Footbinding the Chinese Idea of Essay

Footbinding the Chinese Idea of Essay

This era is significant because it was dominated by peace at a local level, political constancy, and economic growth as a result of a dictatorship created by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The moment when he became shogun was very important in Ieyasu’s life, as he was provided with the opportunity to commence a plan that he was thinking of long before he came to rule Japan. He sent many of his allies to rule over areas that he considered being potentially hostile in an attempt to have people there change their opinions regarding his personae. This individual was well-acquainted with the fact that control was one of the most effective tools that a leader could use and thus focused on having as much control as possible. Ieyasu’s successor further continued his predecessor’s system of gaining control over his people and influenced all of the Daimyos in Japan to live in Edo for several months per year.

Japan was heavily influenced by outside influences at the time and foreign ideas made it difficult for people to be able to comprehend that it was important for them to answer directly to the shogun. As a consequence, Ieyasu started to express more and more suspicion concerning foreigners and Christianity in particular. In spite of the fact that he was supportive of trade, he could not accept that it had a negative influence because it brought in foreigners and thus limited it to the port of Nagasaki. The shogunate eventually began a wide-scale witch hunt meant to punish whoever was courageous enough to act in disagreement with Japanese cultural values.

Japan experienced a series of internal conflicts during the first years of the Tokugawa period because people had trouble understanding the system’s strategies. However, conditions gradually improved as strict hierarchies were installed and as people were provided with the opportunity to choose the role that they were going to play in their community. This made it possible for many of them to head toward cities in an attempt to improve their social status.

The elites were sophisticated and their involvement in internal affairs seriously boosted the country’s economy. Edo in particular became a thriving centre, as “the location there of the shogunate, and the alternate attendance of the daimyo and their retainers, made this inevitable” (Henshall 65). Edo was the largest city in the world during the late eighteenth century as a result of the fact that its population counted one million individuals. In spite of the fact that Edo was the most important city in the county, other cities were also successful as peasants travelled there in large numbers “to seek their fortune amidst all this new economic activity” (Henshall 65).

People living in towns were an active part of Japan’s economy and they were also responsible for developing a new and lively culture. Their personality virtually made it possible for the shogunate to achieve the goals that it had set at the start of the Tokugawa period. The fact that cities contained aristocrats and merchants living in the same environment added to this cultural diversity. Merchants were more eccentric and they did not have to think about conserving their social status by maintaining a sober attitude. “They preferred the colour and ostentation of the kabuki, with its exaggerated movements, simple melodramatic plots, and stage effects such as trapdoors and revolving stages” (Henshall 65). While the ruling classes regarded the search for profits as being undignified, the merchants thought otherwise and some of them actually set the roots for some of the most significant businesses in the history of Japan. Even with this, as people acknowledge that it was beneficial for them and for the Japanese society as a whole to focus on profit-making, conditions in the country changed and even individuals from the ruling classes started to accept this concept (Henshall 68).

Merchants were an essential factor in boosting Japan’s economy, but they were also responsible for bringing down the shogunate and the Tokugawa era. The fact that the aristocracy focused on having merchants seen as being part of the lower classes meant that the community was imbalanced and that it was very difficult for people to understand what was good for them and what was not.

All things considered, the Tokugawa period played an essential role in shaping Japan’s history and it is one of the main reasons for which many Japanese today concentrate on values such as dignity and profit-making. The fact that the country’s economy is presently one of the most powerful in the world further demonstrates that the Edo era has had a beneficial influence on Japan when considering things from a general point-of-view.

Works cited:

Henshall, Kenneth, “A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower,” (Palgrave Macmillan, 15.05.2012)

Lambert, Tim, “A BRIEF HISTORY of KOREA,” Retrieved October 16, 2012, from the a World History Encyclopedia Website: http://www.localhistories.org/korea.html

Miles, Nancy, “Footbinding,” Retrieved October 16, 2012, from the UCLA Website: http://www.international.ucla.edu/shenzhen/2002ncta/miles/index.htm

Seth, Michael J. “A Concise History of Korea: From the Neolithic Period Through the Nineteenth Century,” (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006)

Varley, Paul H., “Japanese Culture,” (University of Hawaii Press, 2000)

“Marco Polo and His Travels,” Retrieved October 16,…

Ethics of School Psychology the Term Paper

Accountability:

Accountability is an extremely important issue with regard to ethics, as guidelines demonstrate a volume of information that is assumed to be known and practiced by school psychologists, the individual is therefore accountable for the appropriate application of them, as well as any other laws or rules that govern their direct contact arenas, as well as other areas of the broad practice. (Medway & Cafferty, 1992, p. 333)

In the NASP Guidelines the accountability issue is discussed with regard to supervisor duties, but is implied as a demonstrative aspect of review and policy change with regard to the training of qualified staff to meet the greater good of children, through all their service areas.

Supervisors lead school psychological services units in developing, implementing, and evaluating a coordinated plan for accountability and evaluation of all services provided by individual staff members and by the unit as a whole in order to maintain the highest level of services. Such plans include specific, measurable objectives pertaining to the planned effects of services on all relevant elements of the system and the students it serves. Evaluation is both formative and summative. (NASP, 2000, p. 57)

It is therefore assumed that accountability differs with regard to the area of service being provided and the level of knowledge that the individual has with regard to local laws, regulations and standards set forth by institutions and that ultimate accountability lies with the supervisor to make sure that the individuals in service are aware of these obligations.

Evidence-Based Practice:

Evidence-based practice is a new phenomena with regard to school psychology as it has become a pervasive issue with regard to education in general. (Kratochwill, 2004, p. 34) It is imperative that school psychologists, as new members of a growing research team, understand and apply evidenced-based counseling practices in an informed manner. Transitions from lest strict forms of practice, to those which require clear research and repeatability are frequently difficult, and the need to be current is essential as school psychologists become accountable for proof of application standards. The overall goal of the current model is to create systems that allow clinical practice to be a part of research and vise versa. The application of these models can be difficult, in a practical setting and practitioners must take particular care to demonstrate ethical principles in using practical situations as future evidence for care.

The integration of EBIs evidence based interventions into practice settings is not always well tailored to the daily demands of practitioners’ lives. In educational settings, psychologists face administrative and practical barriers that are not always present in research settings. Thus, even when psychologists are aware of the empirical evidence supporting a technique or procedure, they may not infuse this evidence into practice because doing so would require more work than time permits or more resources than are available. (Kratochwill, 2004, p. 34)

To a large degree this is where modern post-grad training is essential to competency and application of ethics in utilizing empirical data, in and outside the counseling setting. As, an aspect of the mission of the NASP there is a clear sense that continued training and application are essential for this overarching theme of evidence-based practice to be successful. “School psychologists apply current empirically based theory and knowledge of learning theory and cognitive processes to the development of effective instructional strategies to promote student learning and social and emotional development.” (NASP, 2000, p. 43) Again the core of the bridge between evidenced-based models and the actual counseling aspect of the profession is reliant on continuing education and supervisor review of current understanding with regard to individual school psychologists.

