Universal Middle-Range Nursing Theory: The Neuman Model Theory Essay

Universal Middle-Range Nursing Theory: The Neuman Model Theory Essay

Internet Plan for Healthcare Facilities

A suitable IT plan for an electronic inventory control and communication for the 10 healthcare facilities in Gainesville, Florida will have voice or data communication between and among the Corporation, the master practice and the individual practices (China Mobile, 2011). It can provide or extend telehealth or eHealth devices through the network. It can also use mobile phones and similar devices for local health operations, which utilize the main network (China Mobile).

These top-of — the line applications or devices are fast enabling healthcare operations in both the economically advanced and the developing countries (China Mobile, 2011). Through their skillful use, they can reach un-served and under-served populations, raise the level of efficiency of these operations, and cut down on costs of healthcare delivery, as a consequence. As consequences, they contribute to the effectiveness of public health programs and research, help prevent and treat disease of both mind and body, and reduce hospital visits and stays (China Mobile).

This type of hook-up internet setup, using the tablet-type device, can perform healthcare functions and activities speedily (China Mobile, 2011). These devices also allow self-diagnostics, supervision of long-term treatments, dispatch of clinical information from source to destinations in a flash, transmission of public messages, soliciting and recruiting of data on public health, personnel administration and control and supervision of supplies. These mobile networks’ capabilities can be further enhanced by high-resolution images, video and voluminous file exchanges to the advantage of all the patients and the professionals at the practices and the Corporation. All of them can benefit from the capabilities of new-generation smartphones’ computing power, vast storage and versatility in fitting many applications (China Mobile).

II. Network Security Plan

A strategic emergency plan for Sunshine Health Corporation should be in place and always ready for any eventuality (FCC, 2015). It is essentially a healthcare information system, which focuses on the protection of electronic medical records or EMR, and a reliable network security mechanism (Yoder, 2015). This security mechanism should comply with the guidelines of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act or HIPAA, which specifically addresses IT-based health information systems. These are organizational data, personal records, intellectual property, and customer records. The network mechanism is devoted to the movement of all clinical and patient data from written records to the digital form in a database converted by software applications. It directs the flow of clinical work and office operations and administration (Yoder).

Selection of an EMR Provider

EMR providers sell their services on outsource basis as a third party (Yoder, 2015). The client, or Sunshine Health Corporation, should analyze the kind of EMR service it really needs before looking for one. The provider should be suitable to the company’s administrative and clinical needs. Some EMR providers offer the precise service a company needs, such as information management. Computer and network systems should be carefully monitored and protected to ward off loss of data or inactivity (Yoder).

Compliance with HIPAA Requirements

HIPAA rules and requirements guard the privacy and security of public health records (Yoder, 2015). The Corporation’s network systems on data transfer and storage should thus comply with HIPAA regulations. The EMR provider, which is already complying to these regulations and offers network security solutions and off-site data backup according to HIPAA rules and requirements, is the right provider for the Corporation (Yoder).

Designing an Emergency-Mode Network Security Plan

A network security plan in this mode will always be ready for the unforeseen and prevent or reduce disruption of the delivery of essential services (FCC, 2015). The objective of this plan is to insure that operations remain un-interrupted and communication systems and network stay secure and operable at all times. The three phases are preparation, response and recovery.


An apt and proactive network security plan prepares for communications and the continuity of operations, back-up communications, a wide range of communication systems, emergency notifications, security, power, test equipment and agreements on mutual aid (FCC, 2015). Communications and the continuity of operations consist of operational processes and procedures protective of computers, records and backed-up databases; recovery processes for assessment, repair or restoration, alternative solutions, analysis after an event, and updates of a management plan; communications response team, which will implement the security plan; training of the communications leader and others involved in communication coordination during an event; employee training exercises on all the phases of any event; employee contact lists of important telephone and cell phone numbers and email addresses, which should be regularly updated; priority services, such as three major federal programs for priority call queuing and provisions or restoration of major communication circuits, namely the telecommunications service priority program or TSP, Government Emergency Telecommunications Service Program or GETS; and the Wireless Priority Service Program or WPS; and alternate operations sites, which should be able to sustain IT and communications activities. Preparing back-up or redundant communications should also consider many types of communication systems, which include last-mile connectivity, internal infrastructure, hardware back-up, hardening and alternate routing, uninterrupted power supply and the proximate and market availability of replacement parts. Emergency notifications, such as structure-wide intercom systems, wire phone messages, emails and face-to-face communication, especially during crises. These systems should remain functional despite power failure. Disabled and other vulnerable employees should be especially informed and prepared to obey or cooperate with the plan. Security facilities should shield vital communications and IT equipment and only experienced personnel should be allowed to operate them and have access to them. Virus protection and similar software should be installed, run and regularly updated. Power sources should be insured at all times from commercial providers for extended periods of crisis. Backups like generators, solar power and batteries should be ready at all times in times of power failure. The Corporation may obtain new radios powered by off-the-shelf alkaline batteries with correct adapters. Sources of fuel shall also be generated to refill generators in times of power failure. Batteries for radio, flashlights, fire detectors and supplementary devices are functioning properly, are fully charged, available and ready for use any time. They should be periodically but frequently checked and tested. Additional supplies of batteries at the worksite shall be insured.

Test equipment should be available at all times and can work with both alternating and direct current sources. And the Corporation should establish agreements with similar groups for reciprocal assistance, whether within or outside its area. It is most helpful when these similar organizations share their resources when the Corporation runs short of these during a crisis. Agreement should also be entered into with local utilities, like the telephone, wireless telephone, and water. Likewise, procedures and contact numbers should always be handy in times of need (FCC).


This includes procedures for the assessment of effects of an event, repairs and use of alternate communication devices or systems (FCC, 2015). Respective or involved staff members should be informed and trained on their response functions. The Corporation should undertake a complete communication systems assessment to establish the accurate operational status and conditions of different communication systems, such as land mobile radio systems, repeaters, PHX, LAN or email. Then the level of support the system of capable shall be assessed. A three-phase priority list shall be framed as it will enable the Corporation to know the consequences f losing a particular asset. It also allows the Corporation to convey its thoughts better over losing a certain asset. Such a list shall also improve your capacity to communicate your own needs when needed. There are three levels o criticality enumerated, namely, mission critical, important responses and minor, Mission critical indicates a disaster, which could cost many losses of life, property and system trust breakdowns. Important refers to a serious decrease in the Corporation’s capacity to respond effectively to the event or emergency. This can equate with overwhelming loss of lives or property. And minor means that the full capability could be visible to the public if the systems and its architecture or software were changed or replaced (FCC).

