English Poetry Term Paper

English Poetry Term Paper

Song of Myself

Section 24 of Walt Whitman’s “Song of Myself” is so strong, yet so subtle. As forceful as the words are, Whitman also takes a passive tone in revealing himself through the verses. Section 24 starts out by describing the poet by name:

Walt Whitman, a kosmos…Turbulent, fleshy, sensual, eating, drinking and breeding….Through me forbidden voices….I believe in the flesh and the appetites, Seeing, hearing, feeling, are miracles….Divine am I inside and out, and I make holy whatever I touch or am touch’d from, The scent of these arm-pits aroma finer than prayer….If I worship one thing more than another it shall be the spread of my own body, or any part of it….I dote on myself, there is that lot of me and all so luscious, Each moment and whatever happens thrills me with joy.”

Whitman describes his own personal relationship with everything else in the world. Through his words, he gives his readers a descriptive view into his soul, so that they see his views on life and the world we live in. Section 24 reflects Whitman’s beliefs about equality and why nature is so important.

Whitman uses a few different poetic devices to show himself through the poem. At first glance, a reader might believe that Whitman wrote this poem out of vanity. However, Whitman corrects the reader early on. In the first stanza, he says that he is like everybody else and is “no more modest than immodest.”

The reader is then informed about why Whitman is writing the poem, as he talks about his state of mind. He talks about “doors” in the second stanza, in which he tells the readers to open their minds and listen to what he is really trying to tell them.

Whitman’s doors represent what keeps the mind from expanding too far. He tells his readers to unlock and tear down these doors. Whitman believes the key to the locks on our souls is nature. This is one of the major themes of the poems, and is mentioned early on because of its significance.

The third stanza discusses Whitman’s theory of equality. He talks about how he feels what is done to every person. He is saying that if you hurt someone, you are also hurting him, because we are all connected.

The “afflatus” in the fourth stanza is Whitman’s inspiration, which flows through him and takes over his entire body and mind.

The rest of Whitman’s theories are based on these first four stanzas. The next three stanzas go back to his beliefs about equality. The first is an emotional outburst that shows how deeply he feels about equality.

In the second, he acts as a general speaker for everyone and everything in the world, launching into a descriptive speech about everyone and everything in the world, including slaves, dwarfs, fog, and stars.

In Whitman’s opinion, he is qualified to speak for all these things because they are all a part of him. Through his existence and his very being, he believes that he is strongly connected to the entire universe and, because of this connection, he is affected by everything in the world.

In the next stanza, Whitman changes these voices so they are clearly heard by everyone. He talks about his complete love for nature. The beginning of this stanza starts: “I believe in the flesh and the appetites.” Perhaps he did this to make it more raunchy, and in turn, more interesting.

Whitman attracts the reader’s interest with his words. For example, he takes basic natural images and makes them erotic and sexual. When he shouts: “Firm masculine colter it shall be you!” And then continues to state simple natural images, it makes the tone far more controversial that it had been before.

The maple tree has “trickling sap,” the brook is now “sweaty,” and the wind has “soft-tickling genitals.” These terms and scenes from nature now seem taboo and naughty, enticing the reader to read on.

Whitman did not choose his words based on humor or shock value, but instead for the way they fit within the context of the poem. He used shocking imagery in this section to get his point across. We, as humans, are very sexual creatures, and by relating sexual words with natural images, Whitman is making everything in nature relate to one another.

If the reader was convinced, at this point, that Whitman did not write this section out of vanity, he may doubt himself when he reads Whitman’s next words. Whitman calls himself a miracle. However, he is quick to show why he uses that term.

Whitman proclaims that he is more divine than “churches, bibles, and all the creeds.” Yet he says this is only so because he is part of nature. Therefore, he is better than any material thing in the world that was not created by nature.

Whitman says that he is no better than any other living thing. In his words, he says that he is part of everything in the universe and so is everybody else. Whitman uses epistrophe in this stanza to emphasize the words “it shall be you.”

