Research question: How can young employees from Sheffield bemotivated in the workplace?Introduction Often times the question arises: “Whatmotivates employees to do their work?” The answer to this question is verydifficult, but also very important. In relation with this I am interested inhow organizations motivate their human resources to achieve their goals andwhat makes them the best.
Organizations are in a continuous competition toattract and retain the best human resources on the market. In order to preservethem, organizations must find the best answer to the question above. Thus, theyneed to find efficient and effective employee motivation methods that havelong-term results. These methods identify a developed and upgraded rewardmanagement, talent management strategies or performance management strategies,fair and non-discriminatory work. Thus, employee motivation becomes one of themost important processes within organizations, which should not be ignored,because it is one that could lead to high performance and increased fence tomeet organizational goals.
Literature review The most common typologies of motivation are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation:Intrinsic motivation is defined by Herzberg as “motivation through the work itself” and is felt by employees when they perceive their work as interesting, challenging, important, and involve responsibility. The intrinsic motivation arises when employees can enjoy autonomy, freedom to act and solve their own tasks, when they have the opportunity to unwind, develop their abilities, and when they are offered opportunities for promotion. The intrinsic reasons are well consolidated and time-resistant, being considered to generate performance.(Armstrong, 2005, p. 71).Extrinsicmotivation refers to what is done for employees in the sense of motivatingthem. In this category it is found rewards like salary increases, recognition,praise and promotion, benefits, but also to punishments such as disciplinarywarnings, salary retention or criticism. This type of motivation requiresconstant consolidation and improvement to lead to performance (Armstrong, 2005, p.
71).The two types of motivation cannot be substituted. In orderto have an ideal motivational impact, they should be complementary to eachother. Proper motivation will lead to high performance, but there may beproblems in over-empowering employees, which means that this phenomenon canleads to anxiety and possibly cognitive impairment. Also, facing sub-motivationwill lead to carelessness in the work employees should perform. Therefore, inorder to achieve performance, an optimal level of motivation must be attained,which lies between sub-motivation and over-motivation.(Latham, 2012, p.
130)Patrick Forsyth is among the theorists who say that”motivation is a key aspect of the manager position.” (Forsyth, 2006, p. 11) It can be noticed that the lack of motivationof the employees can lead to lowering their involvement in solving the tasks,which would lead to a decrease in the quality of work.
On the other hand,motivation can make work more enjoyable and can facilitate employee’sdevelopment.Within organizations, the concept of”motivational management” is more and more common. It is based onmanagement theories that are put into practice to lead to organizationalsuccess, increase productivity and service quality. Managers often do not optfor just one theory to create motivational strategies but they tend to use more.Theories are diverse and can be approached easily such as X and Y theory ofmotivation, expectation theory, equity theory and many others.
(Hiam, 2003, pp. 146-147). Some theorists believe that goal setting is closely related to the performance of the task. They state that specific and challenging goals, together with feedback, contribute to achieving performance. According to this theory, the main source of employee motivation is the desire to achieve organizational goals. Specific objectives lead to better performance and give employees feelings of pride and satisfaction. Another source of motivation is given by feedback, which is a means of gaining reputation and leading to greater professional satisfaction. The advantage of this theory lies in the fact that the motivation process by using it leads employees to perform tasks in a fast and efficient way.
However, this theory has certain limits, such as the difficult and complex goals, which the employee does not have the capacity to solve, will lead to the impairment of his behavior and decrease in satisfaction (Lunenburg, 2011, pp. 1-6). Research aproach The research aim:The aim of this research is to highlight the motivationalfactors within the organizations.
The research will identify different types ofmotivation suitable for various categories of employees. The emphasis is on theimpact of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors, which causesemployees to opt for a particular job or to keep the current one.Objectives:- To identify the interconnection betweenthe intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors.
– Identify what motivational factorsdetermine most the behavior of employees in the workplace.- Identify why extrinsic motivationalfactors may have a greater impact on employees. For my research I believe is more suitable touse a mixt-method design because it is focused on the connection betweenvariables. These variables will be analyzed to ensure the validity of data. Thedata collection is standard which lead to the fact that the questions should bewritten clearly to be understood by the participants and to make them give aclear answer for the researcher. The research will be based on a sequential mixt method as the quantitative research willbe followed by the qualitative one in order to expand and add more understandingand credibility to the results of the first one. As my research will be mostlybased on the quantitative method, I believe that is important to underline thatthis method is usually associated with positivism, mainly when it is linkedwith structureddata collection techniques. This type of research is commonly used with adeductive approach, however I believe that my research fits better withinductive approach, as it uses data to develop or test theory.
(Saunders, et al., 2016)To begin the research I will developsome hypotheses that I would like to test with the help of data that I willcollect. 1. .The higher the number of benefits and compensations (external motivationalfactors), the more an employee will be devoted to the job.
2. If the employee uses all the benefits offered by the company, then he willbe motivated to help in achieving the organizational goals.3. Employees are mainly motivated by performance-based pay.4. If employees are inclined towardscomplex, challenging tasks, then they are motivated to have high performance. Proposed data collection Ina quantitative research it can be found one or more quantitative datacollection techniques.
They are known as mono method quantitative study ormulti-method quantitative study. As some specialists state, for business andmanagement research is usually more useful to select multi-methods, as they canprovide more accurate and reliable data for analysis. (Saunders, et al., 2016)One of the most useddata collection method for quantitative survey research is the questionnaire.This is an easy way of collecting data because all the respondents have toanswer the same questions, giving effectiveness for the researcher. However,they are not offering the most reliable data, as the respondents can see adifferent meaning of the questions and provide “the wrong” answer.
It isadvisable that the questionnaires to be used linked with interviews, which canoffer a deeper exploration of the answers. (Saunders, et al., 2016) To minimize errors in data collection and analysis, Ibelieve that choosing a multi-method is the best option, as I want to use the questionnairelinked with the interview. Thus, the large number of responses gathered from thequestionnaire will be completed with the details collected with the help of interviews.Through the questionnaire I will get a realistic picture ofthe importance of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors, moreprecisely, the main factors that motivate individuals to behave in a certainway in order to achieve their tasks or a company’s goals.
The interviews will beused as an additional method to ensure the reliability of the results obtainedthrough the questionnaires. This data collection will be a support for theinitial one that will be helpful in demonstrating the hypotheses. I will choose my participantswithin young employees and freshly graduates from Sheffield, both males andfemales, as I believe they can provide the most appropriate answer for myresearch question, being the fact that they know the best which are theexpectations on the labor market. I will use non-probabilitysampling techniques with a predefined scope based on subjectivity.
(Saunders, et al., 2016) Respondents will be chosen randomly by postingthe questionnaire in social media groups which are addressed to this categoryof individuals. As about the respondents for the interview, they will beselected among the individuals who responded to the questionnaire, afteranalyzing the data provided by them.I consider that the limitationsthat I will face during my data collection will caused mostly by people’srefusal to respond. Another problem can be the fact that the participants arenot honest, and by this means the results will not capture how companies work.