Transmedia Characters Term Paper

Transmedia Characters Term Paper

James Bond: A transmedia character

“This was going to be bad news, dirty news, and he didn’t want to hear it from one of the Section officers, or even from the Chief of Staff. This was to be murder. All right. Let M. bloody well say so.”

For viewers accustomed to the James Bond of cinema, reading The Living Daylights by Ian Fleming may come as something of a surprise. In contrast to the flashy, urbane, womanizing Bond of film, Fleming’s secret agent seems much more subdued. Bond is first shown at a firing range — although Bond is a crack shot, his prowess with a pistol seems very tame compared with the fantastic gadgets he has been saddled with in various films. When he meets with M, there is no flirtatious banter with Miss Moneypenny. It is clear that this Bond is a Cold War spy, with a serious mission, not a frivolous cartoon character with fancy toys and ladies. The ugly, unglamorous side of being a spy is evident in the above-cited quotation in which even the hardened spy’s stomach turns at the idea of committing murder as part of his duties.

In the films, Bond almost seems happy-go-lucky as he goes about his work in exotic locations, ordering martinis shaken and not stirred and eluding death at every turn. What makes Bond so well-loved as a cinematic hero is the cool and careless way he acts when facing the very real threats posed by spying. Fleming, in contrast, takes the threats posed by the Soviets very seriously. M puts on what is described as cold aura of command when informing Bond of his mission. He does not like telling Bond that the agent must kill a Russian agent, although kill Bond must, to protect the fate of 272. (Note also that rather than the cute names of the films, all of the other secret agents have numbers to parallel that of 007’s). Because Bond is one of the best agents in Her Majesty’s Secret Service, he must bear the weighty responsibility of doing something that no one else wants to do. The atmosphere is almost funeral in M’s office, in contrast to the visual jokes which populate the film and the crackling atmosphere of sexuality and humor. As Bond contemplates killing a man in the Fleming novel, he is filled with a sense of dread about his work that seems contrary to the confident Bond of film who enjoys what he does and thinks everything will work out. Bond acts with compassion at the end — maiming the female sniper he has fallen in love with, rather than killing her, and he is clearly capable of emotional soul-searching in a way the Bond of cinema would disdain.

The different atmosphere between the Fleming books and the Bond films likely reflects the eras during which they were produced. When Fleming wrote his novels, the Cold War was still in full force and people were genuinely terrified of the implications of spying. In contrast, the Bond films began being produced during the swinging 60s. Even after the 60s ended and the films franchise continued, the Bond films retained their early sense of fun, playfulness, and brightness. Also, the films were targeted at an international audience. Action films, at least when the Bond films were first made, tended to lack a great deal of subtlety, darkness and nuance. These elements of the book were toned down and eventually eliminated.

Adapting a character to a different medium is always tricky. In some instances, a faithful transposition is warranted. Harry Potter of film is the same geeky hero that he is in his literary incarnation. Fans would have revolted if the core of the character had been changed, given how swiftly the books were adapted to films. The fanatical nature of the fan base demanded a faithful adaptation. Although the Bond novels were popular when first made into films, the films became far more popular than the books, while the Harry Potter saga was a wildly popular book series before it was ever adapted. This need for faithfulness to the scripts provided by very popular books with loyal adolescent viewers was also seen in The Hunger Games, which tends to have a relatively consistent tone with the books and keeps faithfully to its plotline.

James Bond: From Russia With Love

The central concern of From Russia With Love is very similar to that of the chapter quoted from Ian Fleming’s novel The Living Daylights: what happens when Bond the womanizer meets a beautiful woman through his spying duties. In the film, Bond crosses paths with a lovely Russian ‘defector’ named Tatiana who is actually being used as a decoy by the crime syndicate SPECTER. The film pits the two sides of Bond’s identity against one another — Bond the spy and Bond the ladies’ man. The blending of sensuality and spying is immediately apparent in the opening credits, which are projected onto an undulating female form.

The film, the second in the Bond franchise, contains many of the elements that were eventually to become characteristic of the Bond formula, including exotic locations, explosions, fights on moving vehicles, and lovely, deadly women. Tatiana’s defection obvious trap — by forcing Bond to deal with Tatiana’s claim that she has a valuable Russian decoding device, SPECTER hopes to assassinate him, retrieve the device, and sell it back to the Russians.

However, while the plot is somewhat convoluted, in Bond films plot is less important than style. The most memorable character in the film is SPECTER’s leader Blofeld, whose face is never seen. Blofeld has many of the characteristics of film villains of subsequent action films who would try to imitate From Russia with Love, including a fondness for stroking a white, fluffy cat while he plots world domination. His face is not seen throughout the film, presumably to add to the sense of power and mystery which revolves around him. Blofeld occupies the position of ‘arch-nemesis’ in the film, someone who controls much of the villainy without having to get his hands dirty.

Despite the title, a considerable portion of the film is set in Istanbul. There are many scenes of exotic gypsies, and at one point Bond is attacked in a gypsy camp during an erotic belly dance, as the lead dancer tries to seduce him. Almost every scene of sexuality is followed by a scene of violence. Bond’s prowess in the bedroom and his sensual dominance over women is clearly linked with this ability to be a great spy. He can kiss the defector Tatiana and he can also unravel the plot that has resulted in her becoming a decoy.

Interestingly enough, despite the fact that the film was released in 1963, the themes of the film are not particularly political. Blofeld is head of a criminal syndicate and is using the Cold War circumstances to pit Russian and English spy agencies against one another. There is little explicitly ‘Russian’ about the film in terms of its villainy, other than Tatiana’s beauty — the conflict could just as easily take place between any two nations spying against one another. The major Russian character in the film Tatiana is actually duped, and the Russians, although fearsome, are no match for Blofeld, who is clever at using them for his own devices.

The film is made up of a string of thrilling action scenes which give Bond a chance to shine, but in terms of its actual plot it tends to revolve around ‘mysterious things in boxes,’ including the decoder itself to the gadget-packed suitcase Q. designs for Bond, which contains a hidden knife, gun, and a tear gas trap lying within and enables Bond to orchestrate his final escape. The film is not meant to be realistic, and its gadgetry adds to this lack of realism. Downplaying the actual ‘Russian’ elements of the plot and emphasizing the made-up organization SPECTER creates a fantasy world in which nothing is meant to be taken seriously.

The lack of politicization of To Russia With Love is particularly noteworthy in the degree to which the villains are portrayed in a heightened, cartoonish manner. There is none of the soul-searching intensity of films such as The Spy Who Came in From the Cold or a true sense of a Cold War parallel to actual events. That would only disturb the fantasy. For example in the scene in which Kronsteen is berated by Blofeld for coming up with an unworkable plan, Kronsteen is summarily dispatched with a mysterious poisoned spike from a shoe of a nearby butler. None of the other members of SPECTER react to this murder: the scene is clearly meant to show that there is no honor amongst thieves. Even though Kronsteen is a Russian, his nationality merely gives him a sense of exoticism and evil, much like that of Rosa Klebb. There is no political motivation to the Russians’ actions: the Russians seem just as bent…

Oscar Wilde a Man of Genius Makes Essay

Oscar Wilde

“a man of genius makes no mistakes; his errors are volitional and are the portals of discovery.”

