Psychodynamic approach describes an individual’s
personality as unconscious psychological processes that starts from birth.
Freud’s psychoanalysis approach explores the individuals unconscious mind and
focuses on emotions and thoughts to gain a better understanding of one’s self.
Freud’s theory is clinically based on what individuals told him during therapy
sessions. This therapy is used to treat mental health disorders like depression
and anxiety. This approach views the unconscious mind as the main foundation of
human behaviour and all behaviour as a cause, and becomes determined. Freud
explains this by using an iceberg representing the mind. The most vital part of
the mind we cannot view, is our motives, feelings and decisions which are
influenced by our past experiences and stored in the unconscious. Our childhood
experiences have a great influence on our adult life, shaping personality.
Events that happened in our childhood can remain in the unconscious and cause
problems in our adult years. Freud’s psychodynamic theory suggested that our
personality is made up in three parts, id, ego and super-ego. The id plays an
important part of our personality as newborns, and based on our pleasure
principle. When a child is hungry, the id wants food, so the baby cries. If a
child is in pain or discomfort or wants attention, the id speaks up until the
needs are met. The id does not care about reality, only it’s needs and
satisfaction. The ego understands that individuals have needs and desires. This
part of the personality is responsible for meeting the needs of the id, while
considering the reality of the situation. Like the id, the ego seeks pleasure
and avoids pain on the basis of devising a realistic plan to get pleasure. The
super-ego is the moral part of our personality developing values, social rules
and morals of society learnt from parents and others. The super-ego’s function
is to control the id’s impulses such as social behaviour, aggression and sex.
was devised by Maslow and Roger in the1940s and based upon
human natural growth and motivation in the world, long as the environment is in
a good condition. The concept of this theory was to advance individuals
performance by making them realise their inner instinct. Where individuals
should focus on inner drives, which could lead to self actualisation.
Maslow’s Triangle explains this and known as the Maslow
hierarchy of needs. Maslow and Rogers theory states that humans need certain
conditions in place for individuals to reach full potential in their life. The
pyramid is split in to five parts from the bottom to the top. First part at the
bottom is physiological needs, these are the basic elements that humans need to