Special individual. Governments across the world allocate funds from

Special Problem

 

TOPIC:

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“Drug
Addiction in Universities”

 

DEGREE
& COURSE:

M.Sc. Sociology, 3rd
Semester

“Special Problem: SOC-719”

 

SUBMITTED
BY:

Sadaf Zahra

(16-Arid-5577)

 

SUBMITTED
TO:

Ms. Nazia Rafiq

 

 

 

PMAS-ARID AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY RAWALPINDI

 

CONTENTS

·      
Introduction

·      
Drug Addiction in
Rawalpindi/Islamabad

·      
Survey Data

·      
Drug addiction in female university-students

·      
Conclusion

 

INTRODUCTION

Good
health is right of every individual.
Governments across the world allocate funds from their resources for health
facilities. Health budget has subheads salaries purchase of
medicine. The number for purchase of medicines in People’s Republic
of Bangladesh and Kingdom of Nepal was five hundredth and half
hour severally. It had been determined that in year 2002,
the landmass spent US$7.4 billion on the
acquisition of medicine. Pakistan spent regarding US$27
million on the acquisition of medicine in 1996. Pakistan has associate approximate population of 187
million with a growth rate of 2.2% once a year. Families and people in People’s
Republic of Bangladesh ought to pay 9.7% prices of the medication from their own earnings. More than seventy eight of medical expenditure
in Pakistan is out of pocket. Regarding half the
population up to now has no access to fashionable medicines. Government in Pakistan are operating onerous to
boost the economic outlook. The GDP growth was 8.5% in 2006.

 Pakistan has quite 28000
registered medication whereas Bharat has regarding one
hundred thousand registered medication out there within the market. The incentives of the medical companies to
push their product hinder the access of population to cost-efficient medication. 

There’s endless step-up of drug costs and restricted range of
funds at government facilities. The most issue of access
and affordability ought to be addressed. A lot of and a lot of folks have substance everywhere the
planet.

These medication area unit largely made in 2 areas
of Asia one is named the Golden Triangle. It covers large tracts of land
in Thailand Laos Burma.
“The different space is named the Golden
Crescent that covers Pakistan Asian
nation and Iran.

Pharmaceuticals offer couldn’t be absolutely determined at
pharmacy stores. This info is meagre to conclude
the principle of medicine being consumed by the Pakistani
population.

Self-prescription, folks should purchase easily medication at
pharmacy stores, low acquirement levels and parallel systems of other
medication area unit factors that have aggravated, feat the
community exposed to the hazards of irrational use of medicine.

Drug employment studies area
unit largely restricted to out of doors and indoor patients
among government facilities or disease-oriented sub-specialities. These studies don’t cowl the entire population
exposed to the matter.

This info is meagre to figure out
the principle of medicine being consumed by the Pakistanis. The aim of this study was to achieve information regarding the
character of medicine getting used by the national population. Info was collected from non-institutionalised
population relating to house remedies/drugs out
there to the buyer no matter the supply. Marijuana is grownup|grownup|mature} on quite
an massive scale and is exported to Australia North American
country Marijuana is grown on quite anmassive scale and is
exported to Australia North American country. In our country the assembly of controlled
substance and diacetylmorphine has reduced little
doubt however still it’s quite high. These area unit illicitly taken intent
on different countries by varied agencies. In 1987 our government destroyed flower crops
over large areas by aerial spary agencies. Our government destroyed flower crops
over large areas by aerial spary within the NWFP. The report found that nearly all
surveyed ladies same that over time they resorted to misusing
opioid-based painkillers (morphine etc.), and, tranquilisers and
sedatives, that area unit without delay out there in
pharmacies.

Most of the drugs come from Afghanistan, the country
responsible for at least 75 percent of the world’s heroin production and supply.

The number of drug users is particularly high in
the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, where close to 11 percent of the
population is hooked on drugs.
Young men and women students and workers of all kinds in different countries
have started using drugs.
Those who start their use soon get into the habit of taking them regularly, the
drugs affects their body and mind so badly that they cannot work properly. They need more money to buy drugs. And when they cannot earn much they either begin
selling their things and property or become criminals. They
can join gangs of thieves or robbers or terrorists. As
drug taking become common, the society begin moving towards destruction.

Special law
enforcing agencies are operating to combat the sale manufacture and trafficking
of narcotics. Severe punishments are awarded to those
who conduct this obnoxious business.

Almost five per
cent (five million) of adult population in the country is using drugs and its
use is growing at an annual rate of seven per cent, Interval gradual healthy
ways of life change of brand fruit mouthwash. By
smoking we usually mean smoking to Tobacco. There
are many people who are addicted to the smoking of opium and other intoxicating
drugs. People use various kinds of apparatus and
other intoxicating drugs.
Tobacco was first brought from American to Europe, Early one day in 1492
Columbus shipmates saw the people of island smoking bundles of rolled leaves,
They copied this habit and become smokers Later on Siew alter Rakiegh introduced
tobacco and smoking in Europe. Hokkah
smoking was illustrious to Jap kings the physicians used it as a cure for
abdomen troubles, currently smoking in one amongst hottest habit, even girls
have held this habit. Nowadays there are forty million
alcohol-dependent smokers in U.S.A thirteen million in nice kingdom and virtually
as several in France. In a very poor country like Asian country
folks smoke away cigarettes of a thousand million rupees per annum

The habit of
smoking prevails in each a part of the globe.
Superlative doctors of the globe have expressed their opinion regarding its
dangerous impact. However the style continues. Smoking beyond any doubt invigorates ones system
when physical and exhaustion .But
it’s when impact are extremely dreadful. The
smoke contains terribly tiny partocles of Nictine that id deadly poison. By respiration the poisionous smoke we have a
tendency to injure our health the smoke have an effect on the wind pipe and
therefore the lungs the enemy will defeat the folks of a rustic while not
firing an effort by creating them represent drug taking habits. one thing of this sort had happened in China
wherever the western folks had smartly created Chinese controlled substance
addicts. The china revolution brought all
controlled substance taking to a finish. It’s
aforementioned that terrorists are causation medication to Siam and Malaya from
the Golden triangle. Whereas the terrorist gain cash from drug
importation they conjointly arrange to destroy the societies of the countries
finally to overpower them.
Therefore drug trafficking is connected with international politics. Most countries are attempting to ascertain the
employment of medication. We
have a tendency to be attempting to prevent the importation of medication from
Afghanistan and their despatch to alternative countries from here, there are
serious penalisation for dealers in medication. Siam
Malaysia the Philippines, Indonesia etc. are
co in operation to prevent the movment of medication. It’s
time the UNO organized a complete prohibition of medication with the
cooperation of all countries. A
minimum of within the field of medication there’s international agreement.

The main
drug-peddling point’s are set in areas of Raja Bazaar, Banni, Pirwadhai,
Sadiqabad and Chaklala theme III.
Cannabis (hashish) is that the least expensive of all narcotics and simply
obtainable within the Twin Cities at the speed of Rs20,000 per kg whereas hard
drug – a extremely habit-forming substance – is offered for Rs100 per dos

To a query, Dr
Ashraf aforementioned typically the narcotic substance is coupled to factors
like risk taking behaviours which may involve experimenting with narcotics,
smoking and alcohol, social isolation, the necessity to deal with unacquainted
with and disagreeable things, peer pressure (bad company), state, excessive pin
money by folks and lack of direction, the need for social acceptance, boredom,
curiosity, simply to feel sensible, weak spiritual beliefs and plenty of free
time at their disposal.

“While a
number of the physical effects of medication might sound nice, they are doing
not last long. many of us get depressed and begin feeling
sick shortly when being on medication, whereas the physical And sexual health
of addicts weaken thus speedily that a young man in his 30s seems like an
previous man of over sixty once on medication,” he added.

Drug dependency
has been modish for ages. Folks
are victimization medication to alleviate pain mitigate suffering and over come
back troubles, currently dependence has become quite common. In step with a result survey there are fourteen
million drug addicts in Asian country. The
key centres pf illicit controlled substance production are Turkey. Afghanistan and Asian country regarding seventy
one of hard drug consumed in U.S.A and Europe goes from these areas, hard drug
that is created from controlled substance is that the most habit-forming of
medication. Hard drug users become habit-forming at
intervals one week. It’s tragic that almost all of the hard
drug users are young. There are several reasons for its
prevalence in Asian country particularly in universities. The key reason is that the aftermath of afghan
War. Rather than Islamic Republic of Iran and
Afghanistan, Asian country has become the transit land. Some
students use hard drug to urge rif from depression. The
unhealthy in fluence of dangerous company in universities ANd schools may be an
alternative contributing cause there’s a misconceived notion that  norcotics increase physical power and energy. Than hard drug is that the drug that may be got
additional simply than John Barleycorn brew wine and alternative medication. Some folks use narcotics for a replacement
expertise and shortly they flip themselves into drug  addicts.

The government of
Pakistan is trying their best to stop the prevalence  narcotiics In Pakistan in universities. Cultivation and production of opium has been
stopped .Persuasive as well as coercive measures are
being adopted to stop the heroin 
business. Co-opration of other countries like U.S.A West
Germany ad Canada has been sought to counter its spread. Spreading
drug addiction is a challenge to us. The
parents should be alert and keep a close watch on their children. Children should be advised properly in this
matter, We should extend every help to the govrment for controlling this
dangerous activity.

For the interference and management of abuse, he
urged running campaigns through mass media, essay contests, lectures and
declamation contests in faculties, faculties and universities so as to form
awareness regarding the sick effects of addiction. The proof points to a pressing want of taking abuse terribly seriously,
and fogeys and lecturers at the side of government and public health agencies
ought to be tuned in to the rising epidemic of abuse among the Pakistani youth.

Dr Ashraf same efforts ought to be created to
manage tobacco smoking within the country, because it is that the entry to
abuse. “Parents ought to be open-eyed
and keep an eye fixed on the company/activities of their kids. they must keep their kids busy and encourage them
to mention their prayers often. He side that the
govt. ought to solve the state downside
within the country, as economic worries offer a fertile ground to a personal
for addiction.

“Free quit lines (telephone helpline providing
treatment for addiction and behavior change) for message services ought to be
created obtainable,” he same and side that the govt. ought to increase the amount of treatment and
rehabilitation centres for drug addicts. Moreover, services provided for drug dependence in numerous sectors
(government, NGOs, and private) got to be assessed for his or her quality,
effectiveness and potency in providing a time of care and meeting the clients’
numerous wants, he said.

Students in Islamabad/Rawalpindi turning into drug
addicts

The Senate committee on Interior and Narcotics
management on Wed declared war against medication across Pakistan whereas
expressing deep concern over reports of multiplied use of medicine by students
in faculties of national capital having made family background.

Drugs dependence has been in

“Hundreds of individuals die on a daily basis
within the country attributable to drug-related complications. I declare war on medication and charm to the
soldiers, the civil society, politicians and media to play their due role for
welfare of these tormented by addiction and facilitate save our returning
generations,” leader same. He needed that
everyone tv channels ought to devote zero.5 % of air time to lift awareness on devastating effects caused of
addiction.

Malik was of the read that drug business had a
significant role in promoting coercion. He same Asian nation
and Asian country were concerned in spreading medication. He same baleful state of affairs of addiction
couldn’t be tolerated any longer. The meeting was told
that Asian nation was the highest drug-producing nation, however the US and
Europe had their eyes shut on this bitter reality. Moreover, he said, forty % of all medication returning from Asian
nation routed through Pakistan onward to different countries.

The committee can lead a campaign against
medication, a walk against medication are control at Constitution Avenue and
media and civil society and NGOs are appealed to participate in campaign
against medication. “It could be a time to require
robust action against drug dealers across the country, agencies should
establish black sheep among themselves United Nations agency are abetting
medication smugglers and dealers,” he said.

“Drug is the maximum amount dangerous the maximum
amount coercion is and people managing medication are not any less dangerous
than terrorists,” he same and side that penalty should be multiplied and
necessary legislation was want of the hour. Leader appreciated chief ministers of all four provinces and
enforcement agencies for maintaining peace throughout Muharram across the
country. He same efforts and sacrifices of our
security agencies are extremely considerable and much-admirable and cannot go
waste.

“Keeping visible the baleful state of affairs of
addiction, significantly among the scholars, the committee chairman declared
war on medication that was totally supported by the committee. He same Asian nation on one hand is supply death
in form of coercion and on the opposite hand together with Asian country it’s
concerned in spreading of medicine. Expressing grave
issues over the availability of medicine in esteemed instructional
establishments within the capital town, Rehman leader same that strict action
to be taken against those faculties and house owners wherever medication are
being provided simply.

In this scenery, the committee counseled that
additional strict measures be taken by the govt. and strict legislation ought to be enacted during this regard. Leader planned that it ought to be created
obligatory for each public and personal faculty, school and university to own a
drug take a look at of each student a minimum of double a year and therefore
the report ought to be checked by the ANF.

Senators Shahi Syed, Chaudhry Tanvir Khan, Syed
Shibli Faraz, Mukhtar Ahmed Dhamra, Muhammad Saleh Shah of Iran, Talha Mehmood,
senior officers of the Ministry of Interior and Narcotics management, ANF and
national capital Police attended the meeting.

Survey knowledge on drug use in Pakistan

Every year a minimum of fifty,0000 additional folks
become addicted to completely different styles of medication in
{pakistan|Pakistan|Islamic Republic of Pakistan|West Pakistan|Asian
country|Asian nation} (Ministry of Narcotics management Pakistan, 2012; The
specific apsis, 2012). the amount of drug
users in Pakistan has gone up from fifty,000 in 1980 to six.3 million in 2006 and eight.0million in 2012 (Ministry of Narcotics management Pakistan, 2012). It’s calculable that one in twenty eight adults in
Pakistan are captivated with medication (UNODC, 2013). Compared to the 1979s when there was virtually no heroin
use in Pakistan, the 1991s witnessed a growing heroin epidemic (Khawaja et. al., 1998). As a proportion of drug
abusers, heroin users increased from 7.5
% in 1983
to a shocking 52% in 1994 and 77% in 2006 (Anti-Narcotics Department Pakistan, 2006; UNODC, 2010). The Ministry of Narcotics
Control, Pakistan, the Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan, and the United Nations
Office on Drugs and Crime released a collaborative technical summary report
in 2013 on drug use in Pakistan.
This report confirmed that cannabis
is the drug most commonly used by Pakistanis aged 16 to 63 (3.5 per cent of the population, or
approximately four million people).
Opiate use (heroin or opium) is also widespread with one per cent of the
population (one million people) using it.
Similarly opioid-based
painkiller misuse is also high, involving 1.5 per cent of the
population, or nearly 1.8 million people (UNODC,
2012).
According to the National Drug Abuse Assessment 2006/07 survey, most of the opioid
users were multiple or poly drug users, i.e., they were using more than one
substance at a given time or during a day.
Therefore many opioid users were
using tranquilizers, antihistamines, and other opiates along with heroin as their
primary drug
of abuse

Drug addiction in female university students

47% of female drug addicts have university education: MNC Islamabad, Jan 11: Ministry of Narcotics management (MNC) organized
associate degree awareness workshop on habit amongst ladies on Tues in national
capital. The fundamental purpose of this coaching programme is to empower ladies
to fight addiction with success while not violating spiritual values. Director General coming up with and watching Unit Muhammad Shahid
discovered that girl’s addiction in our country has augmented alarmingly.

CONCLUSION

Substance abuse and
use of alcohol are the fundamental perplexity of today’s health problems among
younger population.Life of a student or a health care skilled will be terribly
nerve-wracking. Mild, moderate, and high levels of stress and even burnout are
reportable amongst students and health care professionals. The fundamental reason of the abuse that we’ve got understood from the
higher than survey is that the easy accessibility and availableness of drug
among the community. Lack of knowledge regarding the medicine and over use of drug could be
a common divisor to abuse drug among student. Peer pressure is
that the divisor among the coed as compares to non- student that will increase
the abuse of drug.

Academic stress was
known as a really necessary consider drug misuse. This illustrates the
pressure felt by the scholars to surpass in their studies, which might result
from too competitive environments or from terribly high expectations placed by
lecturers, family and friends(Wechsler, H).A aware effort has to
be created in assuaging this pressure the maximum amount as potential without
unduly decreasing the necessity felt by the scholars to check. The number and severity of stress seasoned by students could vary
according the settings of their curricula, analysis (examination) system etc. The necessary reasons for not indulgence in illicit substance use as
known by the scholars included faith and health risk. A private happiness
to an auxiliary family is a smaller amount probably to grant in to abuse as
compared to at least one returning from a strict family. Another horrendous
predisposing issue was accommodation of scholars in hostel. As a result of easy accessibility of medicine in hostel created student
a lot of prone towards this act.

The basic reason of
the abuse that we’ve got understood from the higher than survey is that the
easy accessibility and availableness of drug among the community. Lack of knowledge regarding the medicine and over use of drug could be
a common divisor to abuse drug among student. Peer pressure is
that the divisor among the coed as compares to nonstudent that will increase
the abuse of drug. Educational stress was known as a really necessary consider drug misuse. This illustrates the pressure felt by the scholars to surpass in their studies
that might result from too competitive environments or from terribly high
expectations placed by lecturers, family and friends (Wechsler, H).

A aware effort has to
be created in assuaging this pressure the maximum amount as potential while not
unduly decreasing the need felt by the scholars to check. The number and severity of stress seasoned by students could vary
according the settings of their curricula, evaluation (Examination) system etc. The necessary reasons for not indulgence in illicit substance use as
known by the scholar’s enclosed faith and health risk. a private happiness
to an auxiliary family is a smaller amount probably to grant in to abuse as Compared
to at least one returning from a strict family (S. Khalid et al). Another horrendous predisposing issue was accommodation of scholars in
hostel. Due to easy access of medicine in hostel created student a lot of prone
towards this act.

There is a perception
in Asian country regarding medicine and alcoholic abuse being a lot of common
and acceptable in stylish families. We have a tendency to found that
students belonging to personal school (which features a higher tuition fee) WHO
are probably to belong to wealthier and financially stable families had
experimented more with abuse and alcohol (Nazish at et al).There is still a clear stage of underreporting of habit in our study as
medicine and alcohol are thought of a taboo in Pakistani society. Our study intensity includes giant sample size and sensible response
rate, however still numerous restrictions have to be compelled to be planned. The study was tired simply four establishments therefore results might
not be calculate to any or all institutes. Therefore there’s
would like in future to analysis a lot of and notice a lot of detailed results
of this extremely extended issue.

 

 

 

 

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Emmanuel, F., Akhtar, S., &Rahbar, M. H. (2003). Factors associated with heroin
addiction among male adults in Lahore, Pakistan. Journal of psychoactive drugs,
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Foo, Y. C., Tam, C. L., & Lee, T. H. (2012). Family factors and peer influence
in drug abuse: a study in rehabilitation centre. International Journal of
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Gelder M, Mayou R, Cowen P: Misuse
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Imran, N., Haider, I. I., Bhatti, M. R., Sohail, A., & Zafar, M. (2012). Prevalence of Psychoactive
Drug Use Among Medical Students in Lahore. Annals of King Edward Medical
University, 17(4).

Khalid, S., Zaidi, W., & Ahmad, F. (2014). Evaluation of the
awareness and perception of professional students in medicine, business and law
schools of Karachi, regarding the use of (recreational) cannabis. Evaluation.

Shafiq, M., Shah, Z., Saleem, A., Siddiqi, M. T., Shaikh, K. S., Salahuddin, F. F., & Naqvi, H. (2006). Perceptions of Pakistani
medical students about drugs and alcohol: a questionnaire-based survey. Substance abuse
treatment, prevention, and policy, 1(1), 31.

Wechsler, H., Kuo, M., Lee, H., & Dowdall, G. W. (2000). Environmental correlates of
underage alcohol use and related problems of college students. American journal of
preventive medicine, 19(1), 24-29.

 

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