In the end, Whitman says that he would take a morning-glory any day over books. This line emphasizes the superiority of nature over material things. The following stanzas go on and on, glorifying nature and how it is a part of him. Whitman’s Section 24 shows a deep love for nature and a strong belief that it is a powerful force that affects everybody and everything.

Whitman says:

The earth by the sky staid with, the daily close of their junction,

The heav’d challenge from the east that moment over my head,

The mocking taunt, See then whether you shall be master!”

Whitman uses both humans and nature as unique symbols of humanity. He even uses himself as a symbol of all of humanity. He sees the ideas of humanity coming from him and says, “Through me many long dumb voices…Through me forbidden voices,.” He represents everybody.

Whitman describes himself as a “kosmos” – which means a universe. Combined within the universe that he embodies, he sees the “pleasures of heaven are with me and the pains of hell are with me.” He uses himself to represent everybody.

Whitman is not vain. Section 25 is the first section in which he describes himself by name. Even in this section, he says it in a half-comical way, as “Walt Whitman, a kosmos, of Manhattan the son.”

He uses the reader as himself and even allows “nature” to speak “without check, with original energy,” which is without constraints of either poetic convention or social decorum.

Whitman says so much in this poem about life and the world. His main point is equality and the longevity of humanity.

Whitman shows that he is an imperfect being, as is everybody else, but that the imperfections make him real. In this section, he describes how no one is any better than anyone else.We are all one is a theme in this poem section. “Whoever degrades another degrades me…. And whatever is done or said returns at last to me.”

Whitman says that we all share a voice or voices. We all cry out in the voice of the slave and the prostitute because all beings share a connected voice. Whitman takes on these voices to confront controversial topics, which he says are all a part of being human.

In Whitman’s poem, he shows that sex is just another creation of God, as is everything else that is natural. “Through me forbidden voices, Voices of sexes and lusts….voices veiled, and I remove the veil,” he says. Whitman says that it is all right to explore the forbidden and become a sexual voice.

Whitman gives a voice to those…

Islamophobia Politics Gender and Discrimination Essay

Ali, Y. (2012). Shariah and citizenship. California Law Review 100:1027

Ali (2012) focuses on the pernicious trend towards institutionalized Islamophobia and racism in America. Starting with the 2010 “Save Our State” amendment in Oklahoma, several states have adopted similar approaches that essentially legislate discrimination. According to the author, such legislation is not only based on mistruth and has no basis in fact or evidence; the legislation is overtly unconstitutional and deprives Muslim Americans of their legal rights and protections. Anti-Muslim legislation creates a “second class citizenship” class for Muslims. Moreover, Ali (2012) clarifies the nature and definition of Sharia law and shows that Sharia law has been grossly distorted by the media. What is frequently called “Sharia” is actually a set of personal religious obligations and practices, not the inhumane punishments sensationalized by the media. The author also provides policy recommendations.

This article is instrumental in a cogent discussion about the distortions made by the media regarding Islam, and Sharia law in particular. The article addresses issues related to institutionalized Islamophobia and the legal implications thereof, and is therefore a critical source in my research.

Anti-Defamation League: http://www.adl.org/

The Anti-Defamation League started as an organization devoted to rooting out anti-Semitism and has done a brilliant job with its public relations campaigns, public awareness campaigns, and influences in public policy related to hate crimes and discrimination. The same organization has since broached a wider subject area, targets a broader swath of hate crimes, and can therefore be a valuable source of information on how to inhibit the spread of Islamophobia in concerted ways.

Byers, B.D. & Jones, J.A. (2007). The impact of the terrorist attacks of 9/11 on hate crime. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice 5(1).

