Research question: How can young employees from Sheffield be
motivated in the workplace?
Often times the question arises: “What
motivates employees to do their work?” The answer to this question is very
difficult, but also very important. In relation with this I am interested in
how organizations motivate their human resources to achieve their goals and
what makes them the best. Organizations are in a continuous competition to
attract and retain the best human resources on the market. In order to preserve
them, organizations must find the best answer to the question above. Thus, they
need to find efficient and effective employee motivation methods that have
long-term results. These methods identify a developed and upgraded reward
management, talent management strategies or performance management strategies,
fair and non-discriminatory work. Thus, employee motivation becomes one of the
most important processes within organizations, which should not be ignored,
because it is one that could lead to high performance and increased fence to
meet organizational goals.
The most common typologies of motivation are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation:Intrinsic motivation is defined by Herzberg as “motivation through the work itself” and is felt by employees when they perceive their work as interesting, challenging, important, and involve responsibility. The intrinsic motivation arises when employees can enjoy autonomy, freedom to act and solve their own tasks, when they have the opportunity to unwind, develop their abilities, and when they are offered opportunities for promotion. The intrinsic reasons are well consolidated and time-resistant, being considered to generate performance.(Armstrong, 2005, p. 71).
motivation refers to what is done for employees in the sense of motivating
them. In this category it is found rewards like salary increases, recognition,
praise and promotion, benefits, but also to punishments such as disciplinary
warnings, salary retention or criticism. This type of motivation requires
constant consolidation and improvement to lead to performance (Armstrong, 2005, p. 71).
The two types of motivation cannot be substituted. In order
to have an ideal motivational impact, they should be complementary to each
other. Proper motivation will lead to high performance, but there may be
problems in over-empowering employees, which means that this phenomenon can
leads to anxiety and possibly cognitive impairment. Also, facing sub-motivation
will lead to carelessness in the work employees should perform. Therefore, in
order to achieve performance, an optimal level of motivation must be attained,
which lies between sub-motivation and over-motivation.(Latham, 2012, p. 130)
Patrick Forsyth is among the theorists who say that
“motivation is a key aspect of the manager position.” (Forsyth, 2006, p. 11) It can be noticed that the lack of motivation
of the employees can lead to lowering their involvement in solving the tasks,
which would lead to a decrease in the quality of work. On the other hand,
motivation can make work more enjoyable and can facilitate employee’s
Within organizations, the concept of
“motivational management” is more and more common. It is based on
management theories that are put into practice to lead to organizational
success, increase productivity and service quality. Managers often do not opt
for just one theory to create motivational strategies but they tend to use more.
Theories are diverse and can be approached easily such as X and Y theory of
motivation, expectation theory, equity theory and many others. (Hiam, 2003, pp. 146-147).
Some theorists believe that goal setting is closely related to the performance of the task. They state that specific and challenging goals, together with feedback, contribute to achieving performance. According to this theory, the main source of employee motivation is the desire to achieve organizational goals. Specific objectives lead to better performance and give employees feelings of pride and satisfaction. Another source of motivation is given by feedback, which is a means of gaining reputation and leading to greater professional satisfaction. The advantage of this theory lies in the fact that the motivation process by using it leads employees to perform tasks in a fast and efficient way. However, this theory has certain limits, such as the difficult and complex goals, which the employee does not have the capacity to solve, will lead to the impairment of his behavior and decrease in satisfaction (Lunenburg, 2011, pp. 1-6).
The research aim:
The aim of this research is to highlight the motivational
factors within the organizations. The research will identify different types of
motivation suitable for various categories of employees. The emphasis is on the
impact of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors, which causes
employees to opt for a particular job or to keep the current one.
– To identify the interconnection between
the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors.
– Identify what motivational factors
determine most the behavior of employees in the workplace.
– Identify why extrinsic motivational
factors may have a greater impact on employees.
For my research I believe is more suitable to
use a mixt-method design because it is focused on the connection between
variables. These variables will be analyzed to ensure the validity of data. The
data collection is standard which lead to the fact that the questions should be
written clearly to be understood by the participants and to make them give a
clear answer for the researcher. The research will be based on a sequential mixt method as the quantitative research will
be followed by the qualitative one in order to expand and add more understanding
and credibility to the results of the first one. As my research will be mostly
based on the quantitative method, I believe that is important to underline that
this method is usually associated with positivism, mainly when it is linked
data collection techniques. This type of research is commonly used with a
deductive approach, however I believe that my research fits better with
inductive approach, as it uses data to develop or test theory. (Saunders, et al., 2016)
To begin the research I will develop
some hypotheses that I would like to test with the help of data that I will
1. .The higher the number of benefits and compensations (external motivational
factors), the more an employee will be devoted to the job.
2. If the employee uses all the benefits offered by the company, then he will
be motivated to help in achieving the organizational goals.
3. Employees are mainly motivated by performance-based pay.
If employees are inclined towards
complex, challenging tasks, then they are motivated to have high performance.
Proposed data collection
a quantitative research it can be found one or more quantitative data
collection techniques. They are known as mono method quantitative study or
multi-method quantitative study. As some specialists state, for business and
management research is usually more useful to select multi-methods, as they can
provide more accurate and reliable data for analysis. (Saunders, et al., 2016)
One of the most used
data collection method for quantitative survey research is the questionnaire.
This is an easy way of collecting data because all the respondents have to
answer the same questions, giving effectiveness for the researcher. However,
they are not offering the most reliable data, as the respondents can see a
different meaning of the questions and provide “the wrong” answer. It is
advisable that the questionnaires to be used linked with interviews, which can
offer a deeper exploration of the answers. (Saunders, et al., 2016)
To minimize errors in data collection and analysis, I
believe that choosing a multi-method is the best option, as I want to use the questionnaire
linked with the interview. Thus, the large number of responses gathered from the
questionnaire will be completed with the details collected with the help of interviews.
Through the questionnaire I will get a realistic picture of
the importance of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors, more
precisely, the main factors that motivate individuals to behave in a certain
way in order to achieve their tasks or a company’s goals. The interviews will be
used as an additional method to ensure the reliability of the results obtained
through the questionnaires. This data collection will be a support for the
initial one that will be helpful in demonstrating the hypotheses.
I will choose my participants
within young employees and freshly graduates from Sheffield, both males and
females, as I believe they can provide the most appropriate answer for my
research question, being the fact that they know the best which are the
expectations on the labor market. I will use non-probability
sampling techniques with a predefined scope based on subjectivity. (Saunders, et al., 2016) Respondents will be chosen randomly by posting
the questionnaire in social media groups which are addressed to this category
of individuals. As about the respondents for the interview, they will be
selected among the individuals who responded to the questionnaire, after
analyzing the data provided by them.
I consider that the limitations
that I will face during my data collection will caused mostly by people’s
refusal to respond. Another problem can be the fact that the participants are
not honest, and by this means the results will not capture how companies work.