SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITYSchool of Teacher Education and Liberal Arts Score: School Year 2017-2018 Evaluating Leaders and their Contributions Using the Classical andModern Ethical Perspectives in Governance Submitted by: 2156925Cael, Japhet M. BA Political Science III 09101163927 [email protected] 1:00 – 2:00 MWF Submitted to:Mr. Emmanuel J.
Bacud, CSE, MA Pol [email protected] I. EvaluatingLeaders and their Contributions Using the Classical and Modern EthicalPerspectives in Governance Classical Perspective Modern Perspective Deontological Ethics (KANT) WEBERS’S POLITICS AS A VOCATION Jesse Robredo & The Transformation of Naga According (Jr., n.d.), Jesse Robredo is known as the “Matino (sensible), Mahusay (competent), Matapat (honest)” leader which was the three pillars of a public servant that people must possess. In relation to Kantian Ethics which a leader must be duty bounded which is a moral action and the reasoning is embedded duty.
In addition, Jesse Robredo as seen in his Tsinelas’ leadership where his life in public service, as Naga mayor and DILG secretary, is featured. From our discussion the command of will of Kant Ethics is that as a leader, it is a must to consider duty as moral obligation to the public and must do this obligation because it is a must without expecting anything in return. Jesse Robredo received the 2000 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Government Service and earned the good governance icon for his innovations in making the city government of Naga transparent and accessible to its constituency, which national and international institutions, like the United Nations, had recognized several times (Jr., n.
d.). This is the very notion of or the aim of the virtue of “ira et studium” (to be passionate) and sense of proportion and avoidance of “vanity”.
The “Ethics of Responsibility” as considering the task as a calling and needs to be done from the heart. Utilitarianism Transactional Leadership Carlos P. Garcia & the Filipino First Policy The condition of the Philippines before the administration of Garcia was the Philippines is just recovering from the after effects of World War 2, with this the Philippines experienced several economic challenges (Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961), n.
d.). In this situation of the country, The Filipino First Policy of Carlos P.
Garcia had helped the Filipinos especially the local businessmen to be a priority over foreign investors. It also gives a high sense of nationalism since products of Filipino businessmen were preferred over foreign products (Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961), n.d.). The goal of late president Garcia was in lined with the maximizing the citizen’s pleasure and minimizing the pain but the fact that this policy had some issues and controversies because it had not helped all the Filipino people thereby it is not very successful. Although at some point it still helped at decreasing the pain that the Filipinos were suffering at that time. President Carlos p.
Garcia was criticized for his lack of program for the Filipino common man or the masses which was the focus of the next president Macapagal thereby losing on the next election (Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961), n.d.). In this sense, it implies that at first the goal was to benefit the businessmen of the Philippines in return without expecting anything in return but it became a transactional leadership because the masses were not affected and since he is the president it is his duty to make the life of the people became better or develop the way of lifestyle. DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS UNDP’s PRINCIPLES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE Benigno Simeon Aquino III & 4Ps The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a human development measure of the national government that provides conditional cash grants to the poorest of the poor, to improve the health, nutrition, and the education of children aged 0-18. It is patterned after the conditional cash transfer (CCT) schemes in Latin American and African countries, which have lifted millions of people around the world from poverty (Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program | GOVPH, n.d.
). President Benigno Simeon Aquino as a head proponent of the 4P’s which became the country’s government largest poverty reduction measure in reducing the ranks of the poor in the country was an evidence to say that the king of leadership that Benigno Simeon Aquino III was an example of command of will considering his duty as a moral obligation in helping the students and citizens of the country. The 4Ps operates in all the 17 regions in the Philippines, covering 79 provinces, 143 cities, and 1,484 municipalities. Beneficiaries are selected through the National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction (NHTS-PR), which identifies who and where the poor are in the country (Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program | GOVPH, n.d.). The 4P’s is open to all citizens who are qualified or those people who really are in need of assistance thereby in line with the 1997 UNDP policy document entitled “Governance for Sustainable Human Development” which also aimed in poverty eradication and help countries in making human sustainable. Utilitarian THE CRITICAL THEORY Fidel V.