Using sociological methods, Byers & Jones (2007) analyze the FBI’s UCR data to show that instances of hate crime directed at Muslims increased in the eight weeks following September 11 and rates remained relatively high thereafter too. The research showed that hate crimes against Muslims were conspicuously absent in the two cities directly hit by the terrorist attacks of September 11: New York and Washington, D.C. Rather than hypothesize that the lack of hate crimes in those cities was due to their being multicultural hubs, the authors suggest that in-group/out-group patterns of socialization are at play. Specifically, a crisis has a tendency to create a sense of community against a mutual enemy or in favor of shared goals.

This research is instrumental in showing how Islamophobia works and how it can potentially be minimized in America. When Muslims are viewed as neighbors and citizens instead of nebulous enemies, the communities can rally together against terrorism and other perils instead of creating artificial boundaries and fragmentation. In fact, creating community can help improve national resilience against terrorism and domestic crime as well.

Carland, S. (2011). Islamophobia, fear of loss of freedom, and the Muslim woman. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 22(4): 469-473.

Focusing on fear of loss of freedom as a variable, the researcher shows how Islamophobia impacts Muslim women in particular. Fear of loss freedom is presented as a possible cause for Islamophobia, and is based on outmoded beliefs about the nature of Islam and its cultural elements including head covering. Bans on head covering have spread throughout Western Europe and have become entrenched in law precisely for the reasons the researchers suggest: the head covering hearkens to deep-rooted fears about loss of freedom. Signs of Muslim identity have become skewed to mean affronts to “Western” values like freedom.

As a large portion of the research will focus on the specific effects of Islamophobia on women and on gendered hate crime, this article is critical in elucidating some of the causes and effects of anti-Muslim sentiments in America. The article’s focus also offers a novel approach to addressing issues related to how Muslim women and their dress is perceived by Americans.

Center for Security Policy

The Center for Security Policy encapsulates the prevailing beliefs of Americans, as its policies reflect values, norms, and biases lurking in the American consciousness. As a security policy organization, the Center for Security Policy does reflect the ways Islamophobia may become entrenched in law, and what policies can replace those that are ill-informed.

The Investigative Project on Terrorism: http://www.investigativeproject.org/

The Investigative Project on Terrorism links to news sources from around the world, focusing on articles portraying Islam as a violent movement. This website, like Jihad Watch, can be used as…

Theology Religion Christian Term Paper


Relativist said, ‘The world does not exist, England does not exist, Oxford does not exist and I am confident that I do not Exist!’ When Lewis was asked to reply, he stood up and said, ‘How am I to talk to a man who’s not there?'” (Schultz, 1998)

Lewis: A Biography

This quote shows how, in truly CS Lewis style, the writer took the everyday questions about religion and faith, tacking them head-on. Lewis was a Christian writer who was deeply influenced by the teachings of God and His Scripture.

CS Lewis was born, in 1898, in Belfast, Ireland. He was educated at various schools throughout England (Hooper, 1996). In 1914, he began studying Latin, Greek, French, German and Italian and later moved to Oxford. His education was disrupted by the first World War but within two years, he resumed his studies.

In 1924, Lewis became a teacher of Literature and Language at Magdalen College in Oxford, where he remained until 1954. During this time, he wrote the majority of his work. Lewis later moved to Cambridge where he spent the rest of his life teaching Medieval and Renaissance Literature.

C.S. Lewis is known as a man who was dedicated to the pursuit of truth. He “believed in argument, in disputation, and in the dialectic of Reason.” (Schultz, 1998) At the beginning of his search for truth, Lewis was an atheist. He ended up becoming a Christian, which influenced a great deal of his writing.

Lewis’ writing is not known for its reformation of or separation from the popular religious beliefs. He merely defined, defended, and united the community of Christianity on what it “purely” is. (Schultz, 1998)

However, in many of his works, Lewis separated himself from popular religious views about Christianity, particularly from the traditional schools of thought within modern and historical Christianity.

