Participation: the will of the leader. (Hussaini 2009) The

Participation: by both men and women is a key core element of good governance. And it has been agreed that community participation is fundamental and important step in improving the lives of people, particularly women, poor, minority communities and disadvantaged people. Considering Somalia, citizen participation has been one of the weaknesses of Somali governance. The federal government of Somalia and federal member states failed to promote citizen participation in the government policies and programs. Therefore, there is a need in Somalia for encouraging citizen participation and establishing policies and mechanism in which citizen participation can be increased and promoted.

Furthermore, developing countries has also been giving little attention on citizen participation issues.  Participation can be defined as the active involvement of broad mass of the people in their choice of execution policy, this active involvement gives all men and women to have a voice in the decision-making process either directly or indirectly. Considering the historically, participation has been assessed and seen as a quantitative rather qualitative, for instance, numeric forms of the institutions asking how many people attended this policy development process or how many people joined this program instead, how much people contributed and added their needs in the decisions to be implemented. Participation empowers the population so that to join political organizations and other political actions. (Smith,2007)

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Rule of Law: The rule of law does not have a precise definition, and its meaning can vary between and among scholars. Politicians, lawyers, and policymakers use the term rule of law as a legal political regime while others often view the term as a system that attempts to protect the rights of the citizens and allows to have more rights.  The Rule of law can be defined as the principles that everyone in the society is protected from the rules and laws that society agrees once that a law is passed, and it applies to everyone in equal measure regardless of race, religion, economic means, and other characteristics of the individual. In general rule of law means all public duties to be done under the rule of law not rule of man or the will of the leader. (Hussaini 2009)



The recent years Somalia have prioritized their policies and national agendas to promote the rule of law. The rule of law has three main important principles and they include:

·      Nobody is above the law

·      Everyone is equal under the law

·      Everyone is judged equally by the law




Transparency: The concept of transparency is seen by Kim and Means that the information is built on the free flow of information and decisions enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. Transparency also means that information is freely available to the public and directly accessible to the people who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement (Kim et al (2005).  Considering, Ekpe also argues that having open transparency will be an aid to strengthen the governance in running of local and international affairs. Transparency also gives the society a chance to participate the policies and enable’s citizens to be part the formulation of new policies and their implementations through representatives or society expresses their opinion in public forms through media. This leads that citizens to trust the government and give support the government’s efforts in achieving economic and social development. Citizens have also a legal right to access information and communication, yet in Somalia there is a need in establishing system and policies that allows citizens to get access to government record and information. (Ekpe 2008).



Accountability, is a key principle of good governance and very curtail to development. The policy development workers, civil society organization, and/or private sector are accountable to the people. For instance, as Odugbemi claims accountability is the ability that society, public sector and civil society and non-governmental organizations have so that to examine public administrations and to hold them accountable to society. In general, accountability refers assurance that institutions and individual are evaluated on their performance related to actions which they are responsible as well as the applicable to the rules of law. (Odugbemi 2008)


Responsiveness, another important principle of good governance. It requires that Institutions of the government, private sectors, civil society organizations and their processes that are designed to serve the best interests of the people within a reasonable timeframe, open, awake and quick to react. (Gisselquist, 2012)


The consensus oriented principle means the decision-making process should organize and develop a group member and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the people. According to UNDP Consensus oriented is an outcome that all members of a group can live with. in order to reach a broad consensus of what is in the best interest of the society and how this can be achieved in a sustainable manner. (UNDP 1997)


Equality and inclusiveness, refer to the well-being of the society and depend on ensuring that all members of the society have equal opportunities and no group of the society does not feel excluded from the mainstream of the community and the opportunities that are offered to the society. Equity and inclusiveness for instance, can be considered as one of the most important principles of the theory of good governance it indicates that as many stakeholders as possible to involve and participate in the group discussion and decision-making process. This process of equality and inclusiveness gives the community a guarantee of equal rights and freedom from all forms of discrimination. (Grindle, 2004 & Harrison, 2005).