Back-up systems shall be activated to make up for the lack of or lag of in communication system or lines. Repairs of any component of the communication system should be undertaken by commercial vendors or the personnel of the Corporation themselves (FCC).

Institutional awareness is important and this is where periodic surveys come in. The Corporation shall update and inform its leaders and the security or emergency management team and the public, when necessary on security situations (FCC, 2015). Risk modeling against the Corporation’s infrastructure and its response to probable disasters in the area will be an advantage. Results shall expose a range of possible issues, which likely will include a breakdown of systems. Include costs that may be incurred by repairs in or of the infrastructure system, manpower loss, reduction of liability effects, and supplemental losses (FCC).


This phase involves procedures, which will evaluate the impact of an event, undertake repairs or restoration, set up alternate solutions, conduct post-event analysis, and update the network security management plan, as needed…

Ritalin: The Case History of a Drug Term Paper

Ritalin: The Case History of a Drug

One of the most noticeable and prevalent disorders occurring in children is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is commonly diagnosed when the child begins to attend school or kindergarten, and occurs in 3 to 5% of the population. A chronic condition, it normally carries over into adolescence and perhaps into maturity as well. ADHD children can be hyperactive, inattentive, distractible, aggressive and impulsive, and as a result tend to do poorly in school and present behavioral problems both in academic, social and familial settings. ADHD adolescents, in addition to the above-mentioned difficulties, may be disposed toward delinquency and involvement in car accidents and substance abuse. Co-occurring disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety and depression tend to exacerbate both the symptoms and the difficulty of treating ADHD. (Hyman, 2000)

Unfortunately there is no single diagnostic test to establish ADHD, and the etiology of the syndrome is not understood. Only when the behavioral symptoms are of an established and on-going nature should the possibility of ADHD be entertained. Minor neurological signs and abnormalities in the EEG may indicate on a medical basis that ADHD is present, as may learning disabilities identified by the educational system. Typically, a diagnosis of ADHD should be derived from medical, psychological, educational and family input and consultation. (Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation, 2001)

For many children with ADHD, the drug Ritalin hydrochloride (methylphenidate hydrochloride USP), administered as part of an overall treatment program including psychological, educational and social measures, has proved to be highly effective in controlling the symptoms of the disorder. More than 160 clinical trials, involving more than 5000 children over a period of 30 years, have consistently shown that Ritalin was effective in improving the situation of over 80% of those treated. (Hyman, 2000) It does not, however, cure ADHD, and because of ADHD’s chronic nature, the patient is faced with a long-term, ongoing program of treatment in order to mitigate the symptoms alone. Although the effects of taking Ritalin for periods longer than fourteen months have not received adequate study, doctors have concluded that there are no long-term detrimental consequences in adults to the childhood use of Ritalin when properly diagnosed and administered. (Hyman, 2000)

However, there are also strong objections to the use of Ritalin from certain groups. Their objections include the possibility of Ritalin being used by children or adults for whom it was not prescribed, as a recreational drug; the possibility of overdosing children into a zombie-like state of obedience; the possibility of arriving at a false diagnosis; and the danger of Ritalin’s side effects.

Ritalin is a mild central nervous system stimulant, which appears to activate the brain stem arousal system and cortex. It is administered orally in tablets of 5, 10 and 20 mg, or as sustained-release tablets of 20 mg. The sustained-release tablets allow similar extensiveness in the amount absorbed, but at a slower, more constant rate, than does the regular tablet. (Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, 2001)

Ritalin, according to Novartis, the manufacturer, is not indicated for children under the age of six. Also, it should not be prescribed for those with primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, or those whose environmental factors are primary to the ADHD symptoms. Its use should be supported socially, educationally and psychosocially. It is contraindicated for those suffering from severe anxiety, tension and agitation, glaucoma, Tourette’s syndrome, tics, or hypersensitivity to Ritalin itself. It should be prescribed with caution for those patients who exhibit hypertension and/or high blood pressure. Patients taking other medications, prescribed or otherwise, should be carefully assessed by their physician before starting them on Ritalin. (Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, 2001)

In spite of these admonitions, certain side effects are sometimes experienced, the most usual being nervousness and insomnia. These problems can be mitigated either by reducing the dosage, using less in the evening before bedtime; in some cases, they disappear as the body accustoms itself to the drug. Some children experience loss of appetite, which also may improve after a while, or which can be accommodated by giving snacks or cutting back the medication prior to mealtime. Other possible side effects are abdominal pain, weight loss and tachycardia. (Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, 2001) Some patients experience “rebound,” an exacerbated state of depression or irritability as the drug begins to wear off. Smaller, more frequent doses can alleviate rebound. Caffeine intake may cause depression, irritability and the jitters, and may have to be reduced. (Watkins and Brynes, 2001)

More serious side effects can include hypersensitive skin conditions, anorexia, persistent nausea, dizziness, blood pressure and pulse changes, angina, cardiac arrhythmia, and rarely, Tourette’s syndrome and toxic psychosis. It is not clear if the following occurred because of taking Ritalin, but they have been known to occur in Ritalin patients: abnormal liver function, cerebral arteritis and/or occlusion; leukopenia and/or anemia; and scalp hair loss. (Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, 2001)

Acute overdoses of Ritalin have produced vomiting, tremors, confusion, euphoria, convulsions, sweating, headache, irregular heartbeat, and dryness of the mucous membranes. (Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, 2001)

Overdosing, in the sense of prescribing slightly more than the patient needs to control the symptoms of ADHD, can lead to compulsions and to a zombie-like demeanor. A study was conducted for the American Medical Association to address the concerns of those fearing the prevalence of wholesale prescription of Ritalin to dope difficult children into submission. It found that while some children may be misdiagnosed or prescribed Ritalin although alternative therapies exist, in general there was little evidence of over-prescription or overdiagnosis. (Goldman, Genel, Bezman, Slanetz, 1998)