Lewis took on a liberal view of Scripture and distanced himself from a Fundamentalist view of the Bible, which is a verbal, literal inspiration of Scripture. Instead, he presented a new approach to Christianity, which was no doubt inspired by the Scriptures that praised the Bible’s use of myth.

Views of Scripture

Lewis reinforces in many of his works that he had a high view of scripture and believed in miracles.

In the Bible, it says,” Blessed is he who keeps the words of the prophecy in this book” (22:7-11). The books of Revelation say that God will bless those that obey the faith and curse those who do not. The Bible also discusses heaven and hell. (Hooper, 1996)

In the Bible, John saw angels as staunch defenders of the regulative principle of worship, who did not tolerate false worship. CS Lewis was inspired by this passage and he wrote about the “shadow side” as a result. (Hooper, 1996)

He basically wrote that people who respond in faith are blessed forever, while those who do not will suffer forever. This is a harsh theory, as Lewis says that the gates of hell are locked for the inside.

Scripture does not make it clear to readers whether or not they will recognize their loved ones when they die. The Bible merely tells us that will be taken into Christ’s own body. Lewis expands on this theory in “The Great Divorce.” (Schultz, 1998)

The Great Divorce” talks about the resurrection bodies, saying that the old will look young, while the young will look old and wise. He also said that some bodies would wear clothes, as a sign of special grace of God while others would be naked, but fully clothed in righteousness. Revelation is the only book that talks about clothing in the afterlife, so Lewis was obviously inspired by these books.

As for repentance, Lewis holds that it “is not something God demands of you before He will take you back…; it is simply a description of what going back is like.” (Schultz, 1998)

Lewis believed in an evolutionary animal ancestry of man. “For long centuries God perfected the animal form which was to become the vehicle of humanity and the image of Himself” (The Problem of Pain)

He accepted that the Book of Genesis account came from pagan mythical sources. “I have therefore no difficulty accepting the view of those scholars who tell us that the account of Creation in Genesis is derived from earlier Semitic stories which were pagan and mythical” (Reflections on the Psalms) (Cunningham, 1967)

Lewis did not believe in a bodily resurrection (C.S. Lewis: A Biography). He rejected the theory of the total depravity of man. “I disbelieve that doctrine” (The Problem of Pain) (Cunningham, 1967)

His view of Scripture was woeful. He believed that the Book of Job was “unhistorical.” He also believed that the Bible contained “error,” and asserted the Neo-orthodox concept that the Bible “carries” the Word of God and is “human material” (The Problem of Pain).

According to Dr. Martyn Lloyd-Jones, “CS Lewis was essentially a philosopher, his view of salvation was defective in two key respects: (1) Lewis believed and taught that one could reason oneself into Christianity, and (2) he was an opponent of the substitution and penal theory of the Atonement.” (Cunningham, 1967)

According to Dr. W.W. Shrader, a Baptist, “C.S. Lewis would never embrace the Fundamentalist view of the Bible. He would not accept the theory of “total depravity of man.” He rejected the “substitution theory” of the Atonement.” (Cunningham, 1967)

Lewis wondered why Christians often emphasized either good works or faith to the exclusion of the other, saying, “It does seem to me like asking which blade in a pair of scissors is most necessary… If what you call your ‘faith’ in Jesus Christ does not involve taking the slightest notice of what He says, then it is not faith at all.” (Schultz, 1998)

Scripture as Errant Source

In Lewis’ eyes, the Bible was the foundational source for Christian thought and belief. The Bible was an authoritative source in all matters of faith and practice. Lewis understood the nature and authority of Scripture in a way that lined up with the convergence of centuries of Christian thought, which is why his works were so well-accepted.

The fundamentalist view of inerrancy, which made the Scriptures seem to be a textbook, was unacceptable to Lewis, which believed that the Scriptures contained error. To him, the Bible was a treasure that bore the marks of having been written by human beings who had witnessed God’s message (Cunningham, 1967). Still, he believed Scripture to be the living, life altering word of God, in which God still communicated to humans.