Efficiency and Effectiveness, is an essential to any counter’s well-being. Accordingly, it is important for any governments to have both efficiency and effectiveness so that to have effective and efficiency governance. The main strategy of having effective and efficiency governance is that the government will be able to do things in a right way while, efficiency focuses on the process of doing the right decisions and the results produced to meet the needs of the society. In other words, effective and efficiency means that the process implemented by the institution to produce favorable outcome and meet the needs of the people.  (Cole and Kelly, 2011)







Good Governance and Development


Good governance is about the decision-making process and how these decisions are implemented. The term good governance itself defines a key a role and its important in the development process. In other words, ensuring development it’s very important to ensure good governance from the basis of the governmental institutions, and there will not be development without good governance principles in place. (UNDP 1997). Good governance also refers to a process where institutions and citizens can articulate their interest, exercise their basic rights and mediate their difference in a transparent way. (UNDP 2011). However, what does it mean good governance to development, how good governance promotes development? These issues are widely discussed in the literature and the history of governance. Considering for instance, these literatures have shown that, in order to achieve Development and prosperity, the principles and theories of good governance should be taken in to account and implemented. Also, the public resources of the country and social problems should also be managed effectively and efficiently in responding the social needs of the community (Abdellatif, 2003). All these aspects mentioned earlier are important in achieving development and to eradicate extreme poverty, hunger and inequality. Subsequently, lack of transparency and accountability and lack of rule of law produced ineffective institutions that resulted poor development perform.


Previously in the chapter two of this thesis research, I have mentioned the meaning of governance and good governance. Now in relation to development, it can be defined as a process and means of the improvement that requires changes in lives of all humans and better living in their existence (Todaro & Smith 2003). In this definition of Todaro and Smith they give three characteristics of development. The first one is that increasing the standard living of the people, for example improving social services, like education, health etc. and increasing economy to create employment and increase income and consumption of the people.


The second one is that creating self-steam through establishing economic freedoms and institutions that promotes social and economic development in line with human rights standard. The third one is that the freedom of speech, choices of the people so that to exercise their rights and responsibilities. For instance, development has been viewed as freedoms that human being enjoy. So, since good governance promotes development is important to create environment where people can enjoy their rights and freedom and also creating a culture of governance structure and exercising the principles of good governance can enable the nations to solve their problems and establish culture where all people enjoy high quality of live, this can be achieved through exercising theories of good governance. Therefore, developing countries especially African countries including Somalia are now focusing on policies and strategies that enables them to reach good governance and development.


It has been widely debated in the literature that the connection and the link between governance and development are not yet agreed on, especially when it comes to which one comes first or should it be pursued simultaneous (development and good governance).  However, a list of literature has shown that development and peace environment should be pursuit first and then, the idea of good governance should be given attention to ensure and to promote sustainable development. While other have argued that development should be pursued first and then the idea of good governance should be practiced and paid to attention. Considering Sen’s argument in 1999 he argued that economic needs to represent development, freedom of civil rights and politics are represented instead he rather use to “development and good governance” he also considers civil and political freedom one way we can achieve good governance and development. (Sen 1999). Having political freedom, and civil rights gives the society to fulfill their social and economic needs. In other words, all principles of good governance contribute and give the people a chance to draw the attention of the government and emphasis to the general needs, and demand appropriate actions from the government institutions. (Cooper, 1994)



Moreover, good governance allows the society especially poor and minority communities to have equal access to the government facilities, such, health, education, and obtain fair political and social representative. This process is essential component for development and promotes democratic culture of the country. So, good governance, promotes development, reduces poverty, increases job opportunities, and empowers women (UNDP 1997). However, bad governance, leads the opposite to this as it creates poverty, inequality, corruption and nepotism, underdevelopment, and conflicts. That is why European Union (EU) Called the concept of good governance a development. (ACP Courtier 2000)


Good governance is also an important prerequisite for prosperity and development. Meaning prosperity and development are not possible to exercise under a condition such as: insecurity, not protecting minority communities, ignoring human rights, corruption, week institutions, poorly functioning public institutions, lack of accountability and transparency, participation and/or not respecting rules and regulation. These issues are therefore, prerequisite of good governance. For instance, development can be achieved when these issues are given consideration and attention. Good governance is seen also as a normative standard to development. The term good governance fosters participation, ensures transparency, promotes efficiency and effectiveness. Good governance also demands accountability and rule of law in the government administration. This increases efforts to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. Therefore, development agenda, there is a need for good governance practices. Every nation is very important to ensure and promote good governance principles on the basis of development, because there is a very close link between the two terms.  otherwise there will not be development. (UNDP 1997).  According to Kofi Annan in his function of secretary general of the UN, he defined good governance the single and most important factor in eradicating poverty and way of promoting development (United Nations University, 2002). 


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