Roediger of humorous content. This made the audience feel

Roediger     Blackface performances are white performers covering their faces with black to resemble black men.  These shows portrayed the lives of black men in a degradingly humorous way.  These shows gained traction during the 1800’s after the civil war and had a big following by the white working class.  Roediger said that blackface performances express “the longings, fears, hopes and prejudices” that the working class wanted.  The Black face shows provided the stereotypes of life on plantations.  The actors really became consumed into their characters on stage that it was now part of their identity.  The shows were so popular because it provided an escape for the audience because the shows were full of humorous content.  This made the audience feel good about themselves because it portrayed the blacks in a worse light then themselves.  Minstrels stated that there performances were credible because they were students and friends of the African Americans.Roy Shuker’s     The core question addressed by Shakur is how meaning is produced in popular music. The question of meaning in rock cannot be read off purely at one level, be it that of the producers, the texts, or the audience.  It can only be answered by considering the nature of the production context and the audience.  Most importantly, the interrelationship of these factors.  The former tend to see the popular as something mass manufactured and marketed, largely foisted on a gullible public, and ideologically reinforcing the status quo and consumer capitalism. Feld    Appropriation is the theme of this reading, Appropriation is the action of taking something for one’s own use, typically without the owner’s permission.  Examples of appropriation in this reading that Feld touched base on would be like what happened with the Rolling Stones.  Mick Jagger and The Rolling Stones obviously contributed to the fame of Muddy Waters when they recorded his song “Mannish Boy” utilizing many aspects of his original, recorded performance style from the 1950s.  Jagger said that he idolized Muddy Waters and wanted to record great songs associated with him to draw attention to rock’s debt to blues.  Muddy Waters’s later recordings and performances of the tune incorporated a few Jaggerisms of vocal inflection, as well as some rock instrumental influences.Malone     Southern folk music has no singular origin.  In fact it has influences and it roots from multiple places.  The main influences are from the Africans and the Celtic music of the British isles.  They mixed in and influenced with other cultures that were inhabiting the south.  These included the Germans in central Texas and the Cajuns in Louisiana.  The religious music came from both southern African and white Americans; and was a big part of those communities.  During Slavery slaves would learn music from the hymnbooks, and eventually after it they would be composing songs for songbooks also they did compose gospel music during slavery.  This led to both whites and blacks liking compositions by each other. Davis    Davis explores many themes in “Used to Be Your Sweet Mama”, including sexual love, domestic violence, and travel as ubiquitous.  For Davis, the sexual imagery prominent in women’s blues was an expression of freedoms impossible during slavery.  Blues women articulated through song their individual emotional needs and desires.  Lyrics about violence against women abound in women’s blues.  In singing about the men who abused them, blues women made public statements of their private grievance.  These acts of public declaration are significant, for they boldly decried the male violence known so well by many black women and called upon the women, as Davis speculates, to develop.


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