Basically, Lewis believed that while Scripture was authoritative, it was also extremely human. He wrote, “The human qualities of the raw materials show through. Naivety, error, contradiction, even…wickedness are not removed.” (Cunningham, 1967)

Therefore, according to Lewis, the result was “not the Word of God in the sense that every passage…gives impeccable science or history. It carries the Word of God; and we (under grace, with attention to tradition and to interpreters wiser than ourselves, and with the use of such intelligence and learning as we may have) receive the word from it not by using it as an encyclopedia or an encyclical but by steeping ourselves in its tone or temper and so learning its over-all message.” (Cunningham, 1967)

Issues With Christianity and Scripture

Two of Lewis’ works, “The Problem of Pain” and “Mere Christianity” address issues that he struggled with in Christianity (Beversluis, 1985). “Mere Christianity” talks about the core set of beliefs surrounding Christianity. According to Lewis, Jesus is what He claimed to be in the Bible, which is the Son of God.

Lewis says that according to the Bible, Jesus was literally born of a virgin, crucified, buried, and physically rose from the dead. “Mere Christianity” supports the Bible strongly, teaching the basics of the Trinity: Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are all of one God.

Lewis believed that the gospel accounts are accurate and written by men who were witness, such as the apostles (Beversluis, 1985). He believed that God promised through the Old Testament prophets that He would send His Son to die for the sins of His people. Lewis was obviously inspired by the Bible and tried to convince his readers that the supernatural does exist and miracles do occur.

Mere Christianity” consists of three separate broadcasts, one of which is called “The Case for Christianity” (Beversluis, 1985). In this broadcast, Lewis addresses a major issue in defense of his religion. Because the Bible scriptures can be confusing, Lewis addresses many questions that can come to mind when trying to find the truth in it.

This issue, which he labels as “Right and Wrong as a Clue to the Meaning of the Universe,” deals with the existence of moral law; the idea of a power or mind behind the universe, and that this power, which is God, is good; and the attributes of Christianity.

Law of Nature

According to Lewis, the law of nature attaches humans to a…

Analyzing the Busg 1301 Essay

Graham, J. (2016). Uber ditches e-Mail support. USA Today

This article discusses the changes that Uber plans to implement in the forthcoming periods with respect to its business operations. Uber users who use the commuting services as passengers should forget regarding writing to the customer support of the company through the use of e-mail in case they have an issue. This is for the main reason that Uber, in the forthcoming periods, is abandoning the use of the — e-mail and substituting it for direct communication within the app. The company seeks to improve the level of haste and speed at which it offers service to the consumers and attains consumer response. Since the Uber users are able to get a ride simply through the push of a button, the company intends to make it possible for the users to experience customer support in the same manner. This implies that, for instance, if the user left luggage or personal effects in the car, experienced bad and horrible service from the driver, then he or she will be able to simply go to the app, click help and air the particular concerns right there and then (Graham, 2016).

This is important and of great benefit to the users. This is because the use of email not only places a great deal of effort and exertion, but it is also not functional on different nations such as India and also China, expanses where more and more individuals do not have email addresses. This implies that the new move by the company will offer customer support and help the numerous users and also be able to encompass a wide range of users at the end of the day. This will also alarm the drivers to start offering even better service to the users in fear of being reported instantly. This will also help the users to easily retrieve their personal effects such as bags, coats and books that were left in the car by mistake. This will make the process to be much faster and less stressful. E-mail takes too much time and too much work. More so, consumers in regions such as India and China run the risk of losing their personal effects in case they forget them in the car. The inclusion of customer support within the app itself will increase the user experience (Graham, 2016).

There is great relevance to…

Genghis Khan Is One of Those Figures Essay

Genghis Khan is one of those figures from history that the average person has heard about, and perhaps knows a little something about, but the real biographical details may be fuzzy. This paper seeks to present the relevant data about Khan, along with a timeline and a map of the remarkable amount of territory that Khan ruled at one time.

