidence of underreporting andmisclassification to undetermined injury. Recent increases may reflect eithertrue increase or better reporting of suicides.” The findings of the study show theneed for more reliable data in order to understand suicide behavior andestablish prevention strategies in the Philippines.
One study regarding the Backgroundof Self-Harm in Filipino Adolescents of an Ilocano Community was done by JeanAlecs Banaticla, Ian Aldwin Atijera, Marian Feliz Calica, Raphaella ErickaConcepcion, Clayton Jay Yllera, Bennedict Sagun, Raven Rose Lacuata, FernandoOringo of Lorma College Special Science High School which focuses entirely onthe profile of Self-Harm in Filipino Youth. After their research they have foundout that self-mutilation or self-harm, basing it from the response of theguidance counsellors had been identified as an act of hurting or injuringoneself. It is done physically and intentionally. It was said by theinterviewed high school counsellors that there are signs or behavioral changesthat could be observed to those who self-harm. These changes could be seen intheir body movements, daily activities, and social relationship. As justifiedby the guidance counsellor of SJNHS social withdrawal is one of themanifestations of self-mutilation. According to the study every individual whoself-harm has different reasons for committing the act, but the intervieweesstated that the major factors are emotional difficulties.
One of the guidance counselorsof Cicosat College justified that by saying that “Depression, frustration,anxiety, parenting style, social factor, family problems, failingrelationships, and self-depression are mainly the reason of self-mutilation.” Self-mutilatorsare people who need extra help and guidance from family and friends. Effectiveguidance program, continuous guidance, proper evaluation, and counselling arehighly encourage in helping and preventing self-mutilation because the chanceof leading self-injury to suicide is very high. As mentioned in the study, they concludedthat self-mutilation is no joke nor a fictional stories but rather a seriousissue in the society that fails to be centered. This taboo has to be known andtaken seriously. As the world progresses, different problems in the societyarise, and one of them is self-harm. Even adolescents nowadays have a higherexposure to stress, bullying and other emotional problems at an early age anddue to impulse thinking they tend to release their emotional state throughphysical injury.
As viewed by psychologists, self-injury is a temporarysolution to problems that would open or cause more problems. Self-injury causesmore problems for it would do nothing to the problems at hand. It might giveyou an escape but you could never runaway to unsolved problems and the consequencesthat may come along.
This is also serious because self-harm has been common toadolescents for the reason that they think harming themselves could help themfeel better.Accordingto the results of the study, it suggests that conducting symposiums, awarenesscampaigns, and collaborations of guidance counsellor to community and to, thebasic unit of community, family would help prevent the risk of self-mutilationand suicide. The said actions would help guide who does and does not harmthemselves, control the self-injurers, address what is self-mutilation, andmake people aware that self-mutilation is real and being practiced by peoplemostly by the youth.
In collaboration, the family would play a big rolebecause, based on the interviewees conducted in their study, it is one of mainfactors that triggers them to do the act. The support of their families wouldbe valued greatly by the self-mutilators. According to the master thesis of MonicaJoy O. Daloos it was said that Delos Reyes (2009) connected emotionalintelligence (EQ) in the realm of coaching.
Delos Reyes (2009) described acoach with EQ if he or she is aware of his or her emotions as a tool ofenhancing relationships at work with his or her team members to achievesuccess. Integrating existing concepts, he formulated the SSRS or thefour-point convenient guide on how EQ can help coaches in their fields. TheSSRS (Self-Awareness, Relationships, Resilience, and Self-Actualization) isbetter understood by Self-Awareness EQ. This pertains to knowing ones unique emotionsof happiness, anger, sadness, and fear. Delos Reyes (2009) explained SSRS andits dimensions; he stated that “This pertains to knowing ones unique emotionsof happiness, anger, sadness, and fear. Knowing these emotions makes a coachgenuine and emotionally honest, hence, Relationships EQ. This implies howemotions are used to connect everyone in a group.
In a simple word, it is therapport instigated and can be highlighted through empathy, team spirit,intimacy, win-win conflict, adapting to people, assertiveness, inspirationalleadership, and non-judgmental approach, hence Resilience. This is the abilityto adopt a positive attitude in the face of adversity. The key aspects are:flexibility, problem-solving, stress tolerance, adaptability, transparency, andchange catalyst. A coach who possesses these has a high tolerance or resilientto challenges.
And lastly Self-Actualization, which means emotionaltransformation from seemingly negative view of things to a clearer perspective.A coach who possesses this knows how to grab opportunities and face the futurewith optimism.”Astudy from a faculty member from Xavier University in Cagayan De Oro, Dr. CheloWapano, explained two things about Emotional Quotient: first was, what were thesignificant predictors of emotional intelligence and second was, how theadolescents who are emotionally intelligent different from who are less to. Asstated by her study, Dr. Chelo found out that the youngsters were deemed more emotionallyintelligent if their parents used the authoritative parenting style (explainand cite).
Secondly was adolescents tended to react less negatively tosituations. This means that these children are more positive intheir interpretations of circumstance and events in theirlives. They are more willing to give themselves and others thebenefit of the doubt. Lastly is the youth are more willing to exertsome effort in containing their emotional reactions before they fully expressthem. They are more thoughtful in what they eventually show toothers. According also to the study, itfound out that the Filipino adolescents who were known to have higher EQ’s tendedto feel that they are able to deal with their situations more effectively.
These adolescents have a better sense of effectiveness in dealing with thecircumstances that they confronted. And display habits and characteristicsrelated to psychological resiliency (explain). They are better in coping withboth everyday hassles and tragic adversities. And also have fewer boutswith depression and anxiety, the two most prevalent mental health issues. Dr.Chelo’s main point was that the use of authoritative style of parenting is thebest style in nurturing among our young in order to raise the emotionalintelligence of a child.
Overall, there is now empiricalevidence in the local setting that emotional intelligence or EQ is an importantfactor that leads to psychological resiliency and stressresistance. Although it is more easily developed among children whohave a basic temperament of emotional control and optimism, the style ofparenting used also influences its development in a person.