Conclusion:

The appropriate application of ethics in the practice of school psychology is absolutely imperative as is explained by the fact that many of these professionals practice within a population that is intrinsically vulnerable. Though, some do not practice with children per se they are still practicing within a secondary population of high vulnerability, i.e. The mentally ill. There is a clear sense that NASP has created a broad guideline that is meant to express the general core values of ethic as they apply to school psychology and more specifically as they apply to counseling clients, be they children, parents, or key support personnel. There is also a clear sense that the advocacy of children as the primary client to be protected, is a fundamental mission of the NASP and in the case of the APA the definition of who is the primary client and what rights they have is also significant to ethical decision making. As can be seen in this overview of the ethical guidelines for school psychology there are many hard and fast themes that are expected to be followed in accordance with laws, rule and guidelines that apply to the individual psychologist and the information regarding why they are imperative also weaves through the documents to support such ethics. Direct patient care is an essentially difficult area as the personal and often unexpected outcomes of such care can be potentially harmful or exponentially helpful to a student and his or her family and avoidance of the former should guide all ethical decisions in the area of direct client counseling with students, parents and key support professionals.

References

American Psychological Association. (2002) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code Of Conduct.

Domrowski, S.C., & Gischlar, K.L. (2006). Supporting School Professionals through the Establishment of a School District Policy on Child Maltreatment. Education, 127(2), 234.

Dupaul, G.J. (2003). Commentary: Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice. School Psychology Review, 32(2), 178.

Eckert, T.L., Miller, D.N., Dupaul, G.J., & Riley-Tillman, T.C. (2003). Adolescent Suicide Prevention: School Psychologists’ Acceptability of School-Based Programs. School Psychology Review, 32(1), 57.

Fagan, T.K. (2002). School Psychology: Recent Descriptions, Continued Expansion, and an Ongoing Paradox. School Psychology Review, 31(1), 5.

Fagan, T.K. & Warden, P.G. (Eds.). (1996). Historical Encyclopedia of School Psychology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Kratochwill, T.R. (Ed.). (1988). Advances in School Psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kratochwill, T.R. (2004). Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 34.

Lowen, J. (1993, Summer). Is Everything Permitted? Reconnecting Psychology and Ethics. Free Inquiry, 13, 22.

Maney, A. & Wells, S. (Eds.). (1988). Professional Responsibilities in Protecting Children: A Public Health Approach to Child…

How to Deal With Customer Compalints Essay

Crisis Action Plan

First, the manager must look at the tweets, video and comments that were left online. This will allow him to see what is happening from Mr. Ward’s perspective and determine if there is any kind of employee wrongdoing. This is when the manager must talk about what happened with the employees involved. They will be shown the video, tweet and reviews. After this, is when they will asked what happened and why the reacted the way that they did. The manager must remain calm and unemotional throughout the process. This is designed to reduce the underlying amounts of tension and help everyone to take a step back

Next, it is imperative to speak with Mr. Ward directly. This means calling him and talking about the issues he is dealing with. During this process, it is important to let Mr. Ward vent his frustrations and agree with him. This will allow him to release the pent up emotions he is feeling from the events related to the overbooking. After he calms down, is when the manager should tell him that he will investigate the situation and call him back within an hour. At this time, he must ask him to refrain from saying anything more that is derogatory about the hotel, its staff and his experiences. This will ensure that the situation is quickly resolved from behind the scenes.

After this, the management must create a win — win situation for all parties. The best avenue is to offer to cover the full expenses Mr. Ward has from the overbooking. At the same time, it is imperative to go one step further by giving him three free nights in the future. Then, apologize for what is happening and reassure him that will never take place again. In exchange, the manager must ask Mr. Ward to remove the negative comments, video and review. This is because the situation is resolved and he has to show that he is not going to slander and liable the hotel.

If he refuses to do so, the manager should proceed with the agreement and forward the situation to the hotel’s legal counsel. They will peruse him based upon the fact that he is engaging in liable and slander. To achieve these objectives, the firm’s attorneys can show that after resolving the situation and Mr. Ward accepted the offer and then he refused to…

Focus on Sleep Deprivation Term Paper

Sleep Deprivation on the Brain

Studies on sleep deprivation continually display an inconsistent (negative) effect on mood, cognitive behaviour, and motor function as a result of a rising propensity for sleep as well as the destabilization of the wake condition. Unique neurocognitive domains such as executive attention, functioning memory, and conflicting higher cognitive behaviours are specifically apt to loss of sleep. In human beings, functional neurophysiological and metabolic studies prove that neural systems that are part of executive function (i.e., prefrontal cortex) are more prone to sleep deprivation in certain persons than in others. New persistent sleep deprivation studies, where sleep loss that are closely replicated in the society, show that deep neurocognitive shortfalls gather over time when faced with subjective adjustment to sleep sensation. All sleep deprivations that are related to any kind of disease-related disintegration like restless legs syndrome and sleep apnea equally lead to neurocognitive function reductions quite similar to those sleep restriction studies display. Function deficits related to sleep disorders are mostly seen as a mere function of severity of diseases; nevertheless, new experiments prove that the vulnerability of individuals to loss of sleep may play a more vital role than what was previously believed (Durmer & Dinges, 2005).

The Impact of Chronic Sleepiness

People suffering from sleep deprivation often talk about feeling foggy. Below are three reasons why this happens.

1. Thought processes are slowed down by sleepiness. According to scientists who study sleepiness, sleep deprivation leads to lower concentration and alertness. It is not easy to pay attention and focus, which means a person can get more confused easily. This hinders the ability of a person to carry out tasks that call for complex thoughts or logical reasoning. A person’s sense of judgement can also be impaired by sleepiness. It becomes difficult to make decisions because an individual cannot carry out adequate assessment of situations and cannot also choose the right set of behaviours (Peri, n.d).

2. Memory is also impaired by sleepiness. According to researches, the nerve endings that are responsible for human memories are further strengthened during sleep. Sleep has a way of embedding what people have learned and the experiences they have had during the day into their short-term memory. It seems that every sleep phase plays a unique role in embedding new ideas and information into memories. If sleep is disrupted or cut short, these cycles are interfered with. When a person feels sleepy, he or she may easily forget or misplace important things most often. And the inability to concentrate and focus as a result of this sleepiness weakens a person’s memory further (Peri, n.d).

3. Learning is made more difficult by poor sleeping habits. Sleep deprivation hinders the ability to learn in two distinct ways. Because an individual cannot pay attention when sleeping, picking up information is more difficult, so learning effectively becomes more difficult for the individual. Memory is also affected, despite being a very vital tool for learning. Sleepiness in children often leads to hyperactivity, also hindering learning. Teens easily lose their diligence, focus, and their memory capacity to do well in school works (Peri, n.d).

Sleep deprivation is closely linked to considerable financial, social, and costs related to health to a very large extent due to the fact that it leads to hampered cognitive behaviour as a result of rising sleeping instability and propensity of awakening neurobehavioral performances. Cognitive performances mostly affected by lack of sleep include cognitive speed and psychomotor, executive and vigilante attention, higher cognitive tendencies and working memory. Consistent sleep-restriction studies-which assesses the type of sleep deprivation individuals experience with premature sleep reduction and sleep fragmentation as a result of lifestyle and disorder-show that cognitive deficits build up to very severe levels over time, with the affected individual oblivious of the situation. Functioning neuroimaging has proved that constant and continuous prolonged cognitive lapses, which are known to be the main traits of sleep deprivation, involve circulated changes in the regions of the brain such as parietal and frontal control areas, thalamic and secondary sensory processing areas. There are vast disparities among persons in the level of their cognitive susceptibility to sleep deprivation, which may include disparities in parietal and prefrontal cortices, and that may possibly have a bed rock in the genes responsible for the regulation of circadian rhythms and homeostasis. Therefore, this cognitive deficit, which has always been known to be a product of the seriousness of clinical sleep lapses may be a function of some genetic traits associated with different cognitive susceptivity to sleep deprivation (Goel, Rao, Durmer & Dinges, 2009).