James Joyce

Genius is based on many elements, human and circumstantial. Nothing enables genius to evolve from some internal inchoate spark into a staggering, illuminating flare as the capacity to be external to social norms. The public expects artists to move well beyond the quotidian in artistic form. The funny lines in a play would be burlesque, if they were not also insightful. The plot of a novel would be banal if it lacked symbolism. The reach of literary metaphor is based on a primal idiosyncratic resonance with each member of an audience. But the level of tolerance expressed by this same public for artists’ lifestyles that ride the edge does not match their appreciation of the products of genius. The public adored Oscar Wilde — for as long as he stayed sufficiently within the boundaries of acceptable eccentricity. For Victorian society, the band of acceptability — of propriety — was not broad.

A quote attributed to Wilde is associated with one of his visits to America (Bradford 2011). Upon entering customs in New York, Wilde was asked by a customs officer if he had any goods to declare (Bradford 2011). Wilde is said to have replied, “No, I have nothing to declare…except my genius” (Bradford 2011).

A Man of Genius

Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills was a name befitting a man of good family from Dublin, Ireland, but it was not a name that would trip clearly over the tongue on stage — or in print in some critic’s review (Bradford 2011).So the name Oscar Wilde became associated with the Irishman’s artistic work and reputation Wilde’s brilliance earned him several scholarships, which paired with some money from his father’s surgical practice, got Wilde through Trinity College in Dublin and Magdalen College in Oxford (Bradford 2011). During his seven years of university study (1871 — 1878) with esteemed cohorts, Wilde affiliated with the Oxford Movement and the school of aestheticism (Bradford 2011). From the one group, he developed an appreciation of classical art and culture, from the other way of thinking, he developed a belief in art for its own sake (Bradford 2011).

Wilde was a natural performer and was blessed with a sly wit. Fabulously flamboyant in his dress, Wilde enjoyed the attention it — and his enormous talent — garnered for him (Bradford 2011). Wilde found a natural outlet for his sensibilities and demonstrative nature on the stages of London, and it is fair to say, that for him, London itself became a stage (Bradford 2011). With celebrity, came a flagrant disregard for the oppressive social mores of the day. Wilde was alternately labeled a homosexual and a bisexual — according to Wilde’s biographers, he is reported to have had homosexual relations as young as 16 years of age (Worth, 1983). As luck would have it, Wilde married into money (Worth, 1983). In 1884, he wed the heiress Constance Lloyd and, with her father’s wealth, was able to pursue his creative interests (Worth, 1983). In two years, Oscar and Constance had as many sons — Cyril and Vyvyan (Worth, 1983). Wilde was not a conventional family man — for that matter, Wilde was not conventional in any regard, which — according to this author’s bias — contributed significantly to his literary genius (Worth, 1983). Unfortunately for him, Wilde’s enjoyment of decadent parties — and apparently associated homosexual affairs — did not grease good will with those who determined the social mores of the day (Worth, 1983).

A New York Times theatre critic exhibited a degree of premonition following the opening of The Importance of Being Earnest with this comment, “Oscar Wilde may be said to have at last, and by a single stroke, put his enemies under his feet” (Ellman 430-31).

Look Out London, Here He Comes

On February 14, 1895, The Importance of Being Earnest premiered at the St. James Theatre — Wilde became the darling of London society. The play is “both a whimsical romantic comedy as well as a sharp-witted satire of Victorian society” (Bradford 2011). Critics consider The Importance of Being Earnest to be Wilde’s merriest play, “and perhaps the most balanced with dialogue, romantic misunderstandings, and laughter-inducing coincidences” (Bradford 2011).

Wilde’s hubris, which armed him well to poke fun at social mores in his drawing room comedies, was also his Achilles Heel. An intimate affair with a man considerably younger than Wilde, Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas, led to charges of sodomy (Bradford 2011). The Marquis harassed Wilde at length, confronting him, sending him insulting letters and notes — his intention was to cause a public demonstration that would interfere with the opening night of The Importance of Being Earnest.

In response to the public accusations made by the father of Lord Douglas, the Marquis of Queensbury, Wilde responded with legal action of his own — against the advice of his friends — he took the Marquis to court on the basis of criminal libel (Bradford 2011). Wilde’s attempt to seek justice for the claims made against him turned into a sordid threat by the defense (Bradford 2011). In the course of the trial, Wilde’s other sexual exploits and relationships with men were exposed to the light — and to the public (Bradford 2011). The defense attorney capitalized on this information, claiming he would bring male prostitutes to testify in court (Bradford 2011). Wilde wisely dropped the case, but too much water had gone under the proverbial bridge — Wilde was charged with gross indecency and arrested (Bradford 2011).

Doubtless, Wilde’s heart was broken. He was host on his own petard, so to speak. The morality of the day — the narrow-minded parochial thinking that he so enjoyed satirizing — stuck like an unseen snake. The poison spread relentlessly. Wilde stayed in the country after the first trial, was arrested and tried a second time (Worth, 1983). Under the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885, which made homosexual acts punishable, Wilde was sentenced to two years of hard labor in Reading Prison (Worth, 1983). It was the harshest penalty the law permitted for the crime Wilde was judged to have committed (Worth, 1983). Overnight, the celebrated playwright’s esteemed and prolific career came to an end (Worth, 1983). The government pursued Wilde, by some reports, because Lord Alfred’s older brother was apparently engaged in homosexual affair with Archibald Philip Primrose, Lord Rosebery, who would become Prime Minister (Worth, 1983). The Marquis threatened to disclose the relationship, forcing the government to take action (Worth, 1983). The punishment of Wilde and his lover was an attempt to deflect the anger of the Marquis (Worth, 1983).

In exile following his release from prison — perhaps in the hotel in Paris where he lived incognito as Sebastian Melmoth — Wilde wrote The Ballad of Reading Goal, several lines of which are now well-known, though the catalyst for penning the poem is not (Worth, 1983). During the time that Wilde was imprisoned, a young trooper, Charles Thomas Wooldridge, of the Royal Horse Guards was hung (Worth, 1983). Wooldridge was convicted of cutting his wife’s throat (Worth, 1983). In the foreign surrounds of the hard-labor prison, this execution of a young man profoundly assaulted Wilde, causing him to harbor astonished horror, resignation, and despair at human cruelty (Worth, 1983). Published by Leonard Smithers in 1898, under the nom de plume — of sorts — c.3.3., which was code for cell block C, landing 3, cell 3, Wilde wrote:

Yet each man kills the thing he loves

By each let this be heard.

Some do it with a bitter look,

Some with a flattering word.

The coward does it with a kiss,

The brave man with a sword! (Safire 1987).

In Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, Bassannio asks, “Do all men kill the things they do not love?” (Safire 1987). Wilde’s response was resoundly, “No!” Men kill the things they do love — this, Wilde had experienced directly. Wilde’s actions, directly and indirectly, brought about the end of his career, the end of his health, and the end of meaningful friendships, save one (Worth, 1983). Reginald Turner remained a steadfast friend to the end — quite literally — as he was at Wilde’s bedside when the impoverished genius playwright died of cerebral meningitis (Worth, 1983).

Word has it that Wilde’s last words were: “Either that wallpaper goes, or I do (Worth, 1983).” One hopes this is true, as could cherish him all the more for saying it (Worth, 1983). Frankly, this author would have preferred that the insouciant phrase appear on Wilde’s tomb in place of the deeply moving lines chosen from The Ballad of Reading Goal which serve as his epitaph (Worth, 1983).

And alien tears will fill for him,

Pity’s long-broken urn,

For his mourners will be outcast men,

And outcasts always mourn. (Safire 1987).