Prolonged use has been shown to inhibit growth in prepubertal children while the drug was being taken, but the patient appeared to “catch up” when the Ritalin use stopped. (Klein and Mannuzza, 1988) It did not appear to have this, even temporary, effect in a study of 31 adolescent boys. (Vincent, Varley and Leger, 1990)

The Drug Enforcement Agency of the U.S. Department of Justice urges “greater caution and more restrictive use of” methylphenidate, citing the illicit use of the drug. According to their statistics, a 1994 survey of high school seniors (Monitoring the Future) showed that more students were taking the drug illegally than were taking it via a legitimate prescription. They also claim that Ritalin ranks in the top ten pharmaceuticals stolen and sold illegally, and that it is a prime target of organized traffickers for theft and sale. When used for recreational purposes, the drug is usually crushed and snorted or injected like cocaine or crystal meth, with the anticipated result being euphoria and a rush, and the unintentional result being addiction and in some cases death. The DEA appears to believe that, in addition to this illicit use, Ritalin is over-prescribed, citing the belief that the U.S. produces and uses five times as much as the rest of the world put together, and that the production quota has increased almost six-fold from 1990 to 1995. (DEA Press Release, 1995)

Both the DEA and agencies such as the Attention Deficit Help Center believe that, whether prescribed or used illegally, the use of methylphenidate is conducive to increased tolerance and dependence/addiction. (Attention Deficit Disorder Help Center information)

Although the exact mechanism of methylphenidate’s efficacy is not understood, it is believed that it increases the synaptic concentration of dopamine by blocking the dopamine transporters. Administered in carefully calibrated dosages, referenced to the patient’s weight, it starts to act within an hour, and is likely to occupy more than half of the dopamine transporters. (Volkow et al., 1998)

The process, chemically speaking, involves methylphenidate’s binding to a site on the dopamine receptor, thus inhibiting dopamine re-uptake and enhancing synthetic dopamine. The psychostimulation which results regulates the attention of the subject and allows him or her greater impulse control.

Louis Pasteur was the first to observe that roughly fifty percent of organic compounds, and notably racemic acid, can contain mirror-image forms which demonstrate handedness, that is, they rotate light either to the left or to the right. When this occurs, a chiral center (sometimes called a stereocenter) is created. In stereochemical terms, the two mirror images, the left- and right-handed compounds, are referred to as enantiomers, or optically active compounds. A mixture of the two enantiomers is called a racemate or racemic mixture. Molecules lacking handedness are achiral, and those possessing handedness are chiral. (Greener, 2001)

Racemic methylphenidate was first developed in 1994 by Panizzon, and marketed as a mixture of two racemates, 80% erythro and 20% threo. The desired effect (the central stimulant activity) proceeded, however, only from the threo racemate. Thus, Novartis, the manufacturer who had secured the patent on the Ritalin form of methylphenidate, has since 1950 been engaged in on-going research to enrich the enantiomeric purity of threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride. If this could be achieved, it would segregate the pharmacological activity of Ritalin from the undesirable side effects. From a manufacturing perspective, this process also must be cost-effective in terms of yield, process time and other factors. (Prashad, 2001)

Initial attempts centered around classical resolution approaches, which…

International Challenges for the Global Economy

Global Economy and the Chemicals Industry

Growth of consumer pressures and changes in political situations and governmental policies are two factors in increased globalization that can impact the chemicals industry (Daniels et al., 2014, p. 7). The chemicals industry, like other sectors, is dependent upon both “economic growth overseas” and commodity prices that can impact “economic growth in the U.S.” (Muir, 2016, p. 5). In addition, governmental policies and changes can impact the industry, as is seen in South America, where various “region’s development policies that privilege industrialization as the route to economic growth” are currently being implemented, as in the Sinos Valley of Brazil (Schreiber et al., 2016, p. 58). This paper will describe how international challenges impact the chemicals industry and specifically discuss how consumer pressures and political situations/governmental policies are especially impactful on this sector.

International challenges that impact the chemicals industry are numerous: the threat of global recession is just one of several challenges that the global economy faces in the coming years. Slowdown in China, the exportation of deflation, the ambitious backstopping of markets by central banks (in Japan, China, Europe, UK and the U.S.) — all of this creates an economic environment that is increasingly uncertain and that weighs upon the chemicals industry, which looks for new growth in developing markets (DM). Investment in developing markets depends very much on both consumer pressure and political situations. Investor-friendly governments and geopolitical interests are major variables that impact whether sectors such as the chemicals industry will have favorable outlooks or whether they will face substantial tailwind from a global economy that is only being propped up by central banking intervention.

For the chemicals industry, the policies of governments and political situations are a direct impact. For instance, recent regulations in the U.S. regarding toxic waste emissions have compelled companies within the chemicals industry to reduce their levels of waste, boost their adherence to corporate social responsibility policies, and change the way they interact with the environment — all of which impacts the industry’s cost-savings balance (Muir, 2016, p. 44). Another example is that of government farm programs and policies, which bear a direct impact on the fertilizer market, a substantial segment of the chemicals industry (Muir, 2016, p. 57). As Muir (2016) notes, the chemicals industry “is subject to a large number of state and federal laws and regulations involving public health, worker safety,…

Readability Anyone Using Microsoft Word Can Determine Term Paper


Anyone using Microsoft Word can determine the Flesch-Kincaid readability score for their own work by doing little more than running spell-check from the top navigation bar on their computer screen. It is conceivable that the ubiquitous presence of such an easily used readability scale could have an effect similar to that of spell-check and hand-held calculators. Those who use spell-check often lament the fact that they lazily allow the ‘machine’ to spell for them and have forgotten some of the words they once knew. Likewise, those who have come to depend on calculators often lament the fact that they can no longer do the simple arithmetic functions in their heads. If use of the Flesch-Kincaid program in Microsoft becomes equally ubiquitous, will people forget how to write anything except the simplest sentences? Worse still, will they be unable to express the complex thoughts that are represented by low readability scores?