Cognitive Performance during Sleep Deprivation

It is a long established fact that sleep loss reduces aspects of neurocognitive function. The first ever published experimental research of cognitive behaviour impacts of sleep loss on people was given in an 1896 report and included 3 adults having 90 hours of complete wakefulness. Literarily, there are several hundreds of published works on the impacts of total sleep loss, but quite a few on the impacts of partial sleep loss, and only a few of the consistent partial sleep restraint. Additionally, neurocognitive techniques vary from study to study. Three aspects of measurements that are mostly used in sleep loss studies are cognitive behaviour, mood and motor function. Almost every form of sleep loss leads to higher mood states, mostly fatigue feelings, sleepiness, loss of vitality, and confusion. Though the feelings of anxiety, irritability, and depression are known to come from lack of sleep, evidence from the experimental study of the mood states as a result of sleep loss in a predictable and comfortable environment is missing. Conversely, these mood changes have been repeatedly observed whenever sleep deprivation happens with no regards for conditions. Sleep loss brings a wide range of cognitive function impairments in its wake, though there is a variation in the impacts of cognitive performances, though these variations in cognitive tasks sensitivity to sleep loss are quite considerable.

Generally, irrespective of the task, cognitive behaviour worsens progressively when there is an extension of time for the task in question; this is the main fatigue impact that is aggravated by sleep deprivation. Nevertheless, performance on the very minor cognitive tasks, which assess the cognitive throughput speed, working memory, and every other aspect of attention have been discovered to respond sensitively to sleep loss (Goel, Rao, Durmer & Dinges, 2009).

Attention and Working Memory

The two most commonly studied aspects of sleep deprivation (SD) studies are working memory and attention, which are known to be correlated. There are four subdivisions of working memory: visuospatial sketchpad, phonological loop, the central executive and episodic buffer. Acoustic and verbal information are believed to be temporarily stored by the phonological loop (echo memory); visuospatial information (iconic memory) is held by the sketchpad, while information from different sources, are integrated by the episodic buffer. They are all controlled by the central executive. Certain attentional roles may be played by the executive processes of working memory, like unrelenting concentration, which is referred to in this context as vigilance. Both working memory and attention are related to the functions of the frontal lobes. Since the frontal lobe is susceptible to SD, it is possible to come up with a hypothesis that both working memory and attention are hindered in times of prolonged wakefulness (Alhola & Polo-Kantola, 2007).

During the tasks of measuring working memory and attention, there are two important aspects of performance: accuracy and speed. Practically, people can easily switch their importance between the two, using attentional concentration. Most times, focusing on improving a particular aspect, results in the weakening of the other. This is known as the accuracy/speed trade-off phenomenon. According to some SD researches, impairments only exist in speed of performance, while accuracy remains impaired in others, the outcomes are quite opposites.

De Gennaro et al. (2001) recommended that in tasks that are self-paced, there will possibly be a stronger negative effect on speed, whereas accuracy remains unaffected. In tasks that are experimenter-paced, the outcomes would be quite opposites. Nevertheless, several studies have shown detrimental effects on both accuracy and speed (Chee and Choo 2004; Choo et al. 2005). The accuracy/speed trade-off phenomenon is partly affected by age, gender, and individual differences in terms of style and response (Karakorpi et al. 2006), which could explain the existence of several disparities in the SD outcomes.

There are arguments that reduced signal rates raise fatigue during performance in SD experiments and that topics can fall asleep while the test lasts. Thus, tasks that have varied signal loads can give rise to varied results with regards to speed of performance and accuracy (Alhola & Polo-Kantola, 2007).

Long-term Memory

Long-term memory can be shared between non-declarative and declarative (procedural) memory. Declarative memory is limited and explicit, while non-declarative memory implicit with a capacity that is practically unlimited. Declarative memory involves semantic memory, which is made up of understanding the world, and periodic memory, with lots of autographical data. The declarative memory content can be contained in verbal or visual…

Legacy of 1968 Olympics Black Power Salute Essay

sensational images in the media, especially as social media has led to the instantaneous reproduction of memes in popular culture. Even before social media and even the Internet, sensational images could spread relatively rapidly via film and television as well as print media such as daily newspapers or weekly and monthly magazines. These images convey various meanings and mean different things for different audiences. A perfect example of how one image can convey different meanings and semantics to different audience groups is the 1968 image taken of the Olympian athletes from the United States using the Black Power “salute.” The original image by John Dominis has left an indelible mark on the American public and has even caused an international sensation. It came in the era of Civil Rights and at the time when celebrity black athletes were using their fame to spread awareness about racism and unfair treatment in their home country, This is where the media, social justice, and the law intersect. In this image, Tommie Smith and John Carlos hold up their hands high in the shape of the fist as they wear black gloves. This symbolic gesture represents the central icon of the Black Power movement’s flag, signifying unity among people of color and the power they can share and wield when working together.

Moreover, the Dominis photograph clearly chose the men wearing black socks and no shoes. Their choice of clothing represents the lack of support given to black athletes versus their white counterparts, and represents the huge disparities between white and black in America even beyond the world of sports. At the press conference following the medal ceremony, Smith admitted that not wearing shoes symbolized “black poverty in racist America,” (“1968: Black Athletes Make Silent Protest”). In every arena of public life in America, it is possible to see such instances of inequality such as in public schools and the differential resources provided to predominantly black versus white institutions. When the photograph was taken, the Civil Rights era was at its peak, ending decades of legalized segregation but unfortunately not ending centuries of overt, systematic, and institutionalized racism. This image remains powerful in the 21st century because Americans have failed to learn the lessons of the past. Current images similar to the Black Power “salute” at the 1968 Olympics include those that have to do with the “Black Lives Matter” movement that protests unfair treatment by the police.

Tommie Smith and John Carlos also bow their heads in a moment of silence while on the podium, another physical gesture captured by the photographer in this iconic image. The gesture of bowing the heads signals the disillusionment and shame felt towards a nation that professes to be about liberty and justice, about equality and freedom. The athletes protest hypocrisy and challenge Americans to understand their cause rather than fear Black Power. A sensational image like this one not only makes people impressed by its visual or aesthetic imagery, but also influences the ways people think about the world, their values, biases, and worldview. The Black Power salute photograph from the 1968 Olympics proves the value of images is not inherent in what tools that photographers may have used or how fancy the composition or the lighting of the photo happened to be at the time. Rather, the true value of images may be in how those pictures touch the hearts and minds of the audience and inspire action or political change.

From the perspective of a photographer or any other artist or journalist, taking sensational images is not easy. It is not something that one can necessarily plan. In this case, the photographer likely did not know that these athletes were going to be posed in such a way, and the capture of the image was spontaneous and surprising. The public response to the image was in part due to the nature of surprise, because the gesture of accepting the award at the Olympics took place on an international stage where viewers from around the world were watching. In this case, the entire world was able to see that not all Americans are satisfied with their lives and needed to use their award to bring attention to a social cause. The photographers at the Olympics generally imagine themselves capturing pure victory and the face of a proud champion, not the image of athletes who are ashamed of the way their people have been treated.

Photographers have to use different colors and angles to catch the facial expressions or actions in their subjects. Every individual person has different approaches to portrait or people pictures, and unique insight into the photographic tools and techniques. This image was taken in black and white film, at the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. John Dominis was an American documentary photographer and war photographer. Therefore, Dominis must have had already encountered political actions in his subjects. The subtlety of the political action embedded in this photograph is one of the reasons why it has become so famous. These two athletes have just won an award in the name of a nation that had enslaved their ancestors, and which sponsored segregation against them. Moreover, these two athletes had won the award in spite of these obstacles and had overcome those barriers to achievement. The Black Power salute underscores the magnitude of their accomplishments. The picture has been called “1968 Olympics Black Power Salute,” and ended up being one of Dominis’ most famous pictures. Not only that, the image will forever be a part of American history. It is a piece of documentary evidence, just as a presidential speech might be.

