Studies and representation for minorities is still relatively weak.

Studies have been conducted to determine the effects of diversity in healthcare administration. Diverse leadership is associated with improved patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes, reaching strategic goals, and successful decision making. The individuals who responded believed that minority leadership gaps could be closed with positive diversity gaps and giving equal consideration for leadership positions to all applicants. In addition, although diverse candidates for healthcare leadership have grown over the past few years, respondents did not see the same growth in their respective organizations. (Witt/Kieffer, 2011) Diversity leadership is important in healthcare organizations as it will lead to numerous benefits.    62 percent of individuals in the bar graph attached above felt that differences in culture improve patient satisfaction. According to a similar study, 70 percent of individuals between the ages of 31-40 report even higher agreement levels that diversity will increase patient satisfaction. Diversity can encourage successful decision making according to 57 percent of the respondents. 65 percent of CEOs and 67 percent of HR executives highly ranked that diversity will benefit successful decision making. According to the graph, 54 percent of respondents believe that diversity will also assist strategic goals of the organization. A West Coast CEO says that diversity drive quality and initiates good business. In addition, younger respondents display even higher levels of agreement and believe that there is a strong link between diversity and strategic goals. (Witt/Kieffer, 2011) Although the Witt/Kieffer and many additional studies show that diversity is key and the bottom line is that there will be improved efficiency, better outcomes, greater satisfaction among patients and healthcare providers, and an enhanced public image, there are still many barriers that exist. (Witt/Kieffer, 2011) The various barriers prevent minorities from being successful in the healthcare field and representation for minorities is still relatively weak.   A quarter of executives who are minorities are well-represented in management teams. According to the chart above of top five barriers to success, the number one barrier minorities discussed was lack of commitment from top management. (Witt/Kieffer, 2011) Barriers are perceived differently by various races and ethnicities. Caucasian respondents felt that there are not enough diverse candidates to hire or promote from within, and there is a lack of access.  On the other hand, minority respondents felt that the top management had a lack of commitment and did not take diverse candidates seriously. The minority respondent’s results were similar to the results in 2006 which revealed almost the same barriers. (Witt/Kieffer, 2011)  In addition, 74 percent of minority respondents felt that there was a lack of commitment by the board, 70 percent said that there was a lack of commitment by the human resources department and 65 believed that there was some individual resistance to placing diverse candidates. (Witt/Kieffer, 2011)  Gender Gaps In Healthcare Administration Gender discrimination is one of the top reasons why there are leadership gaps in healthcare. Even though women make up majority of the healthcare workforce, they are underrepresented in positions of power. Although, the healthcare industry is powered by women, only 43% are executives. Women make up 76% of hospital employees, 77% work in doctors offices, and 88% are home health workers. (Diamond, 2014)  The American College of Healthcare Executives conducted a survey to compare and describe key aspects of male and female executives and their career attainment. The studies for all surveys conducted in 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2006 showed that although females are more likely to hold positions such as department head, men are more likely to be CEOs. The University of Michigan conducted a study on gender roles in the top 100 hospitals in the United States. Hospitals that were considered high quality and leading healthcare institutions were investigated for this study. The study was conducted to see whether progressive hospitals were likely to have gender diversity in administration and leadership as that is what was assumed. Out of 474 chief administrators, 24 percent were women (114). In addition, the study also showed that 30 percent of the top 100 hundred hospitals did not have any women in chief administration positions. About 34 percent of hospitals had one female chief administrator. (Lantz, 2008)  The study concluded that females were more likely to have other chief positions as opposed to CEO or CFO and only 15 percent of hospitals had a female CEO. The positions that females had were more likely to be chief information officer or human resources officer. The study determined that very little progress was made even in large leading hospitals in the nation, to close gender gaps in healthcare leadership. In fact, the top hospitals in the country should be leaders in closing the gaps and provide a good example of women in high ranking chief positions. (Lantz, 2008)  In addition, there is less diversity in pay rates and on surveys that are self-reported, women healthcare executives earn lower salaries as men who are in similar positions. 29 of women said that gender played a vital role in receiving lower compensations in 2006, whereas 1 percent of men said the same. The goal is to expand their representations beyond a chief nursing officer or vice president of human resources.  -Based on another survey of 400 women working in the healthcare field, conducted by Halle Tecco, about 96 percent of them believe gender discrimination still exists. Half of these women state that gender is one of the biggest obstacles they have faced professionally. (Gramling, 2015) Forty percent of people who responded said career development was not provided for women in their workplaces. According to Katie Vahle, co founder and patient advocate of CoPatient, “It wasn’t until I was working through the ranks of middle management that I saw how difficult it can be for a woman to advance into senior leadership roles. I think it is a natural tendency to hire, promote and mentor individuals who are most like you, so by virtue of fewer women in senior leadership positions, I think that dynamic contributes to a woman’s ability to advance.” (Gamble, 2012) There are many women emerging in the healthcare field as well as women who have been in the field for some time. There was a study conducted through surveys to see the differences in male and female healthcare manager’s participation in professional development activities and organization support. The surveys were distributed by the presidents of each association. An initial and a follow up email message was sent to current and past members encouraging participation in this study by completing the survey. 92 people responded to the survey, 50 of the participants were female, and 42 were male. (Gumas et al., 2009) The ages of men were slightly more although most of the respondents were 50 years or older. 79 percent of men had senior management positions as opposed to 36 percent of women. When not looking at gender, 62% of employees worked in a hospital and the remaining worked in non-hospital settings. 74% of respondents had a professional certification. 62 percent of males and 26 percent of females had a American College of Healthcare Executives certification. Individuals who held certifications were generally older. Overall, it was found that women were less likely to pursue professional development activities, and men were more likely than women to attend continuing education programs while paying out of pocket. (Gumas et al., 2009).  Other Factors That Influence Racial and Gender Gaps in Healthcare Administration  The American Psychological Association’s Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training released the results of an assessment over the span of eight years. The years were 1997–2005 and it showed the progress tow


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