Schizophrenia own information that can be found in the

Schizophrenia is a disorder affecting how a person feels, thinks and acts. As a result from the alteration of a persons’ thinking, schizophrenia produces changes in the behavior both positive and negative. Schizophrenia affects grownups before they reach their maturity age (Lieberman, Stroup, McEvoy, Swartz, Rosenheck, Perkins & Hsiao, 2005). Schizophrenia is associated with the failure of the brain cells which leads to a broken coordination of the cells in the brain therefore creating the brain to work unproductively. Schizophrenia affects brain functioning which means it also affects the organs in the brain, for instance, the hippocampus is an organ whose job is to control thinking such as planning and remembering (Lehman, Lieberman, Dixon, McGlashan, miller, Perkins & Kreyenbuhl, 2004). Therefore, people who have develop schizophrenia go through changes in their behavior due to the reactions being controlled by the brain.

Mental disorder come with different symptoms that categorize one another but in a lot of cases there are some mental disorders that demonstrate the same or similar symptoms. An example of two disorders that share the same symptoms are people with schizophrenia and Alzheimer because they both have difficulties to plan, think and remember (Lacro, Dunn, Dolder, Leckband & Jeste, 2002). In order to differentiate the traits of a particular disorder, each mental disorder has its own information that can be found in the diagnostic and statistical manual which is in charge of providing guidelines. As stated in the diagnostic and statistical manual schizophrenia has both positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms are thoughts, behaviors, or sensory perceptions present in a person with a mental disorder, but not present in people in the normal population. Schizophrenia’s positive symptoms are going to help a person acquire new traits (Elkis, 2007). Schizophrenia’s positive traits includes delusions which are beliefs of something occurring whether is real or not. Hallucinations are also a positive symptom of this disorder which involves the perception of something being there when in reality it is not present. In the manual, it is also stated that another positive symptom for schizophrenia is disorganized speech. Besides having positive symptoms, schizophrenia also has negative symptoms well. One negative symptom presented in schizophrenia is the devastation of a person’s emotions. Also, another negative symptom is a person who has this disorder lacks emotions, even when it is expected to show and get emotional (Lieberman, 2004).

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The diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorder criterion for the schizophrenia disorder says that a person with this disorder is prone to stop the interaction with people he or she used to interact before developing the disorder. Also, in the manual it is also stated schizophrenia symptoms are presented six months minimum if no treatment is provided to the patient. If the proper treatment is provided such as antipsychotic medicine, the patients symptoms could last less than a month or in some cases less than a month (Egan, Goldberg, Kolachana, Callicott, Mazzanti, Straub & Weinberger, 2001). According to the criterion, going through mood disorders are not a particular signal of a person having schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia is associated with genetic mutations. Research demonstrates that a high percentage of patients with schizophrenia have genetic mutation (Elkis, 2007). In accordance to all the percentages and studies it has led to schizophrenia being connected with genes. There is no knowledge yet that that a particular gene itself is in charge of causing schizophrenia (Egan, Goldberg, Kolachana, Callicott, Mazzanti, Straub & Weinberger, 2001). Since schizophrenia is connected to genes this means that people who have a family member with this disorder are likely to develop schizophrenia. Scientists stated that twins are the most probable of developing schizophrenia with a fifty percent chance. First and second degree family members have a high percentage of developing schizophrenia (Lehman, Lieberman, Dixon, McGlashan, miller, Perkins & Kreyenbuhl, 2004).

Schizophrenia is also caused by the variance of chemicals that are being developed in the brain (Lacro, Dunn, Dolder, Leckband & Jeste (2002). Research and studies have demonstrated that the variance of chemicals in the brain creates reactions affecting brain organs. Hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are some of the brain organs that are affected by the reactions leading to schizophrenia (Lehman, Lieberman, Dixon, McGlashan, miller, Perkins & Kreyenbuhl, 2004). Apart from genetic, schizophrenia development it is also linked to environmental factors for example drug abuse and other substances. Drug and other toxic substances produce chemicals that could produce a chemical reaction affecting the organs in the brain.

The behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia could be typical behaviors, specific physical observations of a person’s conduct can not been displayed if they have or not schizophrenia (Lehman, Lieberman, Dixon, McGlashan, miller, Perkins & Kreyenbuhl, 2004). A person who is a suspect of having schizophrenia needs to undergo through screening to reveal the causes of schizophrenia. To determine if a person has this disorder laboratory test might be conducted. A mental health provider could conduct a psychological evaluation in order to make a diagnosis if a person has schizophrenia (Lieberman, 2004). The doctor in charge of conducting the examination could ask the patient a set of specific questions in order to come to a conclusion. It is recommended to a person who has might have schizophrenia to undergo through clinical tests conducted by a psychiatrist. It is extremely important to look for psychiatric help since it is challenging to put apart schizophrenia from other complications that come with it. Complications such as depression and drug and substance abuse that does not mean that a person has schizophrenia (Lieberman, 2004).

If a person with schizophrenia gets treatments at the early stages, treatments is more effective and easy. Research and studies demonstrates that it is easier to treat schizophrenia during the first stages due to the disorder developing it produces brain damages that become more difficult to treat through development. The usage of antipsychotic is the most used and popular treatment since it helps reducing psychotic symptoms. Prior to giving medical prescription to this medicine, a psychiatrist should conduct various test and be completely sure the patient has schizophrenia. If making the wrong diagnostic and consuming antipsychotics it could create brain damage. In addition to taking antipsychotic medication, schizophrenia patients could also undergo psychosocial treatment. Psychosocial treatment helps to communicate and interact with other people.

Schizophrenia studies have stated that this disorder is affecting people from all ages even elder people. Most of the people with schizophrenia in the United States are elder people. It is known that one of the main challenges for people around schizophrenia victims is that they require a lot of attention, care and spend a lot of money to live and take care of them.  Scientists have given a specific gene that causes schizophrenia, but it has not been confirmed, it is still under research (Lieberman, 2004). Even though this disorder affects people of all ages and sexes, there is treatment and a lot of information given to people in order to get better and live to their fullest potential.






Lacro, J. P., Dunn, L. B., Dolder, C. R., Leckband, S. G., & Jeste, D. V. (2002). Prevalence of and risk factors for medication nonadherence in patients with schizophrenia: a comprehensive review of recent literature. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 63(10), 892-909.

Lieberman, J. A., Stroup, T. S., McEvoy, J. P., Swartz, M. S., Rosenheck, R. A., Perkins, D. O., … & Hsiao, J. K. (2005). Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(12), 1209-1223.

Lehman, A. F., Lieberman, J. A., Dixon, L. B., McGlashan, T. H., Miller, A. L., Perkins, D. O., & Kreyenbuhl, J. (2004). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. The American journal of psychiatry, 161(2 Suppl), 1-56.

Kirch, D. G. (2003). Infection and autoimmunity as etiologic factors in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19(2), 355-370.

Egan, M. F., Goldberg, T. E., Kolachana, B. S., Callicott, J. H., Mazzanti, C. M., Straub, R. E., … & Weinberger, D. R. (2001). Effect of COMT Val108/158 Met genotype on frontal lobe function and risk for schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(12), 6917-6922.

Elkis, H. (2007). Treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 30(3), 511-533.

Lindenmayer, J. P. (2000). Treatment refractory schizophrenia. Psychiatric Quarterly, 71(4), 373-384.

           Folsom, D. P., Lebowitz, B. D., Lindamer, L. A., Palmer, B. W., Patterson, T. L., & Jeste, D. V.          (2006). Schizophrenia in late life: emerging issue


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