Tommie Smith and John Carlos were Olympic sprinters. Smith earned the gold medal and Carlos the bronze. What the photograph cannot capture is the audio effects. As the image was being taken, the American national anthem would have been playing on the loudspeaker system in the stadium. The entire world was listening to the American national anthem while watching these two athletes perform a subtle subversive act: instead of placing their hands on their hearts in typical patriotic fashion, they bowed their heads and raised their black-gloved fists. The fists raised in the Black Power salute symbolize a direct statement against the laws, politics, and policies of racism in the United States. Moreover, their salute represents union and solidarity with their compatriots back home who daily experience the effects of overt and institutionalized racism.

Racism has been one of the defining features of the United States since before the founding of the nation, when the trans-Atlantic slave trade ensured that a black underclass would be created. The end of slavery required a Civil War, so entrenched was racism in the consciousness of Americans. Moreover, the official end of slavery did not mean the end of racism. For too long, Americans had believed that persons of color were inferior human beings. The Constitution of the United States had to be changed to allow blacks and women to vote, because these were groups of people deemed lesser than white males. Therefore, racial inequality has been a big problem in American society since its inception. Despite the substantial progress made to create a more egalitarian society, including the Civil Rights movement during the 1960s, issues of race, ethnicity and discrimination are still taking place today, and many problems can be found in areas like unequal treatment in law enforcement and a general denial that racism exists at all. Some of the most fundamental problems that minorities still face today in the United States deal primarily with finding equal opportunity in the workplace and in society in general. Because minorities are not able to find equal employment opportunities, even today, there are a number of subsidiary consequences including backlash against affirmative action, which exists precisely because many whites do not recognize that white privilege exists. Racism has led to a great divide along the lines of race and socio-economic class, which is linked to race in America.

The image of the Olympic athletes on the podium after winning their medals made a strong political statement akin to a political protest. By not performing the traditional gesture of placing the hand on their hearts and singing the anthem, these two athletes knew the kind of retaliation that they would likely experience from their expression. A fist raised in the air has long been associated with worker solidarity movements, linking race and class in America (Cushing). The fist raised was also a statement that Black men possess political power even when the dominant culture has systematically stripped that power, Black athletes possess power inherent in their physical prowess and winning spirit, but also in their ability to become role models for Black youth. These two men had just won a Gold and Bronze medal in the Olympics, yet there may have been many things that they could not do in their home country simply for the fact that they were black. Their parents had experienced even…

Multiple Instructional Strategies Used to Term Paper

Wondering what to do the articles tells that the study of David Pearson entitled “What Research Has to Say to the Teaching of Reading published by the International Association 1992 was the “most compelling research available.” Pearnson’s research claimed that “thoughtful proficient readers make connections, draw upon prior knowledge, create visual imagery, make inferences, ask questions, determine important ideas, and synthesize what they read.” Lansdowne set out to test this at their school with their students. The spring of 2003 saw the invitation of Debbie Miller who is the author of “Reading with Meaning: Teaching Comprehension in the Primary Grades” published by Stenhouse, 2002, to create lessons incorporating the analytical skills into the first through third grade classrooms. “Millers work is an expansion on Pearson’s” study in relation to strategies needing to be addressed toward all the “components of a good reader. ” Before Miller arrived to work with the school the entirety of the staff read Miller’s book reading as well “Strategies that Work: Teaching Comprehension to Enhance Understanding,” Stenhouse 2000 written by Harvey and Goudvis. Included were several checklists for checking comprehension in reading. Two of the checklists are shown below:

Before reading, student uses information from the title, cover, summary or about the author to:

Make connections to the text based on prior experiences in their own life, other texts, or the larger world.

Poses questions about the text

Visualizes missing information

Makes predictions about the text

Set a purpose for reading

Adapted from Reading Checklist in Report)

During reading, student

Make connections to the text based on prior experiences in their own life, other texts, or the larger world.

Makes meaning by asking and answering questions

Merges prior experiences with the text to visualize key details

Infers meaning and is able to support inferences with specific examples from the text

Uses organizational pattern of text to determine importance

Determines importance by discriminating between key ics/themes and supporting details/events.

Adapted from reading checklist in report

In Grimes report there are five listed steps to creating a program such as this on a schoolwide basis. Those five steps are:

Build a learning community for students and staff

Provide direct instruction in reading strategies of proficient readers

Design ways that students can independently use comprehension skills

Teach teachers how to collect and analyze data in order to monitor and modify instruction.

Celebrate and share success.

In a report entitled “Collaborative Strategic Reading: ‘Real-World’ Lessons from Classroom Teachers” a study that stretches over 8 years of research using the ‘Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) was performed with the intent to ‘improve understanding of expository text.’ Examination of the teachers implementation (yearlong) was performed with “five intervention and five control teachers for ongoing and follow-up support.” “In all but one exception studies show that comprehension gains were associated with the quality of CSR implementation on the part of the teacher.”

There are several listed elements as being critical to positive outcomes in the cases of students that have disabilities related to reading. Those elements are:

Making instruction visible and explicit

Implementing procedural facilitators or strategies to facilitate learning

Using interactive groups or partners

Providing opportunities for interactive dialogue between students and teachers

Ensuring that the building blocks of reading are evident from a bottom-up perspective

Two reasons that students with reading disabilities should acquire strategies to help them understand expository text are that they are increasingly included in general education classrooms, where the demands to read and learn from the text are substantial, and they are unlikely to be provided with supported instruction by the special education teacher during social studies and science.

According to the study there is already evidence in existence that supports the worth of “comprehension strategies” (e.g. Gersten et al., 2001; National Reading Panel, 2000)

In an article entitled “Mildly Handicapped Students can Succeed with Learning Styles” written by Carolyn E. Brunner and Walter S. Majewski a high school in Hamburg, New York the students that are mildly handicapped are “enjoying high rates of success.” The “faculty developed curriculum” takes the needs as well as the strengths into consideration and the school is experiencing “unprecedented attainments” on both “local examinations and the New York State Competency tests.” The program was started in 1987 and the report states that “six special education teachers and a coordinator worked together to develop units of instruction in social studies, mathematics, and language arts for special education students in grades 9-12.” (Shands and Bruner 1989).

The stated goal of this program was the provision of “a program that was closely aligned to regular education.” A learning style model that was developed by Rita and Kenneth Dunn in 1978 was chosen. This program was inclusive of “Five Stimuli” listed as follows:

Environmental

Emotional

Sociological

Physical

Psychological

These five elements “serve as the framework for the model’s 21 elements.” The staff was provided development in learning styles for special education teachers and administrators, including an assessment of their own learning styles using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey (PEPS).” (Dunn et al., 1979, 1982)

The program began assessment of the students in the fall of 1988 and based on the findings the teachers developed what they referred to as “a ‘best-shot’ instruction defined as one in which they would “define as instruction presented through a person’s primary perceptual strength, reinforced through the student’s tertiary strength. The 21 learning style elements were addressed. Emotional stimuli were in the form of motivation, persistence, responsibility, and structure. The sociological elements were included as well as the physical elements of the learning style. The psychological or cognitive elements were analyzed and the teachers started with organization of the lesson plans.