The Importance of Being Earnest

Lady Bracknell has a bone to pick. Jack does not have sufficient…

Cancer Epidemiology Term Paper

HuGE Cancer Epidemiology

HuGE Study

Masson, L. Sharp, S.C. Cotton and J. Little. Cytochrome P-450 1A1 Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Breast Cancer: A HuGE Review. Am. J. Epidemiol. (15 May 2005) 161 (10): 901-915.

Category of HuGE Information

The types of information available from the article:

Prevalence of gene variant

Gene-disease association

Gene-environment interaction

Gene-gene interaction

Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 plays a key role in phase I metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and in estrogen metabolism. It is expressed predominantly in extrahepatic tissues, including the breast. Four CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms (3801T-C, Ile462Val, 3205T-C, and Thr461Asp) have been studied in relation to breast cancer. The 3801C variant is more common than the Val variant. Both variants occur more frequently in Asians than in White populations. The 3205T-C polymorphism has been observed in African-Americans only. Little data are available on the geographic/ethnic distribution of the Thr461Asp polymorphism. The functional significance of the polymorphisms is unclear. In 17 studies, no consistent association between breast cancer and CYP1A1 genotype was found. Meta-analysis found no significant risk for the genotypes 1) 3801C/C (relative risk (RR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 1.80) or 3801T/C (RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.19) versus 3801T/T, 2) Val/Val (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.74) or Ile/Val (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.10) versus Ile/Ile, or 3) Asp/Asp (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.20, 4.49) or Thr/Asp (RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.43) versus Thr/Thr. Future studies should explore possible interactions between CYP1A1 and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, markers of estrogen exposure, other lifestyle factors influencing hormonal levels, and other genes involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism or hormonal biosynthesis.

Gene:

Gene Name, Chromosome location, and gene product/function:

Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 is a key enzyme in phase I bioactivation of xenobiotics. It contributes to aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity, catalyzing the first step in the metabolism of a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as the tobacco carcinogen benzoapyrene, to their ultimate DNA-binding forms. It is also involved in estrogen metabolism, catalyzing the hydroxylation of 17?-estradiol at the C-2 position.

The CYP1A1 gene, located at 15q22-q24, comprises seven exons and six introns and spans 5,810 base pairs. In humans, CYP1A1 is under the regulatory control of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a transcription factor that regulates gene expression.

CYP1A1 expression occurs predominantly in extrahepatic tissue. CYP1A1 messenger RNA has been detected in normal and cancerous breast tissue and can be induced in human-breast-derived cell lines.

Alleles: CYP1 family:

CYP1A1; CYP1A2; CYP1B1; CYP2 family: CYP2A6; CYP2A13; CYP2B6; CYP2C8; CYP2C9; CYP2C19; CYP2D6; CYP2E1; CYP2F1; CYP2J2; CYP2R1; CYP2S1; CYP2W1

CYP3 family:

CYP3A4; CYP3A5; CYP3A7; CYP3A43

CYP4 family:

CYP4A11; CYP4A22; CYP4B1; CYP4F2

CYP>4 families:

CYP5A1

CYP8A1

CYP19A1

CYP21A2

CYP26A1

OMIM #: 108330

Environmental Factors:

1. PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons)

2. Tobacco smoke

3. Estrogen

4. Fried foods

5. Alcohol

6. PCBs (polychlorinated biphenols)

Health Outcomes:

1. Incidence of breast cancer risk in association with C-P450 mutations

2. Determine variants of C-P450 polymorphisms in specific ethnic populations

3. Determine gene-gene and gene-environment interactions for CP450 alleles and breast cancer.

Study design

This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study.

Assessment of environmental factors:

Environmental factor: Smoking

Exposure assessment and definition: genotype-smoking interactions light smokers (

Questionnaire for Business Research Essay

attitudes that millennials have towards food. The survey is part of a broader scope of research on behalf of a major food retailer. The survey will contain two parts. The first part will contain basic demographic information, and the second part will contain the survey about your food attitudes.

The results of this survey will be held in confidence. At no point do we require your name. The survey will be marked with an identification code, by which the results will be stored. This does not contain your name, or any other information that could be used ot identify you.

The survey contains ten questions. It should take between 3-5 minutes to complete.

What is your age?

What type of work do you do?

Unemployed

Student

Service

White collar

Blue collar

Arts/creative

What is your highest education level?

Post Graduate Degree

What is your income?

$50,000

5) What is your zip code?

6) What is your view on GMO Food?

Don’t know, don’t care

What’s the big deal, I eat it?

I sometimes will eat organic

I always avoid it

7 )What percentage of your meals come from Cooked at fast food

Cooked at sit-down restaurant

Cooked at grocery store

Cooked at home

8) Do you have any dietary restrictions? Circle all that apply

Nut allergies

Gluten allergies

Lactose intolerance

Religious restrictions

Non-allergy medical restrictions

9) Do you adhere to any self-imposed dietary restrictions? Check all the apply

Vegetarian

Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian

Pescatarian

Vegan

Gluten-Free

Raw

10) Do you try to eat healthy?

No, not really

I try to, but it’s hard

Sometimes

Usually, but there are lapses

Strict healthy eating

Question 2.

Each question helps with the research. There are two types of questions, those pertaining to the independent variables (questions 1-5) and those pertaining to dependent variables (questions 6-10). Both are important in the context of this research because they will help the client to identify the trends in food attitudes in millennials. The first question seeks to determine if it is reasonable for all millennials to be treated as a singular group — if there is a noticeable split between older and younger millennials on these issues, the client wants to identify that. The second, third, fourth and fifth questions are all different independent variables that it is believed will affect perceptions. The objective is first to identify what percentages of millennials…

Four Intro Sociology Questions Essay

Sociology

There are four different levels of sociological analysis, including meso. The micro level focuses on “the social dynamics of intimate, face-to-face interactions” (Little et al., p. 4), the macro level focuses on “large-scale, society-wide social interactions” (Little et al., 4) and the global level is higher still, looking at more universal sociological themes. The same event can be viewed through these different lenses, because many sociological interactions will occur at both micro and macro levels, and there are often global elements to such interactions as well.

For instance, the book discusses the 2011 Stanley Cup riots in Vancouver. On an individual level, the event can be studied in terms of what drove any individual person to join the riot, in particular what factors might contribute to somebody who would not normally break the law to join the riot. A more macro-level analysis might wish to examine what in the culture of Vancouver, or BC, would lead to such events, given that a similar riot occurred in 1994. Or conversely, what about the way Western societies experience sport would contribute to antisocial behaviour, given things like the Rocket Richard riot in Montreal in 1955, or football hooliganism in Europe.

The global perspective would take an even wider view, perhaps examining the riot through the lens of how societies interpret the concepts of law and order, in particular where it comes to structuring and break rules governing such concepts. That study would be the widest possible view and would draw on a lot of ideas, not just riots or other singular events.

2. Durkheim viewed suicide through a sociological lens. Thus, he studied suicide rates in order to determine the extent to which there was a social context to suicide. He found that rates of suicide differed among different regions and different religions, and that those rates remained fairly stable over time. This, he concluded, meant that there was a social dimension to suicide. It is from this observation that the conclusion was made that suicide was not simply an individual act, to be taken in isolation from the society surrounding it.

He argued instead that the differences in suicide rates can be explained in the degree of integration that could be found in different religious communities. Groups that had higher anomie were more likely to have higher suicide rates. Thus, where there were fewer social norms, in particular norms governing suicide, there was more likelihood of there being suicide. Social norms thus dictate behaviour, was the essential conclusion of his study about suicide.

