Science through the theories and hypothesis. This is also

Science examines reality in an objective way by drawing conclusions from the collected evidence or observation. Scientist uses two different methods to understand a problem when conducting an experiment. One of the methods used by scientist is inductive reasoning which draws general principles from specific instances. It is usually contrasted with deductive reasoning whereby it draws specific conclusions from general principles or premises. A premise is a previous statement or proposition from which another is inferred or follows as a conclusion. Inductive reasoning starts off with real-life examples of observations and trends which will then progress to generalisations and theories. This method also called as the bottom-up approach as it starts with specific events and then it works its way up to the abstract level of theory. Through this, scientists will identify a pattern or trend of the cumulative data, which then they will be able to come up with a hypothesis to test out and finally come up with a conclusion or theory. For example, P1: Swans in Lake A is white, P2: Swans in Lake B is white, C: All swans are white in colour. Looking at the example, both the premise supports the final conclusion in a well manner, but it is not necessarily true as what has been observed might not have been valid due to the limited number of observations. Unlike inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning begins with theories and hypothesis. Scientists will then conduct experiments to test whether specific cases can be proven true through the theories and hypothesis. This is also known as the top-down approach as the process goes from the theory (the general) to the observations (the specific). During a scientific process, to reach a logical conclusion, scientist would apply deductive reasoning. It also relies heavily on the initial premises being correct as if one or more premises are false, the argument will be invalid. Deductive conclusions are sure to be correct, provided that all the premises stated are true. However, if the generalisation is wrong, the conclusion may be untrue as the original premise is false. One example of a deductive reasoning is, P1: All mammals have a backbone or a spine, P2: A dog is a mammal, C: Therefore, a dog has a backbone or a spine.


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