Prior to 1987 and the implementation of the new curriculum, only 25% of students passed the local examinations that were necessary as well as the State competency tests that are required to receive high school diplomas. During the first year of the program the success rate went up to 66%, the second year the success rate was 91% and remains at a steady 90%. The amazing fact is that more handicapped students passed the State Competency exams than regular education students. According to the report there have been other benefits such as students coming to the realization that they can succeed with more students earning their diploma which is accredited to the gained confidence of students.

This study states that the running of records is the best way to assess students in the area of reading.

This study states that time needs to be allotted in the routine of the teacher for doing student assessment. Running records takes time but hold benefits in assessing students in their reading. The study states that running records offer a ‘window into the brain of young readers as their reading skills grow and change.’ Information gained in running records is stated to be ‘invaluable for informing instruction’. According to a teacher, “I use running records to form my reading groups, to guide them, and to make instructional decisions for individual students and the class as a whole.” Running records, according to the study is not an easy implementation and the teachers view the process as being completely too time consuming to be practical. The focus of running records is the development of students in the area of reading skills. The study states that: ‘there is no better way to get into the head of a reader than the running record.’ The process of running records is learning the universal code that is used to record the reader while reading. Suggestions are made for running records on one student per day with a schedule of running records on each student every four to six weeks being considered ideal. Another suggestion offered is setting up the assessment table in a permanently designated spot in the classroom and place each student’s literacy folder on the table. The key to running a record in shorthand is demonstrated by the example below.

Correct: The student read the word or words correctly.

Self-Correct: The student read the word wrong but corrected the mistake.

Asked/Told: The student asked for/was told the correct word

Pause: The student paused midword.

Reread: The student reread the passage indicated.

Transposed: The student transposed word order.

Omission: The student skipped a word while reading.

It is recommended that a record training course be take with an instructor trained to train others.

In the writing by Linda H. Mason, Department of Special Education, entitled “Explicit Self-Regulated Strategy Development vs. Reciprocal Questioning: Effects on Expository Reading Comprehension Among Struggling Readers” states that the “first wave of research in reading comprehension interventions was not aimed at the coordinated use of strategies before, during or after reading, rather, it was focused on validating particular strategies.”

And further that:

reading comprehension research, therefore, has progressed from evaluating individually taught single-strategy approaches to evaluating instruction that combines strategies in a multifaceted approach.”

O’Connor, et al. wrote in the document entitled “Teaching Reading to Poor Readers in the Intermediate…

Shareholder Value As America Watched Essay

The only ones who will gain from these measures are the CEOs, managers, and Board of Directors. Shareholders will suffer through the actions of the few. Due diligence will be rewarded with dwindling returns for the shareholder.

Does Shareholder Value Matter Any More?

The old theory was that if banks took care of shareholder value, everything else would fall into place (Nocera 2009). Shareholders were considered one of the most important responsibilities that executives had. This was how it used to be. However, recent events make it apparent that creating shareholder value has a downside as well. As managers struggle to increase shareholder value, they ignore many business basics. They increased value has not real foundation and soon, as the company collapses under the debt loads used to create the perceived value, it is shareholders that have he most to lose (Nocera 2009).

Lately, the focus has been on getting the banks into lending mode again in order to stimulate the economy, regardless of the long-term effects on the shareholder (Nocera 2009). The focus is on finding a solution to the immediate crisis. Everyone hopes that these measures will build long-term stability, but as we discussed earlier, propping up the big banks may mean that we are only prolonging the inevitable failure.

Recently, shareholders have hardly been in the picture, as negotiations continue to focus on giving the banks a pair of crutches. When banking officials arrived in Washington to discuss the possibility of bailouts in private jets, it caused public outrage. This move was viewed as irresponsible use of company assets. It “demonstrated” to the public that they were only out for themselves, without regard to the needs of the company or to its shareholders. It appears that shareholder value has taken a back seat to other issues, at least for the current time being.

Shareholder value can be equated to good corporate citizenship. Managing with a focus on shareholder value means developing long-term focus on customer relationships. It means holding to business values that represent integrity and a responsibility to the whole. It reflects a caring attitude and the desire to be a good community citizen. Developing solid shareholder value can be considered an important strategic objective for banks.

The mortgage crisis reflects poor risk management on the part of banking institutions. They made loans that did not reflect solid investments. They did this in the name of increasing volume that was reflected in positive gains on the revenue side of the balance sheet. This did increase shareholder value for a short time. The banking industry was booming and became a haven for speculative investors. They had faith that bank managers were making good decisions and that this growth would continue. Shareholders were in Buy and Hold mode, as the reported revenues, and profits continued to climb.

Shareholders had no way of knowing what was about to come. All they could see was the balance sheets and the number continued to climb into the black. They could not see the details of the loans that were being made to create this illusion of prosperity. They could not see the poor credit scores, and the deals that were allowed to “slide by” even though, the buyers could barely afford the mortgage.

Risk management is the key to the banking industry. Lenders must use good risk-management strategy to build a solid base for long-term growth. In the beginning, homebuyers made unrealistic decisions about what they could afford and lenders let them get away with it. The banking industry laid risk management aside and focused on sales. Loans became more like a commodity than an investment. Using this mind-set, risk management was practically abandoned and the frenzy began. Bankers knew better than this in the back of their mind, but the lure of quick cash drew them in and they made a run for the top that would rival anything attempted in the past.

Shareholders and building long-term value was shoved to the back of their minds and bankers chanted the mantra of, “Sell, sell, and sell.” Buyers who could never have dreamed of home ownership in the past could now afford the house of their dreams. All the while, short-term profits grew. Shareholders were caught up too, as they bought banking stocks by the billions, driving prices through the roof. However, this scenario was bound to come crashing down from the very beginning.

The banking industry, which in that past had been so careful to not allow it to enter into too much risk, suddenly had to come to the realization that many of the buyers could not afford their investments. Buyers began to default and homes began to lose value. Soon it all began to spiral down, as bad risks became bad assets. Shareholders continued to have faith and trusted banks to act in their best interest. However, now their eyes are open and they must come to realize that some of them will never regain their losses. They realize that their best interests were not at hand and some of them feel duped.

Where Do We Go From Here?

Now that we know how we got here, the next question is where we go from where we are now. We can’t go backwards, so we must go forward. Shareholder value, or the abandonment of it, is one of the key components of the banking crisis today. Had bankers treated lending like the investment that it should be, with attention to potential risk vs. long-term gain, this problem would have never occurred. Instead, they forgot the shareholder and traded them in for short-term sales and profits. This shift in attitude was a key driving force behind the banking crisis. The abandonment of the basic principles of the banking industry, including shareholder value was a key component in the number of bad loans that were made.

In order to regain the stability that once characterized the banking industry, we must turn back to the values that were the source of its strength in the past. Shareholder value was not the only thing that mattered, but keeping it as a guiding principle kept banks from taking to many risks. They kept the shareholders and their reaction in the back of their mind. This made for more cautious lending decisions and slower growth, but it also meant long-term stability. The establishment of solid goals is one of the most important concepts that allows for long-lasting decisions. Severn guiding principles, found in Sheshunoff (2002) are the key to returning to long-term stability and shareholder value. These are:

1. Establish Goals that are clear and realistic

2. Develop Strategies and Tactics to help realize the goals

3. Manage Risk

4. Improve Earnings in a controlled manner by building a solid foundation

5. Capitalize on Growth Opportunities, but don’t be caught up in sales

6. Use the Right Technology

7. Continually Build the Team consistently in accordance with these goals.

Returning the banking industry to stability will take a long time. It will require a return to the principles that guided it in the past. Banks can no longer concentrate on sales and immediate realization of revenues. They must concentrate on returning to some key founding principles, including making shareholder value a priority, instead of barely a consideration at all.