He did not seek to explain the individual conditions of suicide, but rather looked at it from a macro-level, to determine if differences in suicide rates could be explained by differences in societies. So this was the basis of his work on suicide, taking a sociological view. He had to imbue this work with assumptions about the different religions and communities, and still only drew from a relatively small sample of Western cultures, but nevertheless his studies on suicide illustrated how a sociological approach could be used to understand even the most individual of actions.

Part B.

1. Scientific thinking differs from non-scientific thinking in a few key ways. First, scientific thinking is based on the scientific method, which revolves around the gathering and processing of evidence. Scientific thinking questions its assumptions, and its conclusions, and seeks to prove as much as possible. Non-scientific thinking is not nearly as evidence-based, even when it purports to be. Assumptions and conclusions are not challenged with the same dogmatic rigour, and the result is that non-scientific thinking is not as strong as scientific thinking.

This can be applied to sociology, and Durkheim is a good place to begin this analysis. In Durkheim’s suicide study, he took facts regarding suicide, and from those facts it is possible to derive a number of hypotheses. But his study was not strictly based on facts, because he had to make certain assumptions about the characteristics of other cultures, in particular the degree of anomie that exists within given religious groups. A lot of his assumptions on that regard could have been based on personal observation but would also have contained a lot of bias, in particular those groups to which he did not personally belong. A scientific approach would use only the facts — drawing conclusions about suicide rates and their correlations with specific religious groups. The assumptions about anomie in those religious groups are not representative of scientific thinking, however, but yet they were the basis on which Durkheim’s conclusions rested. So he was using a combination of scientific and non-scientific thinking.

Sociology today still blends the two. There is a case to be made that the rigour afforded by scientific thinking is necessary in sociology. By removing as much bias as possible, facts can be established and correlations made. There is, however, a lot of subjectivity in sociology, because a lot of important information cannot be quantified effectively. Thus, there are going to be degrees of bias in a lot of sociological work. It is important for the student or the scholar to understand that any given research can have both a scientific and non-scientific thought element. To the extent possible, scientific thinking should be used. Even when the study is qualitative, scientific thinking provides a strong structure around which a study can be designed and around which qualitative data can be interpreted.

Scientific thinking should be the basis of sociology. Scientific inquiry seeks to increase rigour, for example. It begins with some evidence around which a reasoned argument is form. That argument is then tested, so that generalisations can be determined and that the study is conducted in a systematic way. The scientific method of thinking makes for better studies and therefore should be the objective of sociological study. This will distinguish sociology as a science, versus general social commentary, which may be based on slipshod observations, ad hoc reasoning and contain more biases than absolutely necessary. Non-scientific thinking has allowed for some horrific thinking to be done about social groups (usually a group not one’s own) and that is why it is important for the integrity of the field, and for sociology to provide value to humanity, that it be studied in as scientific a manner as possible.

2. In sociology, it is accepted that there are different approaches. Three are the functionalist, the feminist and the symbolic interactionist. The functionalist approach looks at social phenomena through the lens of the function that those phenomena perform in a society. The symbolic interactionist approach looks at social phenomena through the lens of the interactions between individuals in a society. This is a communication-focused perspective, concerned with the interactions between individuals. The feminist approach focuses on “the power relationships and inequalities between women and men” (p.31).

Thus, the same social phenomena can be viewed through any of these different approaches. To illustrate these differences, take the Trudeau cabinet, which was designed to be gender and race representative, a deliberate action, but one not before seen in Canadian politics. The functionalist approach would look at the formation of such a cabinet and examine how this functions in society. The symbolism of such a cabinet would therefore become a focal point for the analysis — what function does such equity play in society. There is some distinct functional element to this, because the nation is a multicultural democracy and it will be run differently by a representative government than it would be a more traditional, white male-dominated government.

A structural interactionist would contribute a slightly different view. Perhaps recognizing that there is a function that such equity would play, the structural interactionist would examine the symbolic meaning of the cabinet composition. It might play an influencing role on how Canadian society views itself, but the interactionist would want to understand why that is. There are different elements at work in such analysis, such as understanding the symbolism of the basic numbers of different peoples represented, and what the symbolizes to different groups in the country about their participation in the governance of the nation.

There are a few different perspectives within feminism, but without question there would be an analysis of the cabinet from the viewpoint of gender justice and equity, but also what it means that it still took a privileged white male Prime Minister to bring about such equity. There would also be an opportunity to examine whether such surface-level equity on one aspect of governance would help to bring about any meaningful transformation in the gender-based power structures of the nation.

All three perspectives can examine such a simply piece of evidence about social change in Canadian society to examine its meaning, from symbolic meaning to functional meaning to the relationship between genders, or through other perspectives as well, such as race relations. This can be said for any type of social change, because social change and social institutions all have meaning. Sociology can benefit from the use of different lenses…

Organizational Behavior an Employer of Any Number Term Paper

Organizational Behavior

An employer of any number of employees must consider it a basic duty to provide a stress free workplace for all his employees. It is a well-known fact that stress at a workplace induces animosity among the employees and creates problems that would not have been present under ordinary circumstances. Stress at the workplace also reduces the productivity of the workers therein and creates tension for the management, which finds itself under a lot of pressure. In a medical sense stress at the workplace actually affects the powers of the brain in such areas as concentration, learning and being able to memorize details that are an important function of the brain. In a legal sense, stress is a factor that leads to a whole lot of litigation when the employees sue the company for bad stress management in the workplace. This in turn results in bad publicity and a loss of the good reputation of an organization. Employers have the duty of seeing to it that all the stress at the workplace is reduced to a practical extent wherein the workers would find it easy to concentrate on their work and do their jobs in a better manner.

The stress at the workplace can be seen as occurring from two different sources. One is the ‘external stressor’, which is related to the physical conditions of the workplace such as the heat or the cold, or the psychological conditions at the workplace such as the stress that may occur when one person bullies the other for any reason. The ‘internal stressor’ is the stress that is related to the physical well being and health of the worker such as nay infection that is present in the workplace, or some psychological factor such as when the employee worries ceaselessly about something that is happening in the workplace. Work stressors can also be described under two headings: ‘short-term’ or ‘long-term’. A short-term stressor is one that is extremely acute and is caused by a reaction to any threat or danger as an immediate reaction. It is also referred to as the ‘fight or flight’ syndrome. When the threat is removed the person would return to a normal level. In a long-term stressor, which is also known as a ‘chronic’ stressor, there are present in the workplace a number of factors that are continuous and cause the fighting spirit to die down. Such conditions become chronic and long lasting and would have to be tackled efficiently by the employer in trying to remove them. (Stress Management)

When the design and the layout of a workplace are poor, then the risk of psychological stress to the worker is considerable higher. For example, when the worker has to spend a lot of time near a source of loud noise or near a source of chemical hazard, then he would suffer from work-induced stress. A worker may suffer mentally too when faced with stressful circumstances. For example, he may suffer from poor concentration levels, or he may find it difficult to assimilate the ideas that he needs to perform at his optimum best. This is something that can be easily avoided by the proper planning of the design of the workplace. (Workplace Layout and Design) The deviance of the workers of an organization from ordinary or normal behavior patterns is known as ‘deviance’. Deviance is supposedly the result of workplace stress. However, some recent research has demonstrated that stress and the resultant deviance may be caused by external circumstances too. One of the circumstances is that there may be violence in the community surrounding the workplace, and related to the conditions in the workplace.