Ramos & Pilipinas 2000 The Philippines 2000 platform largely hinged on five major areas: Ø Peace and Stability Ø Economic Growth and Sustainable Development Ø Energy and Power Generation Ø Environmental Protection Ø Streamlined Bureaucracy (Jordan, n.d.) Due to his economic programs and accomplishments, Newsweek Magazine, cited the Philippines as the “The Next Tiger of Asia.” (PHILIPPINES 2000 – A VISION LEFT NOT ATTAINED?, n.d.). The development that was done by President Fidel V. Ramos helped the citizens of the country in resolving economic problems like the power crisis through privatization of power plants and the construction of new ones that spurred additional investment into the country during his term (PHILIPPINES 2000 – A VISION LEFT NOT ATTAINED?, n.
d.). This makes it utilitarian in nature since President Fidel V. Ramos and his program of Pilipinas 2000 aimed at developing the lives of the people and minimizing the pain that they are experiencing. Through the collaborative effort among people of the Philippines with the Pilipinas 2000 had helped and solved the nationwide problem of widespread brownouts due to huge demand for electricity and antiquity of power plants through a communication free from domination which resulted to the rationalization of society and its development. IN addition, President Ramos implement economic reforms intended to open up the once-closed national economy, encourage private enterprise, invite more foreign and domestic investment, and reduce corruption in the country that benefited and promoted the common good of all (PHILIPPINES 2000 – A VISION LEFT NOT ATTAINED?, n.
d.). Virtue Ethics UNDP’s PRINCIPLES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE Rodrigo R. Duterte & TRAIN Law The 2018 national budget would support infrastructure development and free education in state universities and colleges, universal health care, free irrigation, and the maintenance of peace and order across the country – and would fulfill the President’s campaign promise of doubling the pay soldiers and police officers (Duterte: 2018 budget, TRAIN govt’s biggest Christmas gift to Filipinos, n.d.).
President Rodrigo Roa Duterte having the ethics of virtue in governing the state. Like PLATO: A leader should have the “utmost” level of wisdom (highly-knowledgeable) in governing the state. Pres. Rodrigo had envisioned and come up with a viable solution in making the country better through its TRAIN law. The elements of good governance: 1-Particpation (Participatory Governance) 2- Rule of Law (Just society) 3-Transparency 4-Responsiveness 5- Consensus-Orientation 6-Equity 7- Effectiveness and Efficiency 8- Accountability 9- Strategic Vision Led to the coming up of TRAIN law of our current president. Deontological THE CRITICAL THEORY AND GOVERNANCE H. Gualberto & the making of “PEOPLE’S CITY OF SAN FERNANDO (La Union) Under the leadership of Mayor Hermenegildo “Dong” Gualberto, the City Government of San Fernando signed a Memorandum of Agreement with the Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) last December 5, 2017 for the construction of high speed broadband infrastructure along the seawaters of the City (Beleo, n.d.
) The city of San Fernando had made an astonishing development in their region with the guidance and leadership of the mayor. The “Pantay-pantay, Sabay-sabay “ideology of the mayor created a good cooperation with the people. In this sense, the leadership style was duty bounded and moral obligation to the people was done. “Pantay-pantay” “Sabay-sabay” The theory of Mayor Hermenegildo “Dong” Gualberto made his region a remarkable one in the country. With the collaborative effort among the people of San Fernando which resulted to the development of the place and the betterment of the citizen.
Utilitarian TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP Arthur & PUV Modernization Program The Public Vehicle modernization program which is designed to make public utility vehicles safer, more convenient, more comfortable, and environment-friendly had been launched for the safety and accommodating commuting services will be offered to the public. The new vehicles will be equipped with GPS and CCTVs to monitor both drivers and passengers. They’ll also have speed limiters, and safety officers will be assigned. The entire public transport network promises to be expanded and planned out better, plus the new vehicles will have easier access for PWDs and those with limited mobility. In addition, it will also benefit the drivers since they will be getting monthly salaries and benefits. Reduced working hours, and be given opportunities to take part in government-sponsored driving training programs.
The local manufacturers will have better access to credit for the costs of operations and maintenance. The loan also provides program promises like low equity, low interest rates, and longer payment periods (What you need to know about the PUV modernization program, n.d.). In this leadership style and governance, it is very Utilitarian because it aims at the common good of all but it is a long-term process since the short term is not that good. Our environment will be more save and have a better feeling and the consumers and producers too will benefit. The utilization of reward that the citizens of the country will be receiving after the PUV modernization program was launch will be a long-term process but it is very worthful and it will benefit masses. The punishment among people that they are experiencing right now will be short-while only since it will not be long the condition will become better.
It is just like accepting a new technology that will make the life of people became better. This is at first it will be hard but soon enough it will be good. Deontological WEBERS’S POLITICS AS A VOCATION J. Garin’s & Dengvaxia Vaccine Implementation Health Secretary Janette P. Loreto-Garin is a physician and was a state legislator for 9 years, shepherding the Magna Carta for Women, Cheaper Medicines Law, and the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Law among many others (Dr. Janette P.