No one knows what the future holds for the banking industry. Giants may fall, serving as a warning to those that remain to pay attention to their basic principles. The government may bail out these failed banks, prolonging their death and preserving a failing system in the end. In the end, some will survive and some will not. As the story continues to unfold, shareholders will continue to lose value, either as institutions fail, or through damage to healthy institutions.

An examination of currently proposed remedies appears to reveal several potential approaches, all of which are short-sighted by the standards of the past. Nationalism may help to save those that are “too big to fail,” but it will only represent a short-term measure unless fundamental changes are made in the philosophy of the institutions themselves. They cannot focus on this quarter’s profits, or next quarter’s profits, but they must focus on the 30-year lifespan of the loans that they make. None of the proposed “fixes” will result in anything more than short-term solutions, unless banks are willing to go back to the foundation upon which they were established.

In the end, one can only hope that banks have learned their lesson and that they will return to the values that made them strong in the past. Those that did learn their lesson will represent an excellent investment opportunity. Those that continue in the reckless manner that they are today, are likely to become institutions of the past. The future of the banking industry depends on a return to the responsibility that comes with placing the shareholder at the top of the priority list.

References

DeStefano, T. 2009. Whatever…

James Ferguson It Seems As Term Paper

” (Piot 2003)

While this might seem true on the surface, especially if using the mess that is the current Zambia’s Copperbelt area as an example, Robin would argue that it was the development projects themselves that led to failure not governmental influence as proscribed by Ferguson and others.

Robin states; “Development packages are resisted, embraced, reshaped or accommodated depending on the specific content and context.” (Robin 2003-page 265)

Robin also states that, “In addition, in many parts of the developing world, it is the retreat of the neo-liberal state, rather than ‘the tyranny of development’, that poses the most serious threat to household livelihood strategies and economic survival.” (Robin 2003-page 265)

In discovering developmental projects that are taking place across Africa it is interesting to note that there are a number of regional projects taking place.

These combined projects could enhance the entire continent’s status. Ferguson espoused the fact that there was no ‘national economy’ in Africa that would help to alleviate the problems associated with attempting to develop nationally, what can only take place on a regional scale. With this thinking in mind, a number of regional projects have been initiated that may culminate in a ‘national’ feel to the developed regions. If many of the regions can grow, especially with regards to their infrastructure(s), then it would make sense that all the regions would grow exponentially.

Some of the projects currently taking place on the African continent that may help in achieving that growth include; “the construction of the Kenya- Uganda oil pipeline and the launching of the construction phase of the Kenya-Ethiopia highway, extending nearly 1,600km from the port of Mombasa to Addis Ababa, as a means of enhancing transport and communication in the East African region.” (Bank 2007)

Many of these types of projects have come to fruition due to the creation of the African Development Bank Group. This is financing group established with the primary purpose of providing the financial support to build and develop ‘various infrastructure improvement projects across Africa.’

The group is instrumental in looking to develop Africa and to assisting the African continent in its effort to join with its brethren countries around the world.

“The projects, which are mainly concentrated in transport and energy sectors, will help provide the continent with modern, world-class infrastructure.” (Bank 2007)

It is difficult to discern how a finance group such as the African Development Bank Group fits into Ferguson’s thoughts about the tyranny of governmental development for the sake of development, and how the only entities to truly benefit from these types of projects are the governmental ‘powers to be’.

When the director of a group that has garnered over $1.8 billion to support initiatives across Africa states; “The Bank Group has mobilized additional finances to bolster Africa’s push for better roads, electricity and is currently working on the launch of a major financing initiative to dispense more financial resources to African countries under a G8 initiative,” (Bank 2007) it is difficult to see how that could equate into more neoliberal control by the current, or future African governments.

If Ferguson’s thoughts are that the projects are destined to failure anyway, would the G8 initiatives to assist Africa really receive the support necessary for completion? A cynic might say yes, especially if the thought is that the governments that would control those funds would also benefit from the control established by the receipt of such financial windfalls. This is perhaps what Ferguson means when he talks about the depoliticization process, and how it could be more effective if governments were left out of the mix.

One way to assure that these funds are distributed to their maximum benefit could be to establish groups such as the African Development Bank Group and bringing and staffing the group with experts who are as non-politic as possible.

Experts could include such individuals as economists, environmental economists, bankers, financiers and infrastructure experts from developed countries. Building transportation and energy infrastructure, if done correctly, can enhance a country’s wealth and the citizen’s lifestyles.

“While environmental economics is still in its infancy in India, it has gained immense popularity in the U.S.A. And Europe.” (Webwatch 2006) These individuals would help to ensure that such infrastructure(s) are more of an asset to the country and would continue to provide benefits environmentally as well as financially to each region.

Bankers and financiers are currently in place as are the infrastructure experts necessary for success.

“We want our partners to work with us collectively on issues which affect the continent; the important thing we are telling Africa is that we are helping to finance regional initiatives and our interests remain the development of Africa,” (Bank 2007)

With the completion of these various projects it would seem that perhaps the countries involved would be able to join the developed worldwide community and no longer would the ‘pall of despair’ hang over its citizenry.

African citizens would also not be labeled with the title of failures, even as they attempt to struggle through these labels that may have been unfairly derived.

Within their governments could be individuals that realize the true worth of these projects and that the wealth of the nation(s) could actually culminate in the improvement of every citizen’s lives, not just a few. No longer would these impoverished citizens be cast as ‘at the bottom’ but on an equal footing with the other developed nations around the world.

“Ferguson reminds us in an essay entitled “Decomposing Modernity: History and Hierarchy after Development,” has long cast Africans as being not merely “at the bottom,” but also “at the beginning” of a developmental process that would, one day, allow them to rise. “For those at the bottom of the global hierarchy,” Ferguson writes, “the message was clear: Wait, have patience; your turn will come.” (West 2006-page 153)

The citizens of Africa have heard that message and now must realize that through their own power, ambition and initiative they too can become members of the worldwide ‘developed’ country fraternity.

“Ferguson suggests that “none of the impoverished nations of the world are truly ‘sovereign’ or ‘independent,’ and nowhere do we find a true ‘national economy.'” to suggest otherwise, Ferguson tells us, is to obscure the operative dynamics of the global economy. Africa’s present-day marginalization, he asserts, is indeed the product of specific kinds of economic and political relations forged across national boundaries.” (West 2006-page 154)

No longer can Africans accept that their nation will always be impoverished, will always be controlled by colonial powers or that they have now power to establish their own ‘developed’ status as a country.

Their only obstacles are the ones made by themselves, and they have the power to overcome those obstacles. No longer would anthropologists such as Ferguson be able to condemn the government, or colonial influence, for the failure of African development. Instead, the Africans would be able to show that they to belong to the brotherhood of ‘development’.

No longer would Ferguson have the luxury of touting the “myth of modernization’. His book, “according to Ferguson, is about the modernization myth, and what happens when it is turned upside down, shaken, and shattered.” (Pritchett 2000-page 150)

If the citizens of Africa can realize their true potential no longer would the myth be shattered or broken, no matter what Ferguson believes.

