Question 1A Amruth SabbisettiQuestion code:1A 920405Amruth SabbisettiQuestion code: 1A 920405 Word Count: 494Summary:Creativity and innovation are the key drivers of value creation andsocial change in our society 1.
According toCastells, people, social actors, companies and policy makers do need to doanything to reach or develop the network society 1. We are in the networksociety, although not everyone or everybody is included in its networks 1. Castells also describesnetwork society in border society taking many industries into consideration likepolitical parties, governance and schools etc. He mentions that in today’sworld networks has become basic units of modern society. So the position ofnetwork society can be foreseen than the only to the information in society. Healso argues that technology is not only the basic simple thing thatcharacterizes contemporary societies but also comprises of other aspects likepolitical, economic and cultural aspects too in creating network society. Daniel bell explains that post-industrial society there will be an enormousgrowth in the third sector means the non-profit area outside of business andgovernment which includes schools, hospitals, and research institutes,voluntary and civic associations 2.
He has made emphasisbroadly on business corporations explaining economizing mode and sociologizingmode and focuses on productivity, costs, efficiency, and performance ofcorporations in detail. He has explained various levels of planning and otherconventionally measured terms like gross national product, private costs andsocial costs etc.Description below for 1AIn post-industrial society mainly deals with change in structure ofsocial system.
It is a transition of society’s development where most of theeconomy is going to be generated in service sector than manufacturing or industrialsector mainly in terms of employment too. From both the post-industrial societyand network society there is going to be flexibility in production system and flexibilityof customers choosing goods and services. And infusion of informationtechnology and multiple network systems increases productivity to major extent.Post-industrial society also triggered cheap labor rates as there is morecompetition in market. Bell also states that latest upcoming technologies are going tochange employment structures too within society and this will lead division ofwell paid workers and many unemployed citizen is world. Bell also states thatgone are those days where humans are made to work with machines for largerdurations of day.
As the transition in service sector in happening very finiteamount of physically working labor in which there is existence of degree ofsociability and creativity. In post industrial sector, laborers majorly don’t workon things they work with people in delivering a service. These kind of jobs perceivedby workers are appealing, satisfying and interesting. Knowledge elites hascontrol of processing of information and these class of working people comesfrom technical universities, large economic enterprises and governmentinstitutions 2. Bell also statedthat there will be a new class coming up called professional class instead oflabor class. During industrial society, labor was required to put physicaleffort and after that it’s gone. Amruth SabbisettiQuestion code:1A 920405 Word Count: 523According to Bell, in coming industrial society there aredisagreements in social and economic forms.
The primary features of society areknowledge and information. In the articles Castells also explains sharing ofinformation will vary between corporation using multiple networks and it makesmuch easier for a company to produce goods. From both the articles they explainsthat the way of using knowledge and information changes from agriculturalsociety to industrial society and post-industrial society. Business corporationshas been using new market strategies and new planning methods for them toensure profitability and productivity. The most common linkage between peoplefrom different parts of world is knowledge and information. Post-industrial society also combines advanced communication technologies,management in system and production technologies too 2.
All these advancements intechnologies will also related to production complexes and markets.Bell and Castells has made valid points concerning information, knowledgeand technology. According to Peter drucker we have been collecting data and weare in a phase to utilize data to represent it into information with upcoming technologieslike big data, Automation etc. Here Castells has also made some valid pointconcerning impact of technology change not does not induce unemployment inaggregate labor market 1. Although there aresome workers are displaced and some occupations are phased out like traditionaltypists and other occupation etc most jobs are created and most displaced workersare reemployed 1.
Ability to workand be an active component of a network becomes paramount in the new economy 1. This is what he hasconceptualized as self-programmable labor 1. He mentions thatcompanies remains to invest in this kind labor. He mentions that self-programmable labor hasthe power to bargain market and enjoys greater freedom at work. Bell states that in post-industrial society states that new scienceshas made distinctive mode of life and we call it as economizing.
Economizing isthe science of the best allocation of scarce resources among competing ends 2. It is an essentialtechnique to reduce waste. He also made a statement that there si a secretmastered western society and he call it as productivity. The ability to gain amore than proportional output from a given expenditure. In popular view,productivity was made possible by introduction of machinery or morespecifically, the discovery of new forms of power, mechanical or electrical,hitched to an engine. Productivity as concept became possible only through anew supporting system which has dictated placements of machines in a new way byintroducing new men. Engineer and economist where engineer organizes machinesin a best layout where output can be highly achieved while economist introduceda calculus of monetary costs within framework of relative prices.
So I support both Castells and Bell’s theories of society where informationand knowledge sharing is advancing and expanding in many industries andCastells and also made an explanation on self- directed mass communicationsystem. It is called a mass communication because it is diffused internet andso it potentially reaches people in whole planet. Thus the network societyconstitutes socialized communication beyond the mass media system thatcharacterized the industrial society.