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Social service professionals are more frequently identifying children who witness adult domestic violence as victims of that abuse. This article expands common definitions of how children witness adult domestic violence. A total of 31 research articles that met established quality criteria were included in this review. A variety of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive-functioning problems among children were found to be associated with exposure to domestic violence. Factors that appear to moderate the impact of witnessing violence—such as whether the child was also abused, child gender and age, and the time since last exposure to violence—were identified. Concerns about research methodology used in this area of research and the application of this knowledge also are raised.Achenbach, T. M. , & Edelbrock, C. (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry. Google ScholarAdamson, L. A. , & Thompson, R. A. (1998). Coping with interparental verbal conflict by children exposed to spouse abuse and children from nonviolent homes. Journal of Family Violence, 13, 213-232. Google Scholar, CrossrefCarlson, B. E. (1984). Children’s observations of interparental violence. In A. R. Roberts (Ed.), Battered women and their families (pp. 147-167). New York: Springer. Google ScholarCarlson, B. E. (1991). Outcomes of physical abuse and observation of marital violence among adolescents in placement. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 526-534. Google Scholar, LinkDavidson, T. (1977). Wifebeating: A recurring phenomenon throughout history. In M. Roy (Ed.), Battered women (pp. 2-23). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Google ScholarDobash, R. E. , & Dobash, R. P. (1979). Violence against wives. New York: Free Press. Google ScholarEdleson, J. L. (1991). Social workers’ intervention in woman abuse: 1907 to 1945. Social Service Review, 65, 304-313. Google Scholar, CrossrefElbow, M. (1982). Children of violent marriages: The forgotten victims. Social Casework, 63, 465-471. Google ScholarFantuzzo, J. W. , & Lindquist, C. U. (1989). The effects of observing conjugal violence on children: A review and analysis of research methodology. Journal of Family Violence, 4, 77-94. Google Scholar, CrossrefFantuzzo, J. W. , Boruch, R., Abdullahi, B., Atkins, M., & Marcus, S. (1997). Domestic violence and children: Prevalence and risk in five major U.S. cities. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 116-122. Google Scholar, Crossref, MedlineFantuzzo, J. W. , DePaola, L. M., Lambert, L., Martino, T., Anderson, G., & Sutton, S. (1991). Effects of interparental violence on the psychological adjustment and competencies of young children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 258-265. Google Scholar, Crossref, MedlineFolkman, S. , & Lazarus, R. S. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 219-239. Google Scholar, Crossref, Medline

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