Another reason for deviance is the fact that in many organizations, the wealth, or in other words, the salaries of the personnel may be quite unequally distributed, and the disparity between the CEO’s salary and the basic employee’s salary may be so very vast that the health of the lower paid employee would suffer. This can cause stress. When the psychological health and well being of the employee are affected, then what the result would be in terms of the workplace efficiency can be estimated precisely. The loss in productivity would be huge, and the loss in financial resources and also in the payment of insurance premiums for the employee would be astronomical. All this would be avoided if the amount of workplace stress were to be reduced to a significant level. (Organizational Deviance)

The RSI syndrome is one more factor to be considered in the analysis of the psychological as well as the psychosocial elements that would affect the workplace. An RSI is in other words referred to as the ‘repetitive strain injuries’ that occur at the workplace and affect almost one third of the working people of the United States of America. These invisible and extremely painful injuries to the joints or tendons or other parts of the body often end up limiting the ability of the worker to fulfill his duties, and causes him endless stress. Correct posture, better seating arrangements, and other similar changes would help these people to be more productive, or else they become a burden on the employer since they will not be able to do their jobs well. (Workplace Psychosocial Risk Factors for RSIs)

As defined by Hellriegel and John C. Slocum, an Organization has as its basic duty the responsibility of ‘organizing’ the workplace in a manner that would bring out the best in the employees as well as work well for the management in terms of productivity and efficiency. Therefore, organizing is the function of the management in creating and structuring a plan of relationships within the organization so that the employees can achieve the numerous goals and plans that the management has set out for them. When the workplace is organized in such a way that this is done at an extremely efficient and optimum level, then the employees as well as the management are happy, and the physical and psychological factors affecting the workplace are well avoided. (Strategic Planning Cycle: Organizational Behavior)

An Organization may be defined as a group of coordinated people who all work together in search and achievement of a particular, common goal. (Hellriegel; Jackson; Slocum, 2002) Organizational behavior is the in-depth study and analysis of the way in which a group of people or an individual act when they are within an organization. The approach that is generally used is the ‘system approach’ whereby the inter-connections and relationships that are to be found in the analysis of the whole individual or the whole group or the whole organization and the entire social system within the organization are taken into consideration. The entire exercise is conducted in the hope of building better relationships within the organization by achieving the various objectives set out, like for example, the human objectives, the objectives based on the organization, and the various socially applicable objectives. The elements of organizational behavior are based on the philosophy of the management and its values and objectives. These make up the ‘culture’ of the workplace and the culture determines the workings of the group of employees of the organization.

The group dynamics is what constitutes and also determines the ‘quality’ of the work life of the employees, and the better this is, the better motivated they are in the pursuit and achievement of the goals of the management. The organization generally adopts one particular method of operation. There are several different types of models to choose from and these are the ‘autocratic’, the ‘custodial’, the ‘supportive’, and the ‘collegial’. The autocratic, as the name indicates, is the model of organization that is based on the demarcation of authority. The Manager is seen as the most powerful man or Boss, and the employees learn to either fear him or respect him and obey his commands to the best of their ability. An unhealthy dependence on the man in power is established, and this does not and never has given good results. The custodial type of organization is based on a distribution of economic resources with the manager as the leader. The employees find a sense of security in this form of organization and try to depend on the organization to indulge in their sense of peace and security.

The result achieved is a sense of passive co-operation from the employees. In the supportive model, the manager is meant to offer support to the employees of the organization, and there is participation of the employees in a large number of activities within the organization, in a manner that will bring out the team spirit of co-operation and competitiveness among the employees. The employees are recognized and awarded for their efforts by the management. The collegial model is based on the concept of teamwork under the leadership and guidance of the manager. The team of employees learns discipline and behaves according to the guidelines allotted to the team. The result is that the employees learn to self-analyze,…

Avoiding Overpopulation in the U.S. the United Term Paper

Avoiding Overpopulation in the U.S.

The United States has managed to achieve a stable reproductive rate. That is, as of 1999, our fertility rate is 2.0, meaning that for each two adults we are having two children. (Carter, 1999) This has no doubt been accomplished because we have learned about how to apply population control within our families. However, it does not mean the United States will never have any problems with population growth in the future. The fertility rate doesn’t take immigration into consideration or the fact that many people are living many more years than they used to. It makes sense, then, to continue to concern ourselves about population growth.

The Planned Parenthood Federation has worked for many decades to make birth control available for all who want it. Their mission statement says:

Planned Parenthood believes in the fundamental right of each individual… To manage his or her fertility, regardless of the individual’s income, marital status, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, national origin, or residence. We believe that respect and value for diversity in all aspects of our organization are essential to our well-being…we further believe that such self-determination will contribute to an enhancement of the quality of life, strong family relationships, and population stability. (PPFA, accessed 2002)

Birth control has been part of human life for thousands of years. An illustration on the wall of a cave in France shows a man using a condom. (PPFA, accessed 2002). According to this source, medicine has known that condoms can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) since the 18th century.

Since the invention of the condom, however, science has provided humankind with a wide variety of options for birth control. They can be divided into barrier methods, conception blockers and surgical approaches.

Barrier methods include condoms but also diaphragm, cervical caps and sponges. Each approach has benefits and drawbacks. Some men may prefer that the woman use a diaphragm, but they must be obtained by prescription and carefully fitted. Sponges may not be as effective as other barrier methods, and neither diaphragms nor sponges protect against sexually transmitted diseases. Intra-uterine devices must be inserted and removed by a physician, and can sometimes cause complications. (PPFA, accessed 2002)

Condoms have a couple of distinct advantages. They prevent pregnancy effectively. (PPFA, accessed 2002) In addition, they help protect against the acquisition and spread of disease. They can also be used if sex is decided upon impulsively. They are small, portable and easily purchased without a prescription. However, they must be handled carefully, and even with care taken, condoms sometimes break.

Other approaches interfere with conception. These approaches include birth control pills, implants put under the skin (Norplants®), Depo-Provera®, and intra-uterine devices Depo-Provera® is a shot given to the woman every 12 weeks. Like birth control pills and Norplants®, it prevents ovulation. Implants require the woman to come in and have the rods inserted under the skin, and the woman has to remember to go in every 12 weeks for the shot with Depo-Provera®. A surprising number of women who sincerely do not want to become pregnant still forget to take their birth control pill on a regular basis, and the fact is that these approaches use potentially powerful drugs. In some people they can have mild to severe, or rarely, life-threatening, side effects.

Birth control pills may have extra benefits. Some actually reduce acne, and in some women, birth control pills decrease the severity of PMS (pre-menstrual syndrome) and cramps.

Surgical choices include a vasectomy for the male or tubal ligation for the female. Both are considered permanent although they may be occasionally reversible.

Providing Sex Education

Such goals can only be met when sex education is available for all people of reproductive age. They hold classes, and they do individual counseling with women and couples who come to them for services.

In addition to Planned Parenthood’s efforts, many schools now provide sex education for their students. These programs vary greatly. Some begin as early as kindergarten, some begin in later elementary school, and some are woven throughout the children’s school career. The most effective sex education alerts sexually active students to the various kinds of birth control available so that each couple can choose what is best suited to their needs. Some school-based programs emphasize abstinence, which will protect the student from sexually transmitted diseases as well as pregnancy.