Works Cited

Bank Group Set to Fund Infrastructure Projects (2007) African Development Bank Group, http://www.afdb.org/portal/page?_pageid=293,174339=portal=PORTAL=12184235=us, Accessed March 10, 2007

Baird Private Equity explores India strategies (2007) the Business Journal of Milwaukee, http://milwaukee.bizjournals.com/milwaukee/stories/2007/02/26/daily4.html, Accessed Mar 10, 2007

Development and Change (2002) Institute of Social Studies, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK, Vol. 33, Issue 2, pp 361-379

Macmillan, H. (1996) More Thoughts on the Historiography of Transition on the Zambian Copperbelt., Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 22, Issue 2, p 309-312

Piot, C., (2001) Expectations of Modernity: Myths and Meanings of Urban Life on the Zambian Copperbelt, Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 74 Issue

Pritchett, J.A. (2000) Expectations of Modernity, Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 33, Issue 1, pp 150-151

Robins, S., (2003) Whose Modernity?, Indigenous Modernities and Land Claims After Apartheid, Development and Change, Vol. 34, Issue 2 pp 265-286

Sharp, J., (2001) Copperbelt and Cape Town: Urban Styles and Urban Connections in Comparative Perspective, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 19 Issue

Webwatch: Role of the Environmental Economist (2006), http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/nov162006/dheducation18582420061115.asp, Accessed March 10, 2007

West, H.G., (2006) Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order,…

Freedom Transcendence Being for Others Essay

Jean Paul Sartre and Simone De Beauvoir on Freedom, Being-for-Others, And Sartrean Despair

Simone de Beauvoir and JP Sartre were two famous existentialists that converged and diverged on various concepts. These included the existentialist concepts of freedom, being-for-others and transcendence or despair. Their converged and divergences will be addressed in this essay.

Sartre was one of the most famous existentialists of all times. For him, existence did not base itself on an ethos of God-ordained morality nor did it have any transcendental meaning. Rather meaningfulness of life — or liberty / freedom — depended on the meaning that one arbitrarily accorded life and he claimed that man is “what he makes of himself,” or in other words “in the end one is always responsible for what is made of one” In this way, Sartre’s philosophy integrated both optimism and despair: optimism in the belief that one can resolutely make something of one’s in this life despite existent nihilism. Despair in that life was closed-ended, and meaningless.

Sartre’s despair was expressed in his perspective that transcending subjectivity and margin something of this life is an impossible act. In Transcendence of the Ego (1937), for instance, he argued that we are locked in the phenomenology of things ‘as they-are’ (or Hegelian phenomena) and therefore cannot examine ‘things beyond us’ (or numina) since there is no such reduction: we are the ‘consciousnesses. Our mind is locked in this world and we cannot transcend it. In The Transcendence of the Ego, Sartre rejects the claim of Husserl and other philosophers as the self being a consciousness that it ‘out there’ and that can be reflected on. No! For him, the self is like any others, one more individual in the world, shaped by others; “in the world, like the self of another.” In other words, it is not distinct or transcendent from the being, nor can one reflect on it (in an act of self-consciousness or self-awareness). It is a being amongst others. This was developed in one of his most famous books, being and Nothingness (1943). where he argues that consciousness has been erroneously interpreted as substance. Rather, it can be thought of as an “empty wind” or a nothingness” that fills the being and is directed towards the world.

Consciousness itself may be nothing but the self-attempts to become a factoid of accumulation striving towards accumulating properties that will make it a ‘something’ in this world. The inability to become so dissolves in despair (Sarterean despair). But we do at the same time gain certain transcendence from shaping and, depending on individual, following dreams that manifest our pursuance to a destiny that we have created. We, in other words, attempt to transcend our reality of nothingness but shaping ideals for our life and by attempting to make it into ‘something’. We are always changing, always in flux, ultimately meaningless; nonetheless we fail to see this and instead perceive ourselves as being settled and with purpose. To that end, Sartre sees us as acting in ‘bad faith’ and of wresting in which a balance of wanting to be like God (and to a caritas extent thinking ourselves so) I.e. free and omnipotent whilst still being locked within ourselves and constrained by circumstances. There is, in other words, a conflict (only partially seen by us) between the struggle to be both in-itself and for-it — to strive to be something whilst being compelled to acknowledge one’s restraints. This can best be expressed in Sartre’s own words:

In life man commits himself and draws his own portrait, outside of which there is nothing. No doubt this thought may seem harsh to someone who has not made a success of his life. But on the other hand, it helps people to understand that reality alone counts, and that dreams, expectations and hopes only serve to define a man as a broken dream, aborted hopes, and futile expectations.

Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism is a Humanism, 70

This being-in-itself and this being-for-itself have a third complicated dimension called “being-for-others” whereby our behavior of ourselves and self-definition not only comes from oust but to an alleger extent is defined by others. Our ability to self-reflect or create oneself, in other words, can not only not be objective as we think it may be (nor can we have pure self-knowledge), but rather all of this is created by the ontological and forced presence of t oars in our world. The example of this is “the look” where someone catches us in “in the act” of doing something humiliating and we define ourselves (where correctly or not) in those terms. Accumulation of these judgments shapes our persona for good or for bad. We are forced to share the world with others; we cannot — even though many of us erroneously think so — choose to separate ourselves from others. To Sartre, “Hell is other people.” (Jean-Paul Sartre; online)

Simone De Beauvoir too saw people as lacking freedom. Sharing the same belief as Sartre in non-existence of God, she too sees the world as a closed space providing no transcendental meaning. However, she differs in that she perceives freedom as a possibility of coming from the other (being-for-others). The world is a crushing, oppressive state of affairs; it provides us with no liberty and determines our fate and destiny. Others, however, give us the opportunity of acting ethically towards them. This gives us the ability to rupture the world and create our own freedom where we devise projects that will bring a certain sort of happiness (even though it is perpetrated in Sarterean ‘bad faith’) to ourselves and others. We gain liberty, in other words, through the focus on, and relationship with, others.

For her too human subjectivity is nothingness. Its nothingness, can however be ruptured through certain projects and spontaneous activity which she calls transcendence since it allows the individual to rise above life’s nothingness. Like Sartre, she believes that the human is engaged in projects in a desperate attempt to give his or her life meaning. Unlike Sartre, however, she injects her work with a certain ethics — that of relating in a (even if mistakenly) purposeful way to others. Unlike Sartre, too, de Beauvoir sees liberty as an outcome of one’s interactions with others. Others are not the oppressive being that Sartre sees them to be; rather they afford the individual the opportunity of breaking through a constrictive world and crating his own freedom.

Transcendence, therefore, is gained through this activity of acting through and for others. Life in itself may be meaningless but end can be gained through interrelationships. (Vintges, 1996).

Similar to Sartre, de Beauvoir stresses the need for voluntary and independent freedom of choice that even though difficult and perhaps impossible, must spring from detachment of others and individuals spontaneity (not as dictated by any external institution). Instead of being forced into any particular norms, / conventions / institutions, individuals must voluntarily decide whether or not they wish to accept them. This also determines a certain modicum of freedom or transcendence (where one self-consciously chooses who one wishes to be moment-per moment). Freedom is something that is inescapable. We are created in our own space and compelled to be ourselves; we cannot be the other. Yet we are absolved to refrain from hurting others.

We have freedom: yet we are finite and limited. We are, therefore, fragile. The existence of others enables us to somewhat more transcend this fragility.

Freedom, in other words, is the spontaneous choosing of activities. We choose them independently or our own free will and we throw ourselves into them as projects that we wish to do not by escaping into them as static objects. This can best be expressed in the following way:

“Regardless of the staggering dimensions of the world about us, the density of our ignorance, the risks of catastrophes to come, and our individual weakness within the immense collectivity, the fact remains that we are absolutely free today if we choose to will our existence in its finiteness, a finiteness which is open on the infinite. And in fact, any man who has known real loves, real revolts, real desires, and real will knows quite well that he has no need of any outside guarantee to be sure of his goals; their certitude comes from his own drive.”