Loreto-Garin | Department of Health website, n.d.). Former Health Secretary Janette Garin said the Philippines participated in all three phases of the vaccine’s clinical development with subjects from Cebu and several areas in Metro Manila. The vaccine resulted from more than a decade of “efficacy and safety studies” in 10 countries, involving more than 30,000 children, according to the Department of Health (DOH). In April 2016, the DOH launched the program, providing free vaccines to selected Grade 4 public school pupils in three regions with the highest number of dengue cases—Metro Manila, Central Luzon and Calabarzon. (Inquirer, n.d.
). Sanofi itself made the announcement in a statement released on Wednesday, November 29, after new analysis of 6 years’ worth of clinical data. “The analysis confirmed that Dengvaxia provides persistent protective benefit against dengue fever in those who had prior infection. For those not previously infected by dengue virus, however, the analysis found that in the longer term, more cases of severe disease could occur following vaccination upon a subsequent dengue infection,” said Sanofi. The pharmaceutical company will now propose to national regulatory agencies to update the vaccine’s label. Dengvaxia will no longer be recommended for people who have not been infected by dengue before. (Dengue vaccine more risky for people without prior infection – Sanofi, n.d.
). Now the implementation becomes very controversial and a hot topic in the country on who really had a mistake on the implementation of the Dengvaxia Vaccine. I believe that it is a Deontological since Jannette Garin being the head was doing its duty in what he thinks is good and promotes the common interest of the people. The Ethics of Ultimate Ends as living off Politics as Source of income is now becoming a synonymous of what had happened or what is happening to Janette Garin today. The question of did she do her job or she is just doing because someone told to do so and in return for something else. II. DiscussionsTheactivity that was done is very challenging since it makes us students reallyread and understand what we are doing. In addition, we are being trained to dothe right thing of not having our paper plagiarized therefore most of my ideascome from the internet sources and citation was made eventually.
Inaddition, I am also constantly changing my attitude and character since thepast subjects that I encounter in not the same in the subject or ways ofteaching that I am encountering now.Theactivity was really updating since the leaders that was evaluated are the inthe list of controversial people and a hot topic in politics, making usstudents become more informed and knowledgeable in what is happening in our country.III. Citations References Beleo, E. (n.d.). San Fernando City La Union Web Portal.
Retrieved from Sanfernandocity.gov.ph: http://www.sanfernandocity.gov.ph/ Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961). (n.
d.). Retrieved from Philippine Presidents: https://bloomspresidents.wordpress.com/carlos-p-garcia-1957-1961/ Dengue vaccine more risky for people without prior infection – Sanofi. (n.d.).
Retrieved from Rappler: https://www.rappler.com/science-nature/life-health/189968-dengvaxia-dengue-fever-vaccine-infection-sanofi-report Dr.
Janette P. Loreto-Garin | Department of Health website. (n.d.).
Retrieved from Doh.gov.ph: http://www.doh.
gov.ph/node/1825 Duterte: 2018 budget, TRAIN govt’s biggest Christmas gift to Filipinos. (n.d.
). Retrieved from cnn: http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2017/12/19/duterte-2018-general-appropriations-act-tax-reform-for-acceleration-and-inclusion-act-signed.html Inquirer, P.
(n.d.). WHAT WENT BEFORE: Dengue vaccine.
Retrieved from Newsinfo.inquirer.net: http://newsinfo.inquirer.
net/949205/philippine-news-updates-dengue-vaccines-department-of-health-dengue-immunization-program-dengvaxia Jordan, A. (n.d.). “The Plan for the Future of the Philippines”. Retrieved from Antonmigueljordan.blogspot.
com: http://antonmigueljordan.blogspot.com/2013/02/the-plan-for-future-of-philippines.html Jr.
, J. (n.d.). Museum for Naga City’s beloved son rises on playground. Retrieved from Newsinfo.
net/923645/museum-for-naga-citys-beloved-son-rises-on-playground Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program | GOVPH. (n.d.). Retrieved from Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines: http://www.officialgazette.
gov.ph/programs/conditional-cash-transfer/ PHILIPPINES 2000 – A VISION LEFT NOT ATTAINED? (n.d.
). Retrieved from Storya-pilipinas.blogspot.
html What you need to know about the PUV modernization program. (n.d.). Retrieved from Top Gear Philippines: https://www.topgear.com.ph/news/motoring-news/puv-modernization-program-a00187-20170619