These concerns have been raised by critics of using readability indexes; in fact, except for the academic research dealing with the education of the intellectually challenged, testing for readability has fallen out of favor. A look at what readability is, how it came about, and its likely effects on learning will reveal whether such a statement is accurate or not.

What is readability?

Defining readability is difficult without using language that a describes what it does. According to Templeton et al. (1982), the concept applies to that within the use of language that makes it easy or difficult to read. They note, too, however, that years and years of research have not solved problems concerned with whether and how such variables as vocabulary, sentences length and syntactic complexity should be assessed. Other researchers also point to the ‘ineffable’ content of written work, the unique choices for scansion and phrasing and so on that a writer will use that render a work more or less readable; these are things that, so far, programs have not be designed to read. “In a ‘state of the art’ review of readability research, Harris and Jacobson suggested that substantive advances in the determination of readability could only be achieved by moving beyond the traditional variables. This may be taken to mean that language per se is not the only concern in establishing text difficulty ….” (Templeton et al. 1982).

However, simplifying matters has appealed greatly to one constituency, educators (Fry, 1968; McLaughlin, 1969; Spache, 1953, cited by Templeton et al. 1982, 382-287). That is not surprising, considering the genesis of the concept. Fry (2002) noted that by readability, most reading professionals mean applying one or another readability formula to the work in question. This, Fry thinks, is short-sighted at best because “True readability does have a more general meaning found in popular dictionaries such as ‘easy or interesting to read — capable of being read’ (The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, 1983, cited by Fry 2002). In classrooms and publishing houses readability is often conceived of as a number derived by applying a formula concerning word and sentence length, and little else, to a piece of written work (Fry 2002).

History of readability

The current preference for exact, concise scientific and scholarly writing began more than a century before Ben Franklin’s time. Goldbort (2001) notes:

By the early 1600s, Francis Bacon, the so-called ‘father of modem science,’ already had successfully promoted an economical and objective use of the English language. Bacon argued that scientific and scholarly writings were duty-bound to draw attention to their content, not their words. Readable and thereby useful scientific and academic writing should avoid flowery, convoluted sentences and instead strive for simple, unambiguous, and mathematically plain language.

In colonial times, reading instruction usually involved learning the alphabet and little more, but jumping right into studying the bible. In 1836, William Holmes McGuffey developed the first set of reading instruction books — readers — meant to move beginning readers up through levels of difficulty. As the number ascended (1,2,3,4, etc.), so did the difficulty of the books. The number did not correspond to a grade level, although these are referred to as ‘leveled’ readers (Fry 2001).

McGuffey’s Readers were enormously popular, selling more than 130 million copies between the ‘1840s and the early part of the twentieth century. The influence of the McGuffey’s Readers would be difficult to impugn. The total population of the United States in 1850 was 23 million. That figure had grown to 76 million in 19000, with a “very high percentage of the school population (using) McGuffey’s leveled readers” Fry 2002).

By the end of the twentieth century, educators had become disenchanted with the graded, or leveled, readers because they contained very restricted vocabularies and content. Literature-based reading material replaced these volumes, offering more interesting stories but lacking leveling.

While it was difficult to find proponents of readability as a measure of a reading textbook’s usefulness, leveling — which takes other factors into account beyond simple word and sentence length — was popularized by Marie Clay, whose Reading Recovery system employed reading tutoring for children who were likely to fail.

Are there still proponents of readability indices?

Clearly, some educators no longer are proponents of readability indexes. However, some commercial companies have worked with traditional readability formulae that are based on sentence length and vocabulary difficulty and have added sophistication to the assessments by suing computers. The ability of the computers to assess much larger samples, or even the entire contents of books, they are able to produce finer gradations than whole-grade levels, even at the primary levels (Fry 2001).

These modern versions of readability indices produce their own reading achievement tests that correlate with their readability units; however, other tests in general use can also be correlated with them. These resources include Lexile unit assessment by Metametrics (Zakaluk & Samuels, 1995, cite by Fry 2001), ATOS grade levels by Advantage Learning Systems (2000, cited by Fry 2001), and Degrees of Reading Power units by Touchstone Applied Science Associates (1999, cited by Fry 2001).

Other readability formulae can be applied by hand. Below is a listing, along with the equation for using each type:

“a. Dale and Chall

Comprehension = .1579 (percent words not on Dale-Chall list of 3000 common words) + .0496 (words/sentences) + 3.6365.

“b. Gunning

Readability index = .4 (mean sentence length + % words over 2 syllables).

“c. Fry

Grade level = intersection of values for sentence length and word length measured in syllables on the Fry Readability Graph; factors are weighted differently for earlier vs. later grades” (Anderson et al. 1984, 175-190).

Additional formats are these:

Grammatik (Computer-based)

Right Writer (Computer-based)

Gunning-Mueller Fox Index TM (Grazian 1996, 19+).

Rudolf Flesch Reading Ease Formula TM. (Grazian 1996, 19+).

The Fog Index (Grazian 1996, 19+).

CorrectGrammar (Goldbort 2001).

Editor (Goldbort 2001).

Spache (Goldbort 2001).

Writers Workbench (Laband 1992).

Readability Plus (Laband 1992).

LIX Index (Laband 1992).

Laband notes that the correlation between all the programs he investigated was extremely high, as high as .85%, in establishing the readability levels of test passages (1992).

The Fog Index is an example of one that may be used by hand. To do so, count a group of words up to the 100th word. If it is in mid-sentence, go to the end of the sentence and count the number of words over 100. Then count the number of sentences within that specimen of 100 or so words and divide by the number of words to arrive at the number of words per sentence (Grazian 1996, 19+). It is not, however, quite that easy. The number of words with three or more syllables in the first 100 words must be counted, except for “proper nouns, combinations of short words such as ‘bookkeeper’ or ‘manpower,’ or the number of verbs made into three syllables by adding ‘-ed’ or ‘-es.’ Next, add the average number of words per sentence to the number of words with three or more syllables in the 100-word sample. Finally, multiply the sum by .4” (Grazian 1996, 19+).