Sex education may be one reason the numbers of teen pregnancies have declined in the past ten years (Koshar, 2001). According to Koshar (2001), teen pregnancies cost our economy seven billion dollars per year. Only one third of these mothers get a high school diploma. In some education programs, the teens are given a “baby surrogate.” This can as simple as a bag of flour. But some programs have dolls controlled with computer chips that cause the babies to cry. The students can do various things to “comfort” the child and end the crying, but as in real life, these efforts won’t always work. And, as in real life, some of these episodes will occur in real life. The students are teamed as “couples,” and both male and female are required to care for the baby. The computer chip reports whether the doll was cared for as a real baby should have been or not. (Koshar, 2001)

Sex education also has to include information about sexually transmitted disease (STD’s), or young people may mistakenly think that birth control methods help prevent the spread of STD’s. While some help prevent this, others do not.

According to Koshar (2001), there are a variety of reasons for the decrease in teen pregnancy. She mentions that more teens are choosing to abstain from sex than in the past. In addition, more of those who are sexually active are using birth control, although she also notes that 20% of unwed teen mothers intended to get pregnant for a variety of reasons. Some teens who were previously sexually active choose to not take that path in a later relationship. She also points out that there’s more information available for parents so that they can talk to their teen children in an intelligent way and help guide them to make better choices in their interpersonal relationships. No doubt some of these gains have been made due to the efforts of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

The best sex education, of course, begins at home. Young people need to know what their parents’ views are regarding sex before marriage. Most parents will choose to discourage sex at an early age, and many families and religions emphasize no sex outside marriage. Nevertheless it will be helpful if parents will provide birth control information if their teens do become sexually active.

Population and the Quality of Life

Although we have had a temporary downturn, the American economy has been vital and growing. Many more families are able to save money for the future or invest, providing a sound financial future for themselves and their children. Smaller families, and families that don’t start out as single teens having babies, are likely to be more stable financially.

In addition to improving lifestyle and family economics, the statistics show that babies born to mothers past their teen years are more likely to be born healthy. When a pregnancy is planned, the mother and father can make sure they are in good health before conceiving, and get early prenatal care. For instance, prenatal vitamins are crucial during the early months of pregnancy (Koshar, 2001). This crucial early period of prenatal care often doesn’t take place in unexpected pregnancies. (PPFA, 2002).

Making Responsible Choices

Not everyone agrees with the goal of maintaining a low birth rate. Carter (1999) reports, “Couples with disposable incomes, higher education, access to contraception and a wife in the workforce have interests that compete with raising children. Demographically speaking, ‘pregnancies delayed — to some extent — are pregnancies denied,’ writes American Enterprise Institute scholar Ben Wattenberg in his book, The Birth Dearth.”

But this is apparently the goal of those using birth control to decide what the size of their family will be. Except for surgical approaches, birth control is a temporary intervention that any couple can set aside whenever they choose. Delaying childbirth allows potential parents to focus on preparing for adult life first, by completing high school, vocational training or college without the struggle of juggling the financial and time demands of child rearing and day care. Parents who hold stable jobs will have better health benefits for all of their family, including their children. It could be argued that responsible adults delay having children until they are certain they can be financially responsible for them.

Planned Parenthood has a series of recommendations for couples who intend to conceive. The steps they recommend emphasize the need to avoid conception by accident.

First, they recommend that the woman see her doctor to make sure she has no conditions that may complicate the pregnancy, such as high…

Caribbean Person Describe the Personality of a Essay

Caribbean Person

Describe the personality of a famous Caribbean person from the perspective of two of the theories discussed in this course (not trait theory) and then conclude with your own impression of the adequacy of those two theories’ explanation of the individual’s personality.

When most people hear the name Bob Marley, they will often associate it with a singer who is: pointing out the social ills of the 1970’s or the genre of music that he helped to make famous (Reggae). However, underneath it all he was more than just a great entertainer and song writer. As there were numerous aspects of his personality, that helped to define the music and his legacy.

Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that Bob Marley and the Wailers have sold 21 million albums since 1991. At the same time, Marley has received a number of favorable distinctions including: a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, he was inducted into the Rock N Roll Hall of Fame, he is the recipient of a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and he has been honored with the Jamaican Order of Merit (one of the highest distinctions given in Jamaica). These different elements are important, because they are showing how Bob Marley would help to redefine an entire genre of music. (Moskowitz, 2007, pg. xii)

However, what made him larger than life were his personality traits that he exhibited. This created a sense of awe about the man and the ideas that he left behind. Over the course of time this helped him in characterizing the music and the message. Once this occurred, is when his popularity soared, as he became larger than life. To fully understand Bob Marley requires examining his personality in comparison with two different theories that were discussed in class most notably: Maslow and Freud. This is the point that we will be able to see how his personality would influence the music and his popularity.

Bob Marley

Bob Marley was born on February 6, 1945; in the village of Nine Mile, St. Ann (Northern Jamaica). His mother was of African descent and delivered him when she was 18 years old. While his father, was a 50 years old (white) quarter master with the British West Indies Fleet. Although they were married prior to Marley’s birth, his father never really saw his son grow up. This is because there were constant amounts of pressure placed on him to offer limited amounts of support and to spend no time with him. (“Life and Legacy,” 2011)

As a result, Marley grew up in: a poor, rural environment. In the late 1950’s, is when he would move to Kingston. For most people, this was supposed to give them greater economic opportunities. However, the reality was that it was no more than a big city with shanti towns everywhere. Marley spent considerable amounts of time in the Trench Town neighborhood of Kingston 12. As he was exposed to tremendous amounts of: poverty and inequality that existed in these communities. (“Life and Legacy,” 2011)

It was during this time that he met Bunny Wailer and was introduced to Rastafari. This would reshape Marley’s image of the world and who he would become. As, he would start out embracing many of the traditional sounds of: the late 1950′ and early 1960’s in his music. Then, during the late 1960’s and into the 1970’s is when his music began to take on more of a social message. This is the point that Marley would be transformed from just another entertainer. To someone, who represented Jamaica and new genre of music. Once this occurred, is when he began to redefine how everyone is entertained. (“Life and Legacy,” 2011)

After Marley died in 1981, is when his interviews and the music began to take shape based upon the image that he left behind. This is when he became the symbol of Reggae music, with future generations following the example that he set. What made him such an enormous influence was: his personality and the way that he lived his life. This allowed Marley to become one the greatest entertainers ever. (“Life and Legacy,” 2011)

Freud and the Theories Views on Bob Marley

Freud’s theories are based on the belief that events which happened during childhood will have an impact on someone when they become an adult. This is because the positive or negative experiences, will define how we subconsciously react to a host of situations. When someone is older, this will automatically influence who they are and the way that they are interacting with the world around them. (Cherry, 2011)

Moreover, Freud determined that many of these events and how we behave are often compartmentalized in the mind into a number of different categories these include: the conscious and unconscious mind. The conscious mind is when someone is aware of what is happening around them and they will control how they are reacting to a variety of situations. The unconscious mind is when a person will began expressing the thoughts or ideas about how they really feel. This is because, an event or experience that they had when they are younger are influencing who they would become. At which point, they will begin talking about these ideas or thoughts without being fully aware of them. (Cherry, 2011)

In the case of Bob Marley, the events that occurred to him as a child were often experienced as unconscious thoughts in his music and during his concerts. Where, he was caught between two different worlds when: he was growing up and wanted everyone to be respectful of one another. In his music, this is constantly coming up with him discussing everyone working together and cherishing one another. (Cherry, 2011)

A good example of this can be seen in the lyrics from his song One Love with him writing, “One Love, One Heart. Let’s get together and feel all right. Hear the children crying (One Love). Hear the children crying (One Heart). Saying’ give thanks and praise to the Lord and I will feel all right. Saying’ let’s get together and feel all right. Let them all pass all their dirty remarks (One Love). There is one question I’d really like to ask (One Heart). Is there a place for the hopeless sinner. Who has hurt all mankind just to save his own? Believe me. One Love, One Heart. Let’s get together and feel all right. As it was in the beginning (One Love). So shall it be in the end (One Heart). Give thanks and praise to the Lord and I will feel all right.” (One Love Lyrics,” 2011) This is significant, because it is showing how the Marley is subconsciously speaking about love. (Cherry, 2011)

As a result, one could easily tie the sense of abandonment that he felt as a child, to determine the kind of songs he would write. As Marley wanted to express these feelings in a format that everyone would understand. During the course of composing the song is when these ideas would come out. This is because he is going into the deep recesses of his mind, to express these ideas. Once this takes place, is when he is telling everyone some of the unconscious thoughts that he has experienced throughout his life.

Maslow’s Views on Bob Marley

In 1943, William Maslow had studied some of the most successful people, to determine what specific needs were being met. As this was used to decide, what led to their successes in life. A few of the most notable that he interviewed include: Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt and Jane Adams. What he determined; is that there is a hierarchy of needs that must be satisfied in order for someone to achieve more in their life. Once a basic requirement has been met, is when there is a change in the needs of the person. As they will begin, automatically focusing on the next level. When some reaches the final stage (self-actualization), this is when they having a true sense of enlightenment. (Cherry, 2011)

To determine what needs are most important to someone, Maslow created the self-actualization pyramid. As, he found that there were several areas that must be addressed in someone’s life to include: psychological, safety, love / belonging, esteem and self-actualization. Psychological needs are when a person must have their basic requirements met to feel comfortable to include: water, food, shelter and sex. Safety is when an individual needs to have a way to support themselves such as: having a job, remaining in good health and financial security. Love / belonging are when someone is concentrating on: friendship, sexual intimacy and family. Esteem is when a person wants to feel good about themselves and have the respect of others. While self-actualization, is when the individual is focusing on dealing with more abstract concepts such as: prejudices, justice and equality. Once someone reaches this stage, is the point that they will express their ideas…

Transformational Leadership Style ISTJ Term Paper

Transformational Leadership Style type, ISTJ enhances or hinders leadership effectiveness while working as a team. An observer defines leadership as follows: “Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.” (Donald Clark, 1997)

Transformational leadership stems from George MacGregor Burns (1978) Model of Moral, Transaction & Transformational Leaders. According to Burns an amoral leader cannot be a true leader. In this way he creates dichotomy of morality in leaderships. While a moral leader is a real leader in Burns’ eyes an amoral leader is one who exhibits naked power coercion like fascists and dictators and hence viable of becoming infamous. He goes further to classify a moral leader into Transactional and Transformational Leaderships.

Moral Transactional and Transformational leaderships only differ in their set of peculiar model values. While transactional leadership follows the doctrines of honesty, responsibility, fairness and honoring of ones pledges, Transitional leadership believes in Liberty, Justice, Equality and Collective well-being (Burns). Of the sixteen types of Transitional leadership, ISTJ OR the Introvert Sensing Thinking Judging Type is considered to be the most responsible and reliable one.

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP.

According to Burns Theory (1978):

“A Transformational Leader recognizes and exploits an existing need or demand of a potential follower, scrutinizes the potentials in his followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs and engages the full persona of the follower.”

For Burns the aim of transformational leader is to “deal with leadership as distinct from mere power-holding and as the opposite of brute power” (Burns, 1978, Burns Theory Publication, p.4). In this way a transformational leader seeks to develop a relationship not entirely based on power, but also on mutual needs, higher values and aspirations.

In order to inspire a worker into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things a leader must be, know and do. Leaders therefore are not resting on their laurels. leadership, as initiated by the Burns theory can only be carried out by applying noble attributes of beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge and skills. In this way leadership becomes something that one develops and renovates continuously through constant self-analysis, education, training and experience. This is the only way to improve their leadership skills.

However, Bass’s theory (1989 & 1990) slightly differs from that of Burns with regard to transformational leadership. He lists three basic ways of how people become leaders. According to him some personality traits may lead people naturally into assuming leadership roles. This, he calls The Trait Theory. Secondly, adverse circumstances or a critical event may cause a person to take charge, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is called the Great Events Theory. Thirdly when people strive to develop leadership qualities, they can become leaders. This he names Transformational Leadership.

Transformational leadership is based on the assumption that association with a higher moral position is motivating and will result in people following a leader who promotes it and also that, collaborated efforts are far more productive than those done individually. Hence Transformational leadership is a process where leaders and followers engage in a mutual process of helping one another in mounting up a staircase to an elevated position in morality and motivation. Hence these leaders are highly idealistic and value oriented.

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE: ISTJ

ISTJ or Introvert Sensing Thinking Judging Type of transformational leadership is perhaps the finest and most efficient type of leadership trait among the sixteen other variations of transformational leaderships. An ISTJ leader believes in the potential of teamwork rather than his own skills and qualities and works to motivate and navigate his followers towards high goals and aspirations with his undaunted courage and passion. His qualities of character inspire his followers to work just as diligently and embrace his aims as their own. Moreover, it is believed that no other type is more driven by responsibility or the phrase “bottom line” as much as an ISTJ thus explaining how their goals are strictly entwined in a time frame. People who fall under this category are though workaholics, and introverts but they still lead a life of an apparent extravert owing to their leadership qualities. As an added premium to their responsible nature, these people acquire social grace, facility with words, present ability and all other sorts of interpersonal skills demanded at any given moment. Their peculiar sensing nature is shaped by how they percept information. They focus to different situations with greater depth as they contemplate inwardly concentrating on objectivity, immediacy, concreteness and pragmatism. This eliminates a clout of assumptions and self-conclusions and displays things in a liquid-crystal picture before them. Hence confusions based on self-deductions are minimized and nothing is taken for granted on the other hand. Their tangible and objective approach to problems helps them immediately organize and schedule their steps to work on in order to fulfill a certain task.

To them the basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to their ends, aims or organization. To a follower, leadership is everything they do that effects the organization’s objectives and their well being. Leaders on the other hand, are required to concentrate on what their capabilities, beliefs and character. For instance they should rely and inspire their co-workers/followers with their abilities as a physicist, their belief in seeing their organization soaring new heights, and their character of selfless, and diligent efforts, honesty and mutual welfare.

Professions with practical and tangible results appeal to the ISTJs such as surgery, law and accounting. Since all the mentioned professions involve working alone, fulfilling their (I) trait of introversion, also these professions are very result oriented appealing their sensibility of a tangible outcome, and require objective thinking (T) and follow a prescribed way of doing things (J).

Owing to the above personality traits ISTJs useful and important part of any organization they run or are associated with. As a member of work environment, they put through their experiences and knowledge of the facts to make decisions. Hence their decisions are pertinent, practical, pragmatic and sound. They dwell on their reliability, stability and consistency in performance in order to lead or inspire their co-workers or followers. Moreover, they would never be the ones to propose radical approaches or out do traditional and hierarchical ones. In fact they hold a great regard for long-established and conventional approaches. They also reward those who follow the rules in getting the job done. Pay attention to immediate and practical organizational needs. Therefore they are a valuable contribution to any organization.