Simone de Beauvoir, The Ethics of Ambiguity, p.15-16)

De Beauvoir too discusses bad faith, but to her bad faith is somewhat different than it was to Sartre. Bad faith implies a fleeing from the responsibilities of freedom such as the sub-man who is bored, lazy, or indolent and who, consequently, may be more easily recruited by the “serious man’ who recruits him for brutal, immoral, or violent action. The serious man is also a race from freedom since he sets his values in an external institution instead of something that he has freely chosen. It may be the Military for one, or Fame for another, or Power for another individual. The…

Export Project Term Paper

Exporting a Ready-to-Drink Cold Coffee Product to Australia

The following details a market plan to export a ready-to-drink cold coffee product to Australia. The product is similar to Starbucks Frappuccino, which is the market leader in the industry in America, having around 90% market share. The product is named Elixa and will be manufactured and sold in America as well as exported to Australia.

Australia as the Export Country of Choice

There are several reasons why Australia has been selected as the country of choice. Firstly, it is important to recognize that the product will also be sold and marketed in America. Australia has been chosen because of the seasonal variation compared to America, because the market leader Starbucks has not established a market in Australia, because it is a stable market and finally, because Australia is an Americanized market.

Firstly, the seasonal variation is important. As a cold product, the sales peak in summer. Because it is an off-the-shelf product with limited shelf-life the product must be continually manufactured. With the product being sold in America and Australia, the seasonal variation evens out. The peak in America coincides with the trough in Australia and vice versa. The end result is consistent demand. This means that manufacturing can be consistent.

Secondly, Starbucks has not established itself in Australia. In America, Starbucks is the market leader with around 90% market share. This makes it difficult for a new product to break into the market. Exporting to Australia is an opportunity to be the market leader in that country. This will help ensure the product delivers a consistent income and an acceptable return-on-investment for the money spent on product development and advertising. The new product can establish itself in Australia to develop that income, while slowly working its way into the American market.

Thirdly, Australia is a stable market, with political and economic stability. Australia is already a significant trade partner of America, with Australia ranked 15th in terms of exports and imports with America (Ball & McCulloch 51). Figures for 2000 show that Australia has a GDP of $445.8 billion, a GDP real growth rate of 4.7% and a per capita GDP of $23,200 (U.S. Department of State). Overall, Australia is a good market economically and in terms of future growth.

Finally, Australia is an Americanized market, aware of American culture and with many similarities to the American market. These similarities mean that product and promotional programs developed for the American market would be equally effective in the Australian market. This effectively spreads the cost of product and promotional development.

Overall, the similarities between the markets and the link between America and Australia will allow for a smooth entry of Elixa into the Australian market. The Australian market is also an economically promising one, while at the same time being low risk. Entering the Australian market also spreads the risk of Elixa by allowing it to operate outside of the Starbucks-dominated American market, but without the problems of integration that various other international markets would require.

Elixa as an Export Product

There are several reasons why Elixa is a good export product. The first reason is based on the fact that the major expense is for marketing and product development. If the product can reach a larger market, the cost of this marketing and development is spread over more product sales, achieving a cost per unit saving.

Secondly, as noted earlier, the American market is dominated by Starbucks Frappuccino. Competing in this market is difficult, especially with the brand name recognition advantage Starbucks has. Exporting is a means of breaking into this market with sales in Australia able to sustain the brand while it develops itself in America. Starbucks does not have the market dominance in Australia, giving Elixa the opportunity to dominate that market.

Elixa’s sales are cyclical, peaking in the summer months. Exporting to Australia is a means of evening out American demand with Australian demand. The end result is that production remains constant throughout the year, allowing for the company to manage its manufacturing operations more effectively.

Finally, the ready-to-drink cold coffee beverage is one with a growing market. It is also a standard product with a wide potential market where no changes in the product would need to be made to enter new markets. This is beneficial as there would be no requirement to either develop the product to suit other countries or to sell the idea of the cold coffee drink to other foreign markets. The exporting to Australia could be the first step in an international exporting program, with the company later expanding to export to Europe and Asia.

Profile of the Industry

The ready-to-drink cold coffee product is a new market, one established by Starbucks with the introduction of their Frappuccino. This product was first introduced across America in 1997. By the end of 1998 Frappuccino dominated the ready-to-drink coffee category with 90% U.S. market share and a yearly sales growth of 150%. Frappuccino has effectively created a product category that previously did not exist (Fischer). In 2002, it was reported that the growth of the ready-to-drink category had continued at a near double-digit rate and now sits at around U.S.$400 million. Of this market, Frappuccino has 90% market share (Reuters). These figures and the similarity between the American and Australian market suggest that Elixa is capable of being as successful in Australia as Frappuccino is in America.

To analyze the industry further, Porter’s five forces model will be applied. This involves considering supplier power, barriers to entry, threat of substitutes, buyer power and degree of rivalry.

The bargaining power of a supplier is high if there are only a few large suppliers, if the supplier’s product is unique, if there is a threat of the supplier integrating forward and if the industry is not an important customer of the supplier group. These criteria do not apply to Elixa since all the required supplies are standard and readily available. The packaging, coffee, milk and other ingredients can all be obtained from various suppliers. In short, the product has its value added by the production and marketing, rather than with the inputs required. This means that the bargaining power of suppliers is low.

Possible barriers to entry include economies of scale, product differentiation, capital requirements, cost disadvantage regardless of size, access to distribution channels and government policy. Economies of scale apply to the situation, with Elixa needing to achieve significant sales to offset the cost of marketing and product development. This economy of scale will be achieved by exporting the product to Australia while breaking into the American market. Product differentiation also applies because of Starbucks Frappuccino and their domination of the American market. Starbucks has the brand recognition that gives them a considerable advantage in terms of brand loyalty. Elixa will have to spend heavily on advertising to overcome this barrier. Exporting to Australia is a means of overcoming this brand loyalty, since Starbucks does not have the same brand recognition in Australia. Capital requirements are also an issue with the majority of upfront costs needed for advertising and product development. Cost disadvantages regardless of size and access to distribution channels also apply to the situation. Starbucks may have a cost advantage due to their experience in the market. They also have access to distribution channels via their partnership with PepsiCo. This will be a factor that Elixa will have to overcome. Government policy is not likely to be an issue since Australia and America are major trading partners and the product is not one that is likely to encounter government control.

The threat of substitute products is an issue. Elixa competes with carbonated drinks such as Coca Cola and Pepsi, bottled sports drinks like Gatorade, non-coffee off-the-shelf milk products and non-carbonated juice products. Elixa has a significant advantage however, in being a coffee product. A significant amount of the population are routine coffee drinkers. In summer, Elixa is an alternative to the hot coffee products and as such, has a large market of potential customers.

The bargaining power of customers is low and so this is not a major issue in the competitive environment. This low bargaining power is because the product is differentiated from others in the market and it is not concentrated in a few large buyers.

The degree of rivalry in the industry is an issue. The direct competitor Starbucks has a significant market share in America allowing them to cut their prices or to increase advertising to prevent Elixa from successfully entering the market. The indirect competitors such as Coca Cola and Pepsi are also large competitors with the ability to cut prices or increase advertising. The one benefit Elixa has over these competitors is that it is focused only on the ready-to-drink cold coffee product. Starbucks also have their retail stores and their hot coffee products as part of their product mix and Pepsi and Coca Cola have a large range of products. This specialization gives Elixa an…