Grazian pointed out that the average American reads on a 9th-grade level; college graduates struggle with anything above the 16th-grade level. He also points out that many people prefer to read a grade level or two beyond their best level, or, in other words, to remain in their reading comfort zone. To concerns about becoming a stilted writer by assessing one’s own work this way, Grazian contends that applying the formula, and revising to remove the ‘fog’ will make writers more adept at incorporating its principles into ordinary writing skills. He also suggested restricting the bulk of one’s words to five letters or fewer, which would put one’s writing on a par with Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address and some of Shakespeare. The obvious inherent problem is that those two authors had concepts to offer; any number of five-letter words signifying nothing may be easy to read, but would certainly not be great writing.

It is also obvious that the purpose of readability tests cannot be to create…

Plea to the Hearts and Minds of Essay

plea to the hearts and minds of people who are being knowledgeable of the distinctive qualities and assert from the Episcopal Church. The charm from the Church tends to be realized all over our land. Its extensiveness of empathy for every situations of people, the highly convincing perspective regarding the joys of life, the liberty from peculiarity of practice and faith, have unveil the Episcopal Church to the awareness of a lot of people whose religious association have been interfered with or destabilized. We always come across some evident problem, Steve Klein (2007), which makes a lot of people not to join the Episcopal Church. The Church tends to be rather odd, or cold, or complex. It tends not to fulfill the condition that training which is done earlier results to majority anticipation in a church. The services are somehow rigid and obscure; the ways are complex; it has strange practices. It tends to need a judgment of a distinct form in order for an individual to discover his spiritual home in the Episcopal Church.

The Church offers its practices and teaching, which if well taken in can claim the excited commitment of lots of individuals who have felt not satisfied with the segregation from religious relations. The Episcopal Church faith is rational, sensible, and of exact ratio. The way they carry out their doctrines are really fulfilling, strengthening and inspiring. Its ways are peaceful and curative. The environment is of joy and peace. The aim is to teach the people about the life which should be practiced in the Kingdom of God, and to practice this with a lot of care, sympathy and patience.


The duty of the Laymen in Episcopal is to participate in every diocesan, level parochial, and government at national in the church. It is right, that just like Episcopal, the Roman catholic Church practices historic connection from days of apostolic, with an active form of worship, together with teaching which takes place through the eye. However this later technique apart from being somewhat objectionable, is of greatly enviable, and it does not form the basis for opposition from several Roman Catholic Church. Many fraternal and orders have a ceremony and forms that extremely surpass their detailed in the Episcopal Church, people desire these practices whenever they appreciate them. It was very hard for a member of a fraternal order to term his organization like the Roman Catholic. This is due to the fact that the officers were putting on uniforms to obtain the lodge regalia. Whoever sings has the knowledge and is greatly distracted by a motivating song more than listeners. This added to a voice, forms marvelous singing to complete ones faith, to provide it words and moves it inside ones soul. This applies where one requires just to follow the proceedings of the service to check on what it offers for the external manifestation of each religious emotion of the worshippers. They do not form a congregation just to listen to an audience, but they form the real congregation. They carry out the act of worship but not the ministers because he represents a leader or the director. The worship varies in each requirement of the soul, and for every requirement it exist some matching look. As a result of this we find people stand at some point in specific session of the service. When praises goes on, standing becomes the natural attitude. At the time of prayers people kneel and during instruction people sit. If at the time of the whole service people sit, it provides opportunity for inactive part of an individual’s nature to prevail. Nevertheless worship forms a lively involvement in the communicative nature of the service. The body’s attitudes strengthen and inspire the behavior of the mind. There is involving in the worship. They do not form a body of listeners. The dilemma with a lot of sermon makes the mind and the heart of the listener equipped. The worship and sermon jointly provide the spiritual motivation to perform. Every one offers an essential component to the religious life; however the sermon should not be mistaken to the worship. Not every service has the sermon. But during the early Communion, worship forms the major part of the sessions with no preaching, Episcopal Church (2001). It becomes one of the major inspiring sessions.


Maps’ pictures, cubes charts, cubes, squares, and diagrams not forgetting flowers captures the eye. Others can be motion pictures, film strips, television and radio. The eye is among the gateways of knowledge. Most of the marvelous arts appeal to the eye. Every painting and architecture is addressed to the eye and it educate for a thousand year or exceeding via the eye. This made Episcopal churches to be furnished in order of every great occasion of the Church and should have some article of furniture which continually implies that function. Different colors are used to imply the common nature of the season. When white is used, it signify color of joy whereas other color like purple, green, and red when used, each suggest a certain truth which are being impressed from the sermon and lesson. From the nature we get the teaching from art. The Church via long experience has educated whatever human nature craves like pleasant environment, beauty, gracious clinging memories, warm associations, bright pictures for the mind, forms of sound words, spiritual mysteries, habits of reverence, acts of personal worship, the knowledge of the riches of the long-ago brought to the heart of the present, awareness of a great Household in which cluster our uppermost ideals; every of these things create the enduring impersonation that load the worshipper by feelings that cannot be removed out of them.

Church services

This knowledge is purposed for individuals who appreciates the Episcopal Church; be it in spirit or practices. It reflects on majorly the first complexity to who arrive for their first service as adults to the persuade of the Church. It is neither a Christian doctrine manual, nor a total description of the Church. A lot of such manuals exist, which can be studied by whoever desire a complete statement. To individuals who wish to achieve improved information about Episcopal Church attends for a period the church services with endeavors to understand them. There are no enormous spiritual forces in definite action that can be instilled in one’s mind and cherished by study only, not including the remedial and expansion control of occurrence in which link with these forces. In order to be cherished a great book should be read. The detractor will not provide a sufficient presentation over the power and charm. Gratitude of the Church is similarly an issue of knowledge. It is definitely significance to time and attempt to acquire a few concepts of the English-speaking people of the Mother Church. The church is not using for some other aim apart from the services, whereas the people are familiar to reverence. It must be considered as a Temple of God all the time and every time one enters it the feeling of being sacred and devoted encompass one which is being evident within the congregate.

There is also the use of the Book of Common Prayer. The Book of Common. is a guidebook of religion. It has the basic of the Christian Faith. It summarizes the teachings from the Bible and a clarification of Christianity doctrines. It has everything that a Christian requires to believe to his health of the soul. It can also be used in church as a service book. It is considered as the mainly essential religious book in terms of English language, apart from the Bible. The prayer fall under three categories: the precomposed, printed or written prayer; the formal spoken prayer, the spontaneous prayer, the precomposed memorized prayer; the prayer book contain the precomposed printed prayer. Ministers who tend to speak spontaneously uses precomposed memorized prayer. The prayers have been memorized by them, frequently with the help of the Prayer Book. Each minister is absolutely at liberation to do the same. The formal spoken prayer is a kind of prayer where the minister has to follow a particular structure but show a discrepancy in the words. This is the common kind of prayer within individuals who do not use a Prayer Book. Every Sunday it has similar formal organization and outline, with minimal diversity of language. Set phrases happen with occurrence in this prayer, it is the main formal of all forms of prayer. The negative part of it is that it is a prayer involving the minister only, but not the people’s prayer. The prayer of spontaneous is not as much repeated. Under it an individual prays with influence of emphasis of great emotion, or want. However given that spontaneity is an issue of human emotions of the human and not just a matter of words, it may perhaps as promptly locate phrase in the treasury of prayer in the Prayer Book in whichever…

Transforming Culture Sherwood Lingenfelter, the Term Paper

“Be not conformed to this world” means that while we have to live in it, we do not have to believe in it or be led by it. We cannot free ourselves completely from the influence of culture (we live within it, after all), but we can achieve a high degree of insight about it. We can learn to let our lives be guided by God and thus be free-er than those people whose lives are guided by cultural assumptions, norms, practices, opinions, attitudes, and moral standards. Those people who are influenced and guided by the often conflicting forces of culture, without the mitigating guidance of Christianity, are the most enslaved. Jesus described them as “like sheep not having a shepherd.” An extreme example of cultural enslavement is middle-eastern youths who grow up to become suicide bombers. They absorb from their culture the idea that they can be heroes by dying for a just and noble cause. In contrast, pilgrim life, although it takes place in a cultural context, is not culture-driven; it is gospel driven or God-directed.

Lingenfelter shows with a number of examples how the underlying values and assumptions of the social game we are coming from may pose obstacles to evangelizing. Particularly, our assumptions about the value of property which spring directly from our Western culture may hinder us in our relationships with the people we hope to evangelize. He councils us to depend on God for supply, as Jesus directed, and give up cultural pressures to own property, save money, and maintain the social status which goes with them. If we find it terribly difficult to live by the scriptural command to “Seek ye first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you,” it is because we have been brainwashed by our culture that it is dangerous to give too much or depend on God for sustenance. Giving does not impoverish us; neither does withholding enrich.

To know this and depend on it can be tremendously freeing, whether practiced at home or abroad in the missionary field. “Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning” (James 1:17) is a reassurance that God will, indeed, supply us at all times and in all places with all we need. It is important to remember that supply is not always money. When we place our reliance on God as the source of all good, we are freed from the fear of losing everything, being taken advantage of, being sued, being poverty stricken, etc. And we don’t have to spend a lot of time maintaining property, preserving its value, and keeping things running if we don’t have it in the first place. Adopt a simple lifestyle! Then, we are free to do the work God calls us to do.

Work and how it is conducted is another area that varies from culture to culture and reflects social structure. The author cites examples in the Bible of each of the four social games. For example, Nehemiah takes on the job of rebuilding the wall around Jerusalem in a culture of work that is organized along hierarchical lines. He plays the “hierarchist game” to get the job done. Jacob and Laban who compete with each other as sheep herders reflects an individualist game. Jacob’s youngest son Joseph, on the other hand, works within an authoritarian / bureaucratic structure for Pharoah. In the New Testament we find the disciples organizing themselves after Jesus is gone around egalitarian principles in which unity and collective interests are paramount.

Thus, it follows that Christian missionaries should seek to find out the social game of a new culture and work within it, rather than try to make the culture conform to a social game that the missionary prefers. The Bible does not state one particular social game or world view is better than another. Christians are supposed to be pilgrims and work within the structure that they find. It follows that pilgrims at home, too, (such as teachers and counselors, for example) with missions to accomplish need to recognize and understand the characteristics of whatever social game is being played by the people they hope to help. We aren’t supposed to change the social structure. We are supposed to bring Christ Jesus into the mix and let his holy influence accomplish whatever changing needs to be done.

Examples of all four prototype social games are again found in the Bible as underlying structures of family life, marriage, and child-parent relationships. Jesus’ family, for example, can be seen as hierarchist/corporate in which the father has authority, family activities are regulated by Jewish law, and the eldest son inherits the estate. Jacob and Esau, another example, show individualist family structures where the two brothers were competitors, as were Jacob and his father-in-law Laban also. There is no single Biblical model for family relationships and no particular family structure is endorsed by God.

Family units (even big families) are small social units. The goal of family organization is always the survival of individual members. Children learn in the family how to live in the greater culture. The family reproduces the structures and values of their social environment. Success and failure of its activities (feedback) will also lead family members to change their values and attitudes. The family is thus an adaptive structure which allows members to survive and perpetuate themselves.

Lingenfelter believes that by understanding family structure in the context of social games, we can predict what a family’s problems (or sins) will be, since particular structures lead to particular weaknesses. As we noted before, Jacob’s family, for example, was organized on individualist lines. Each member behaved in a manner calculated to enhance self-interest. Deception for personal gain was common. “The end justifies the means” seems to express the ethic behind Jacob’s financial practices (stealing his brother’s birthright, breeding his father-in-law’s sheep to increase his own, etc.). This kind of amoral behavior is typical in individualist families who try to function without Christ. Likewise, in hierarchical families property may become all too important, and parents may teach their children to avoid showing tenderness or compassion. In authoritarian families discipline may become more important than love. In egalitarian families where the good of the group is paramount, conformity may be taken to the extreme. Children, for example, may be forced to marry or to break up their marriages when they do not advance parental interests.

When it comes to families, each social game may produce its own form of oppression and abuses. For a more spiritual view Lingenfelter suggests that we use Jesus’ parable of the Prodigal Son (which takes place in a hierarchist family) and recreate the story in each of the other three social games. What would the son want in each of the other three structures? How would the older brother respond? In Jesus story, the father met the behavior of both sons with love. How would a father’s love be manifested in the other social games?

Success in every avenue of life depends, not upon leadership or the adoption of a particular social game, but on respect for God and faithful service to Him. Only God can deliver us from evil. Not kings, governments, or armies. When we start to place our faith in cultural systems and human leaders, instead of God, this is idolatry. We need to be careful that we don’t idolize our own ways of doing things and try to carry our own social system into other cultures. The message of the Cross is death to the things of the world, including our own cultural assumptions. We change the world and transform culture first, by setting an example of love, faith, patience and hope — by loving people. Second, when we bring the good news of the gospel to others, their lives, their hearts, are transformed. They begin to express the Holy Spirit and to love everyone they come in contact with. Jesus described this lifting of human consciousness into spirituality as similar to yeast raising bread. A small amount of yeast (a metaphor for truth) gradually lifts the whole of human consciousness. The lifting occurs one person at a time until the “whole” is leavened.

We don’t have to travel far from home to do this. Look around. “The fields are ripe for…

Nino Rota Fellini and Adorno Essay

Adorno and Music

Adorno’s concept of standardization stems from the industrialization of culture — the most fitting example being that of the assembly line, where cars are manufactured in the exact same manner, robotically, without any originality or deviation occurring. The standard is the same. In music, standardization occurs in a similar manner — instead of cars being manufactured, the culture industry manufactures music, art, cinema, books, etc. I piece of music that I believe has aesthetic value is Nino Rota’s “Theme” for the Fellini film 8 1/2. It has a very basic structure and thematically resembles a circus piece — which applies to the chaotic narrative of the film about a director trying to marshal both his internal and his external environment towards “the hoop” through which everything is meant to pass. The music is colorful, inviting, rhythmic, and very much like a march that easily draws the listener into its world.

The element of standardization is only marginally evident in Rota’s “Theme” — and this in the sense that it draws on traditional circus/march motifs. The theme’s main motif is repeated again and again at varying paces, sometimes slow, sometimes fast, depending upon the feeling that Rota is attempting to evoke. The rhythmic structure of the piece is thus varied and never stale: rhythm acts as a driver of the melody, but the melody remains at the top and at the fore — without it, there is no work at all.

The work has emotional value in part because of its application in the film; detached from the film, it is still an enjoyable work, but the emotional and aesthetic value is tied to the film by Fellini for anyone who has seen it. For a new listener, unaware of the “Theme” in the film but hearing it for the first time, there is likely to be an appreciation of the dramatic qualities of the score. However, the standardization that Adorno discusses and the rhythmic structure may be more evident to this type of listener, who is unaffected by the visuals and narrative of the film and their impact on the theme by Rota. The emotions roused by the film are sure to intertwine with those of the music to create an even deeper emotional experience for one who is both a viewer of the film and a hearer of the music.

Emotional value contributes to our understanding…

Democracy & Voter Knowledge Can Term Paper

org)”none of the men had actually served on the Swift boats that Mr. Kerry commanded.” There is much more in the way of empirical evidence to show that this attack campaign was false, but the point is made that lies wrapped in glossy TV commercials during election time can be effective. In Kerry’s case, he chose not to lash out at the lies, but many now feel he should have. Ironically, it was Bush himself who should have come under investigation; he got out of going to Vietnam by having his father get him assigned to the Air National Guard, and he failed to complete his required service there.

Meanwhile, many younger voters are not getting their election information from TV or from newspapers; they are going online. A PEW report (“Young high-speed users flock to internet for campaign news”) shows that about 21% of Americans now see the Internet as their “…main source of campaign news.” Among people between the ages of 18 and 35, PEW reports that 40% use the Internet as their “main source” of election news. Is that good or bad? It may not be entirely good, according to a report in C/NET News.com (http://news.com.com);that is because the Internet is not subject to the same election accountability rules as TV and radio, which require a candidate to say that he authorized that ad that ran. U.S. Senator Ron Wyden has introduced legislation that would apply TV rules to Web advertising, because now, he says, “You go in, sling your mud, hit below the belt, and get the heck out of Dodge before anyone knows who did the dirty deeds,” according to C/NET News.com.

UNINFORMED VOTERS MAY BE UNAWARE of ELECTION FRAUD. Taking it one step further beyond voters being either apathetic or badly uninformed (and thus being influenced by slick attack ads), an article by Robert F. Kennedy Jr. (“Was the 2004 Election Stolen?”) asserts that after close investigation of the 2004 presidential election, he has “…become convinced that the president’s party mounted a massive, coordinated campaign to subvert the will of the people in 2004.” How so? Kennedy’s research shows that in Ohio alone (the state that the election came down to) “at least 357,000 voters, the overwhelming majority of them Democratic, were prevented from casting ballots or did not have their votes counted in 2004.” Kennedy asserts that data from the election showed that “…one in every four Ohio citizens who registered to vote in 2004 showed up at the polls only to discover that they were not listed on the rolls, thanks to GOP efforts to stem the unprecedented flood of Democrats eager to cast ballots.”

CONCLUSION: FACISM: According to former U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, “The first truth is that the liberty of a democracy is not safe if the people tolerate the growth of private power to a point where it becomes stronger than their democratic state itself.” There is in this paper and elsewhere easily available research that reflects the enormous power that has been concentrated in the executive branch of government since 9/11. The power of a simple 30-second attack ad, when shown to an uninformed voter 30 or 40 times, can sway an election, and move the country away from democracy. And those entrenched in office have access to more money and power to produce and pay for air time with those unethical ads.

Works Cited

Kennedy, Robert F. “Was the 2004 Election Stolen?” Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 26, 2007 at http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/10432334/was_the_2004_election_stolen.

McCullagh, Declan. “Liberal Net rules spawn political attack ads.” C/NEW News.

Retrieved April 26, 2007, at http://news.com.com/liberal+Net+rules+spawn+political+attack+ads/2100-1028_3-5207277.html.

Media Matters for America. “Submerging the truth about Swift Boat Vets on Hannity

Colmes, Scarborough Country.” (2004): Retrieved April 26, 2007, at http://mediamatters.org/items/printable/200408050007.

PEW Internet & American Life Project. “Young high-speed users flock to internet for Campaign news.” (2004): Retrieved April 26, 2007, at http://www.pewinternet.org/ppf/p/1023/pipcomments.asp.

PEW Research Center for the People & the Press. “Fewer Turn to Broadcast TV and Papers. (2000): Retrieved April 25, 2007, at http://people-press.org/reports/print.php3?PageID=243.

PEW Research Center for the People & the Press. “The Views of Political Consultants.”

1998): Retrieved April 26, 2007, at http://people-press.org/reports/print.php3?ReportID=86.

Wikipedia. “Definitions of Fascism: Franklin D. Roosevelt.” Retrieved April 26, 2007, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/definitions_of_fascism.

Comparing Quality Improvement Graphical Tools Essay

Quality Improvement

Comparison of Graphical Tools used in Quality Improvement

Quality Improvement Tool Comparison Matrix

Quality Improvement Tool


Bar Graph (StatSoft, 2014a)

Values for a single variable is represented by bars or columns

Each bar represents a single case and the value of the variable (time, temperature, etc.…) is denoted by the Y-axis

Histogram (StatSoft, 2014b)

Graphical representation of a frequency distribution for a variable, with columns or bars representing the distribution of class intervals and the height of the columns representing the frequency of each class

Control Chart (StatSoft, 2014c; Trusko, Pexton, Harrington, & Gupta, 2007, p. 146-149)

Compares the means and ranges for a variable using two line charts, although vertical histograms can be incorporated into the chart as well to facilitate visualization of how much values are deviating from the expected norm

Bar graphs are seemingly ubiquitous, in part because of the inherent simplicity of the data representation. Bar graphs can be used to represent the value of a variable for each case in a series (StatSoft, 2014a). For example, a bar graph can be used to compare the performance values of healthcare quality standards nationally, regionally, and within a health system (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). By comparison, a histogram provides a graphic representation of the values for a frequency distribution using bars or columns (StatSoft, 2014b). One example would be to chart the annual length of stay for all adult ICU inpatients at tertiary-care teaching hospitals nationally. The bars would represent intervals of days or hours, while the height of the bars would represent the number of hospitals belonging to that time interval. While the histogram is a type of bar graph, the information it represents is therefore distinct from the information that is represented by a bar graph. If the length of stay data were represented by a bar graph, each bar would represent a hospital, but if the hospitals were to be grouped by length of stay performance then that would be a histogram, if the height of the bars represented the number of hospitals belonging to each performance group.

A quality control chart is a more specialized tool, when compared to bar graphs and histograms. Its purpose is to track the performance of a process over time, thereby determining whether it is behaving normally or out of control (StatSoft, 2014C; Trusko et al., 2007, p. 146-149).…

Ethnography: The Epitome of the Term Paper

The rooster in the story is warning the dreamer of the dangers of focusing on the wrong things. In the story, the man is failing to concentrate on his physical needs, but the author’s purpose in the passage is to point out that spiritual salvation is man’s critical need. Furthermore, the passage utilizes providence by specifically stating that one who seeks the Kingdom of God will have his needs met.

Finally, the author concludes his passage with an argument in the form of a short epilogue, recapping what he has said throughout the rest of the passage. He warns the reader, “Therefore, do not be anxious about tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Sufficient for the day is its own evil” (Matt 6:34). In other words, he tells the reader that anxiety is not going to solve the problems. He makes a vague reference to the simple life, which is that each day has its own evil, and one does not need to borrow more evils. Interestingly enough, this epilogue fails to make reference to the idea of providence.



Matt 6:25 begins with the argument that anxiety about food, drink, and clothing is unnecessary because a man is more than those things. Matt 6:26 uses a lesser to the greater argument to demonstrate that if God cares for birds, he will take care of man. The author moves onto the argument that anxiety is not productive in Matt 6:27. In Matt 6:28, the author continues the use of analogy and argues from the lesser to the greater by asking the reader to consider how the lilies grow in the field. The author moves from asking the reader to consider other creatures to a warning that a person’s achievements cannot match God’s in Matt 6:29. Matt 6:30 reveals a return to the argument of analogy. Matt 6:31 directly tells people not to worry because anxiety will not solve one’s problems. In 6:32, the author uses the argument of opposites, by showing that non-Jews are striving for worldly possessions; therefore Jews should not be striving for them. Finally, in Matt 6:33, the author gets around to instructing the audience what it needs to do in order to have its needs met. The author concludes in Matt 6:34 by warning the reader against anxiety, reiterating the idea that anxiety is not productive.


Matt 6:25 introduces the idea that a man is more than a physical body, which opens the door for arguments about providence. Matt 6:26 passage focuses on providence, by asking the reader to consider that if God will care for birds, why would He not care for humans? Matt 6:28 uses the idea of providence by hinting at God clothing lilies, though the lilies do not do anything to earn their clothing. In Matt 6:29 the author uses the providence argument and suggests that a sense of gratitude and valuing things appropriately is critical to a view of providence. In Matt 6:30, by showing that all people can receive God’s providence, the author introduces the idea of providence. Matt 6:31 also supports the idea of providence, if only by hinting at the notion that faith in God requires giving up anxiety about worldly concerns. Matt 6:33 uses providence to specifically state that God will provide for people’s needs.

The Simple Life

Matt 6:25 does not specifically mention the simple life, but it does being to suggest that the poor can live a good life. By introducing the idea of birds in Matt 6:26, the author continues the suggestion of the simple life, since birds do not have the same material concerns as mankind. In Matt 6:28, the author introduces the idea of the simple life by suggesting that lilies, which grow in the field, have a lifestyle that is easier to sustain. Matt 6:29 speaks to the simple life by reflecting on the relative lack of value of the lily. Matt 6:30 harkens to the simple life by comparing people to something as simple as grass. Matt 6:33 speaks to the simple life by suggesting that focusing on material possessions is counterproductive. Finally, in 6:34, the author concludes with a vague reference to the simple life by suggesting that each day has its own evils.

Works Cited