Sufficient altered by the calibration of the apparatus (Porosimeter).

  Sufficientpressure should be provided in the gas cylinder so as to enable students obtainaccurate values of porosity that they can relate with. This can be achieved byusing alternative sources of gas such as CO2 and O2.  RECOMMENDATIONS 2.     From the experiment andanalysis of the results obtained, the values of the core grain volume, corepore volume and porosity have been greatly altered by the calibration of theapparatus (Porosimeter).

However, the determination of the porosity of thereservoir rock is fundamental to ascertaining the quantity of reservoir fluidsin place so as to establish the technical and economic limits of the fielddevelopment plan. 1.     Since a large value wasobtained for the porosity, it can be concluded that the core plug is from ahighly porous formation such as unconsolidated sandstone or a vugular carbonaterock with vugs. CONCLUSIONS2.     The direction/orientationof the core plug when placed in the sample holder does not affect the values ofP1 and P2. 1.

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     I observed that thePorosimeter did not have sufficient pressure to induce the required volume ofgas to the core to perform the experiment and hence, the output of the pressurereadings was not coherent with the calibrated values of V1 and V2. OBSERVATIONS CHAPTER 3             1.      Ichecked the O-ring contained within the sample holder to ensure it did not needreplacement and ensured there was no foreign particles in the sample holder.  MAINTENANCE 3.     I avoided parallax errorby reading the pressure gauge values directly (perpendicular to the gauge). 2.     I made sure that thepressure values stabilized before taking my readings of pressure.1.

     I ensured that theconnection to the gas source (cylinder was tightly fixed to prevent theevacuation of gas).PRECAUTIONS  × 100% = 22.28%Porosity = CorePore Volume, VP = VB-VG = 67.75 – 52.65 = 15.1cm3CoreGrain Volume, VG (cm3) = V2-V3 = 165.31– 112.

66 = 52.65cm3V1= 60.18 cm3 and V2 = 165.31Corebulk volume (cm3) VB  Data analysis P2= 96.

5 psiP1= 180.65 psi (off before P1)V2= 165.31cm3V1= 60.18cm3CurrentPorosimeter Calibration = 40psiDiameterof the Core Sample = 3.7 cm3Lengthof the Core Sample = 6.3 cm3Data RecordsRESULTS ANDANALYSISCHAPTER 2          8.     I made sure the P1 stabilized andrecorded the value7.

     I turned the “P1 Lock In” valve tothe “Off” position.6.     I rotated the regulator in aclockwise direction, until I reached the required pressure, 180 psi5.     I turned the “P2 Test” valve to the”Off” position.4.     I loosened the sample holder toinsert my core for analysis, and I tightened it back.

3.     The length and diameter of the coreused were measured and documented using a veneer caliper.2.     I turned the unit on and allowed itto warm up for 5 to 10 minutes. After the unit warms up, the display read zero.1.

     Before starting my experiment, I placedall the valves (P1,P2) in vertical position. Also rotated counter clockwise theregulators on the front panel.Procedure A – Without a Vacuum(Normal Porosity Sample)  PROCEDURE IncludedInstrument used are; namely; Core samples, Veneer Calipers  Figure 3- Front Panel of Model 350 Porosimeter. Figure 2- Placement of Core Sample.This Instrument is used for measuringthe effective porosity of a core sample.

This work based on the principle ofBoyle’s Law. However the pressure applied for this experiment was 180psi. Figure 1- The OFITE Model 350 Core Porosimeter.ApparatusEXPERIMENT Thisimplies that,V= Volume of the gasP= Pressure of the gaswhere,,Accordingto Boyle’s Law, the pressure exerted by the gas in a container of known volumeis inversely proportional to the volume of the gas. This can be mathematicallyexpressed as:The equipment used inthis experiment works on the principle of Boyles Law.

–       –    AbsolutePorosity = Based on the pore connection;-         Secondary/InducedPorosity-         Primary/OriginalporosityStated are someclassifications of porosity, based on the mode of formation.It is measured inpercentage or as a fraction.Porosity = Therelationship is given below;Areservoir rock considered to have to the ability to store fluids is veryimportant property.

The reservoir rock contains small pores which can be aporous media. Fluids are held in this small pores until they are produced,hence the amount of pore spaces in a rock makes a good reservoir rock.Therefore, one very important reservoir parameter is porosity.

There aredifferent methods in which porosity can be measured; It can be measure eitherfrom core obtained during drilling operation or from log analysis. To measureporosity directly from core, it of importance estimate porosity from coresamples. Porosity is therefore the ability of a reservoir rock to store fluid.Mathematically, it is said to be the ratio of pore volume to the bulk volume.  INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1               Thisreport contains the experimental procedure done to estimate the porosity of acore sample using the porosimeter equipment. This equipment operates under theprinciple of Boyle’s law. Contained in this report is the procedures taken, theresult analysis, observations made. One of the most important factor that considersan hydrocarbon reserve technically and economically viable is porosity.

Itstherefore important to estimate the porosity of the reservoir rock. In doingthis, experimental analysis is done on core samples or logging operations, forbetter results, direct measurement using cores is performed. ABSTRACT  Table of Contents ABSTRACT.. 3 CHAPTER 1. 4 INTRODUCTION.

. 4 EXPERIMENT.. 5 PROCEDURE.

. 7 CHAPTER 2. 8 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS. 8 MAINTENANCE..

9 CHAPTER 3. 10 OBSERVATIONS. 10 CONCLUSIONS. 10             SUBMITTED TO DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING, COVENANT UNIVERSITY   GROUP 3     EXPERIMENT 1: CORE POROSIMETER     MATRIC NO: 13CN015642 NAME: OLUWASIJUWOMI TOYOSI DAVID   BY   PET 527   PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY