Social mobility can be defined as the ability to navigate between different roles in society and can increase or decrease your value within a specific social group. Education is an institution that provides critical thinking and knowledge that often gives people the ability to move from one social group to the next. Education is what allows people to easily move to a specific social group. When a person works for a company, they may only be able to have a specific job that could be seen as lower. Getting an education would increase chances of promotion and moving to a higher place in society such as managerial or even CEO. Education allows people to be mobile in their place in society.
FPU offers people to be able to move socially through offering degrees in a city that thrives on diversity. They also offer scholarships to students who are first generation within their families. FPU allows students to study and get degrees in a field that would increase chances of hiring, promotion, and changing their position in society to a college graduate. When first generation students graduate from college, they are able to get better jobs than other family members and can provide financial support. Usually first generation students do not have a lot of money because their parents did not have high paying jobs. By getting a degree, students at FPU can be a more contributing member of society with more skills and experience in the professional world.
One social inequality first generation students face is that their parents may have lower wage than other student’s parents paying for college. Many students have parents who have higher degrees that can afford to send their kids to FPU without loans. However, first generation students often lack funds and have to take out loans. This is inequality because each student should have equal opportunities in attending college without having to fear finances. Second, first generation students can be seen as lower class by others. Many people in this world are conceited and view lower income earners as not contributing to society. They don’t understand why a student should go through college when their families are poor. People also sometimes see low incomers as taking hand outs that they feel is unfair because it’s tax payers money. Lastly, first generation students face discrimination. Many universities may not even accept first generation students because they want students who come from wealthy families who will pay full tuition without scholarships and will donate money to the school. FPU is not one of those schools, but it does happen.
Education can really help first generation students be able to move socially through society by getting them better paying jobs as well as positions in society that increase social stratification.
2. Gender images is how people define what a specific gender should look like and act. For example, media, especially in commercials, tailor pink and dolls to girls while they promote sales of blue and green (manly colors) and dinosaurs and trucks to men. Sexism is established through enforcing these gender images on men and women. That men are seen as masculine and should be classified only in categories that demonstrate strength, while women are only allowed to identify with gentle categories of baking and sewing that classify women as gentle and not strong in society. Feminism is what women have been pushing to be allowed to classify themselves with characteristics, jobs, and politics that sexist people reserve for men. Equal representation in all fields.
Mass media often delivers gender images and roles through how they target commercials. Many times, companies will only target one audience for a specific product. For example, when selling kitchen products, they often show women in the kitchen using these products in order to reach out to what society views as women only characteristics. While when selling products like power tools, they will show men using these tools in the commercial. Especially in news with celebrities, they will show women being heavily scrutinized for what they wear because they are supposed to be the more conservative and gentler sex while praising men for hook ups and being shirtless because that is considered as achievements for men only.
Gender stereotypes can affect children in the worst possible ways. In terms of socialization, many parents will only let their daughters play with other girls because they do not want to allow their girls to play with boys or boy toys. You even see in places like Target where they have a girl section and a boy section for toys and clothes that push young kids into defining what they should and shouldn’t like based on their gender. Social institutions like children’s education push specific crafts onto kids they feel that their gender should enjoy. Girls will draw princesses and boys will draw dinosaurs. Parenting as an institution pushes kids into specific roles even during holidays like Halloween where they dress boys as doctors or military while girls are princesses or Little Bo Beep.
Gender images are widely enforced through mass media like advertisement for clothes costumes, or products. Sexists push kids into these categories because they do not want their daughters seen as boyish or their sons growing up and getting made fun of for being “girly.” This is why feminism was created. It allows for everyone to dress and feel and act however they want without getting scrutinized by society.
3. Race is described as a group of people whose ancestry come from a specific location in the world where physical and social characteristics of the group are similar. Ethnicity is different because it is the group you as a person identify with based a lot off of culture versus similar physical appearances and ancestry. Social stratification is how people are ranked in society. Many times people will be racist and rank people of different cultures and ethnic backgrounds as considered low. For example, often times in the US, people will consider African heritage or African Americans to be a lower status. Many times in history, Europeans were seen as the superior race regarding things like the Third Reich or the Scramble for Africa and unfortunately still today, the relationship between race and ethnicity and stratification is strong.
Cesar Chavez’s leadership style was based on uniformity and unification of those who were migrant workers, specifically of Hispanic descent. He was able to gain so much recognition and power through his non-violent social movements where all he simply asked for was respect for the workers with working conditions and wage. He never really was a political leader or was trying to change politics which is why people respected him so much because he respected others. He devised ways to get people’s attention by creating boycotts. He founded the National Farm Workers Association and boycotted the harvest of grapes. He wasn’t asking for power and neither were the grape pickers. They wanted respect and dignity which made it easier for people to agree on their terms because everyone in society deserves that.
Cesar Chavez was leading a reformative social movement and simply asking people to change their opinions about workers and to turn away from discrimination against Hispanic pickers. He created alternative social movements with unionizing workers while working towards one specific goal. He led grass root organizations that focused on policy within society versus policy within the government. However, his work did have an effect on government policy through his work not only with workers but with the LGBTQ+ community. He dedicated his life to changing others and people found respect within that. His work influenced many things such as literature, reduction of poverty, and acceptance for the LGBTQ+ community. He helped establish a law in California that was specifically tailored to unionize workers within the fields.
Chavez found hope for his race by pushing people to believe that Hispanic workers should be respected and treated equality to other races. He positively effected the social stratification of Hispanics through unionizing and boycotting peacefully. His work influenced California government policy as well as ignited good working conditions and wages for Hispanic pickers.
4. Religion is beliefs and values that are centered around the notion of holiness and sacredness. Social cohesion and social deviance both have relationships with religion based off of people’s perspective of what religion is. Social cohesion is how people form ties and relate to one another. Many people find religion and follow a specific one based off of the values and beliefs that religion holds. People will find religions that have similar minded people. Social deviance is going against society and religion is often used to help people conform to the positive and spiritual values of society.
Religion is a form of social cohesion because it creates a space for like minded people to interact. Many people have specific beliefs on marriage, sex, God, etc., and often want to find spaces where they feel like their values are validated. For example, many people feel sex should be saved for love and marriage and that there is a God. This would create a desire to want to interact with people who hold the same beliefs. People will then turn to the institution of Christianity and go to church services where they can learn more about their beliefs with fellow like minded individuals. Religion helps people form bonds and ties and create order and a functional society. Religion allows for organic relationships to form where each person feels there are contributing to their group through attending service or doing prayer.
Social deviance can also be a reason for religion being an institution. Many times those who break the law will be sentenced to do community service alongside religious affiliations. Often times people who do drugs will seek religion for help. Sometimes homophobic families will send their LGBTQ+ child to religious camps to “pray the gay away.” Often people who feel lost in the world will turn to religion to confess their sins and feel clean again. Often times, in prison, there are pastors or priests who help guide those who are socially deviant. Even in programs like Alcohol’s Anonymous there are spiritual implications of believing in God and giving your life to him.
Religion has a good relationship with both social cohesion and social deviance. It allows people to find someone to connect with on a spiritual level and to find those who share the same beliefs. Religion helps those who are struggling with social deviance by finding values and purpose in life. Often times those who are deviant have trouble with finding goals in life and purpose and religion gives people a reason to live and thrive.
5. Capitalism is a type of economic system that stems from an individualistic desire to self-satisfy. It derives from the belief of freedom for individuals to prosper and the goal to profit. Capitalism is highly business focused with privately owned businesses that often times are the major contributors to the health market. Many times, privately owned businesses are the ones that supply medicine to pharmacies and companies, and they raise the prices significantly where many people cannot even afford the medicine. Often times people do not have health insurance and they cannot pay the thousands of dollars medicine costs. Some people do have health insurance but through MediCare and they cannot even afford co-pays. Privately owned businesses are the fuels behind the health industry in society because its those businesses that raise prices to maximize their own individual economic goals instead of helping people.
Health is a commercial product in the health care system because it has become less of a necessity and more of a “you only get it if you can afford it.” In European countries health and education are consider rights whereas in the US with a capitalist economy, health is considered a privilege to gets sold to you. People in the US have to get approval for specific health insurance, pay premiums, and have to pay for every surgery, medication, and appointment they go to. This has made the health system be more like a business with consumers versus something that people need to survive. Many people will lose their health insurance when they lose their jobs which truly shows that the health markets are for profit and not for helping people who are ill. Capitalism has allowed health to be a product that can be taken away very easily.
There are many social inequalities within the health care system in the US. The first one is that not everyone has access to the same benefits. People who don’t have jobs can only rely on MediCare which is the bare minimum of health care provisions while those who have jobs get private health care. Even then, some businesses will only offer certain services like general health care and dentistry. Many people who have jobs won’t even get optometry or a chiropractor and some do. It really depends on the company and the job you have and lots of people won’t even get specific benefits from government funded health care. Another inequality is how people who are incarcerated are treated with healthcare versus those who receive healthcare from the state. People who are incarcerated receive significantly better healthcare than those who are tax payers. This shows a huge inequality between those who financially paid for healthcare and those who are getting it for free. Everyone deserves healthcare but many people are committing petty crimes to receive better healthcare within the prisons because of the lack of healthcare benefits within the state. People who are incarcerated have to receive healthcare because they are under the care of the state, yet many people who are contributing members of society suffer. Lastly, healthcare has inequality because of Obamacare. Under Obamacare, people are fined if they do not have health insurance which demonstrates inequality for those who can afford it and those who cannot. Many people do not have access to be qualified under Minimum Essential Coverage and therefore have to pay fines which demonstrates how our system is so capitalist. It’s all about money and not everyone has that. Obamacare fines people for basically not having money which sows the inequality of our wage gap and our health system.
Healthcare is based off of America’s capitalist economic system where the goal is for businesses to benefit off of people who cannot afford health insurance which has lead to so much inequality for tax payers, those who have no jobs, and those who cannot find health insurance.