quite to F, and 0 to 100%. Equal intervals

quite significantly impeded by their inabilities to reason quantitatively. This affects their fundamental understandings of time, money, direction, and space (Beacham & Trott, 2005). Poor mathematical skills have been seen to be more damaging to a person’s employment than poor literacy skills (Bynner & Parsons, 1997). Thus, it is vitally important that educators, particularly mathematics educators, take a genuine interest in the problems caused by dyscalculia. Michaelson, 2007Upper Primary School Mathematics becomes more diverse and complicated as a child reaches the upper primary school. Upper primary education is of three years duration and starts for students aged between 10-11 years. It usually continues up to 13-14 years. At this stage, education consists of the basic programs of primary school level, though teaching is more subject-focused. The main subjects generally taught in upper primary schools are: i) Three languages: the regional language/ the mother tongue, Hindi and English, ii) Mathematics, iii) Science and Technology, iv) Social Sciences, v) Art Education, vi) Work education, vii) Health and Physical Education (Parruck and Ghosh, 2014). Assessments in school usually have most of the weightage given to tests and exams, and about 20% of the weightage given to in-class assignments and projects. Grading is also usually done with letters and percentages ranging from A to F, and 0 to 100%. Equal intervals of 20 marks are present between each grade (Sarkar, 2012). Schools also work for 200 days out of the year, and are normally taught 33 classes that follow a timetable per week (Sarkar, 2012). Development of Upper Primary StudentsWhile education and grades become very important at this age, upper primary school children are also going through some important changes, both cognitively and emotionally. They want to become more independent, and also expect to be given more independence by parents. They strengthen and refine decision-making skills as their frontal lobe starts to develop.  This is also the time to begin considering future careers and occupations. These children tend to shift their school focus from play-centered activities to academics as they approach upper primary school. At this time, the influence of media and friends becomes stronger than parents’ influence on their likes, dislikes and opinions.Children between 9 and 12 also develop increasing capability for social conscience and for abstract thought, including understanding complex issues such as poverty and war. They begin to take on increased responsibility at home, such as doing more chores. They want to fit in with peers and classmates, and prefer to conform to roles assigned rather than create new or more controversial roles for themselves. This also means that they feel concern about how their outward appearance is and become more self-conscious and self-centered with their peers. They give more importance to their friend’s perceptions about themselves. One of the consequences of this is children start to experience feelings of insecurity and begin to doubt self-concept and previous self-confidence (Girls, especially, often experience a significant drop in self-esteem.)Children also struggle with family relationships and desire privacy and separation from family and  they prefer independence for themselves. They may also experience a lot of mood swings through these years. These developments are also important to consider when looking at this age group. For someone who has a learning difficulty, these factors may greatly influence the way they perceive themselves in relation to their friends, family and academics. This becomes an important point because mainstream schools follow standardized testing to evaluate and assess students (as is the case in India), and students with LDs always underperform in these areas.  Students with LDs usually have a very difficult time in India if early recognition and intervention does not happen. These students report feeling different than the rest, are usually neglected by their teachers, and can be victims of bullying and torment many times. While the stress of academics may already be making these students suffer, the added neglect and bullying can be major factors for students to develop low self esteem, emotional and behavioural problems, substance abuse, delinquency and can also cause anxiety and depression in both the students as well as their parents (Mogasale, Patil, Patil  & Mogasale, 2012). 


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