However the same persona harbors some elements that deter the functionality of teamwork within a work environment. As they are almost finicky about object oriented thinking, they expect others to consider things just the way they do, failing to grasp a different view-of-point owing to difference in reference point or assumptions other might have regarding a particular issue. This results in failure on part of the whole unit, to be able to coherently follow their objectives. Since pragmatism and observation with no-strings-attached comes easily and naturally to them they expect similar behavior of virtually everyone else. These makes them extremely demanding both at home and work, and makes them tensed if someone resists the set of ideals and that they rules they follow. Some observers classify ISTJs as classic type A personalities — driven, impatient and obsessive.

They may also overlook implications that might occur in the long run while being deeply indulged in day-to-day affairs. They may also neglect interpersonal niceties or minute details of an issue owing to their broad-based vision. On failure of someone grasping their point-of-view or failing to understand them they may get disturbed and impatient. If someone resists the rules set and followed by them, they may also get…

Special Needs Children With Special Needs It Essay

Special Needs

Children with Special Needs

It is difficult to imagine a more vulnerable group than that comprised by children and adolescents with special needs. The vulnerability lies in the fact that though they have a voice it is often ignored. This does not mean that people do not want to listen to them, but, unfortunately, adults often either have an agenda or they believe they know what is better for the child than the child him or herself. It is true that children who have a physical disabilities, behavioral disorders and mental disorders such as autism may not understand what is best for them, but they should be able to voice their desires also. This includes both the interactions that they have with caregivers, other authority figures and peers. The individual in this situation needs someone to advocate for them because “they are a particularly vulnerable group and have, traditionally, been even more excluded from decisions about matters affecting their lives” (Knight & Oliver, 2007). This paper presents the case for advocacy for the groups mentioned above and provides a view of the concerns and difficulties these individuals have, why advocacy is crucial to these populations, and then offers a comprehensive plan for giving these children and adolescents the voice that they deserve.

Concerns and Difficulties

One could assume that the difficulties that children with disabilities of all types face reside primarily in the physical realm, and that is a partially accurate statement, but the invisibility of the young person is a concern also. The physical problems that, for example, a child with autism can have are well documented. These children often have tics, do not like physical interaction, do not interact well with their physical environment, and so on (Mulick & Butler, 2002). Physical disabilities can range from the severe in which a child in unable to accomplish individual care to the child with cerebral palsy who just has a slight limp (Knight & Oliver, 2007). Children and adolescents with behavioral disorders may not have a great deal of physical disability, but the ability to interact successfully with the outside world may be completely lacking (Murray, 2005). These outward signs of the disability are present and cause much of the immediate problem that these young people have, but they are also a group who is largely unnoticed when it comes to policy decisions on state and federal levels. When speaking specifically about children with mental disorders, Ptakowski (2010) writes

“Despite 2 decades of dedicated effort there remain many children and adolescents with mental illness without health insurance. Workforce shortages in child psychiatrists, inadequate reimbursement of health care costs, limited government-supported research funding, and lack of coordinated systems of care result in persistent barriers to effective mental health care.”

Though she is talking specifically about mental health diagnoses, the case can easily be made that this is true for any child with any type of disability. The constant challenges presented by the actual disability may actually pale in comparison to the difficulties they have related to inadequate care and resources.

Another problem, though it is well-meaning, is that children with disabilities are frequently mainstreamed, at least to some extent, into the public school system. This is actually a good idea, but it does cause issues. It is impossible for staff or a caregiver to be watching all of the time. This means that the disabled child, as an easy target, could be faced with bullying or other degradation on a daily basis.

Advocacy Purpose

Advocacy for these young people is crucial, as it is for adults with the same deficits, because, as stated above, they do not usually have a very loud voice. Meaning that though they can speak out, they are often not heard by people who can make a difference. Advocacy can be defined as “speaking out and making a case for something important and about supporting a cause” (Ptakowski, 2010). Others talk about the intercession aspect of advocacy (Ryan & Cole, 2008) or the fact that it can also include lobbying and other political and legal means of influencing the system (Mulick & Butter, 2002). But the fact remains that the practice is crucial.

Youth is generally pampered in the United States. Whereas the nation used to honor people as they grew older and became more wise and infirm, there has been a drive to look and feel younger, and to glorify youth since at least the 1960’s. It is an unfortunate trend that looks at age as an impediment rather than a passage to something better, and this has made the culture seem more self-centered and uncaring. This may not be true in general, but it does seem to be the message that is shared on popular media. However, the disabled faction of the youth in America are not regarded with any sort of glorification. Young people who have some type of disability are relegated to the same second or third tier status as those who have grown old and infirm. A youth culture does not want to be reminded that to those whom much is given much is expected. Those who are strong should provide the advocacy for those who are not as physically strong. The practice of advocacy for these individuals is very crucial because they are basically a large but relatively silent group who need the strength of others to help them realize the benefits of life that others who have youth often take for granted.

Advocacy Plan

Bullying Seminars

All three groups — those with autism, behavioral disorders and physical disabilities — are prone to bullying to a degree that other children might not be. It is possible that other youth will not pick on a disabled child because they feel bad about it, but that is doubtful. Any child that acts differently is subject to bullying because it is easier to lash out than to understand. Since these groups will likely be targeted, the first step of the plan is to create seminars that can be held both with students and with teachers, in classrooms, teachers meetings and school-community gatherings.

The first step in this process is to be sure and create the seminar in such a manner that it does nt single any student out. Talk about the subject in general because any child that is singled out may have more issues with bullies later on. For the teacher-only seminars design them in such a way that they are aware of the problems that disabled students are likely to have and ensure that safety procedures are discussed. With the students keep the topic generic, but discuss with them both the physical and psychological effects of being bullied. In high school classrooms, it may be appropriate to use recent high school shootings as a part of the seminar (this should be thoroughly discussed), but it would be inappropriate for younger children. Parent attended seminars should also include signs that they can look for regarding having a bully in the home and someone who is being bullied.

The seminars should be concise and interesting enough to hold the audience’s attention. They should also be held at times that are designed to include the maximum amount of people. It may also be wise to include other community groups in the discussion to demonstrate the seriousness of the issue.

Teaching Coping Skills

Many different disabled youth will have a caregiver that stays with them during school hours to act as an aide, but there are those who have to face the pressures of school without constant assistance. Even some children with what may seem very serious conditions that would inhibit their ability to learn (such as autism and neuromuscular disorders) are able to attend school without constant assistance. Whether they receive assistance or not the child needs to know how to cope with the added pressure of the classroom, and have an advocate that can help them with that.

Ryan and Cole (2009) note that mothers are some of the most well-prepared caregivers and advocates for their children, but they will likely not be around very much during the school day, so they need to teach as much at home as they can. The parents, teachers and administrative staff at the school need to understand the disabilities of the children, and as far as the instructors and administrative staff, how they can get the best response from the child.

These would also be seminar classes that would be voluntary for the parents, but mandatory for teachers and staff. Each disability poses different issues when it comes to both ability to learn and socialize in the school. The seminars would be split into learning modules that reflect all of the training that is needed for the parents and teaching staff. The teachers, who have certain types of disabled children in their classes will be able to talk about experiences that they have had and this is important and should be encouraged, but there should…