Genghis Khan Biographical Information

Genghis Khan was born in Mongolia around the year 1155, although there is some disagreement about that precise date. He is said to have had many wives in his lifetime, and he started his marriage experiences quite young — at the age of 16, according to Biography.com. By the age of 20, Khan already was developing a large army of men, with a specific goal to “…destroy individual tribes in Northeast Asia” and to unite them all under his leadership. He did not fail in his goal, in fact the Mongol Empire was “the largest in the world” prior to the British Empire was established (Biography.com).

In his early years, he was actually named “Temujin” after a Tartar chieftain his father had captured. His original tribe was called the Borjigin tribe, and he was a distant descendant of Khabul Khan, a Mongolian warrior who had united Mongols against one of China’s dynasties in the early part of the 1100s (the dynasty was the Chin Dynasty). There is a story in the literature that Genghis Khan was born with a “blood clot in his hand,” which to Mongol folklore at that time apparently was a foreshadowing that he would be destined to provide leadership to the Mongol tribes (Biography.com).

The story of his life is bizarre, including the fact that members of the Tartar tribe poisoned his father; subsequent to that, Genghis tried to become the tribal chief in lieu of his father’s leadership. But at the age of 9, the clan wasn’t buying into Genghis’ desire to become the clan chief and in fact his younger brothers were “ostracized” and placed in “near-refugee status” (Biography.com). In a dispute over the meat from a hunting trip, Genghis killed a half-brother and hence he did become the head of the family. As mentioned earlier he married at the age of 16 (her name was Borte) but she was kidnapped by a rival tribe (Merkit) and given over to the chieftain of the Merkit tribe as his wife. Genghis rescued her though, and eventually he had four sons with Borte as well as “many other children with other wives” (Biography.com).

At the age of 20, Genghis was captured and enslaved for a while but he escaped and soon after formed his first fighting unit — which developed into a huge army of “more than 20,000 men” (Biography.com). He had not forgotten the fact that the Tartars had killed his father so to avenge that murder he ordered the slaughter of “every Tartar male less than 3 feet tall.” His murderous, merciless brutality and keen sense of military tactics served him and his massive army well as he slaughtered one tribe after another finally giving him control over central and eastern Mongolia.

The biography of Genghis reflects the fact that he was a very cunning and able military leader — including the fact that he trained spies to stealthily learn the plans and tactics of other tribes so that he could plunder those tribes. But he would also take whatever advanced technologies those tribes had developed and use them for his own warrior ends.

He had 80,000 fighters and each one of them was equipped with “bow, arrows, shield, dagger, and lasso” and he had his plans down pat when it came to attacking a tribe or clan. His cavalry warriors each had a “small sword, javelins, body armor, a battle-ax or mace, and a lance with a hook to pull enemies off their horses” (Biography.com).

By 1213 Khan’s warriors had attacked and conquered the capital of north China, Yenching, which today is known as Beijing. He wasn’t satisfied with that, and continued marching across Asia until he had conquered “Turkistan, Transoxania, and Afghanistan,” and had raided Persia and Eastern Europe to the Dnieper River” (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia) (CEE). He ruled one of the most massive empires of land and riches the world has ever known.

According to one of the Shamans that Khan kept with him as he marched and marauded across Asia — Shaman Kokochu — Kahn’s status was raised well above that of warrior and conqueror. “Genghis Khan had been sent by the Eternal Heaven to rule the world,” according to author Leo de Hartog. When Kokochu died, Khan made sure he kept that “myth” alive and proclaimed: “Heaven has ordered me to rule over all men… and the protection and the help of the Eternal Heaven has enabled me to destroy my enemies and attain this high dignity” (de Hartog, 2004, p. 35).

According to de Hartog, Khan never saw himself as the “head of a people”; rather, he saw himself as “the head of the Mongol aristocracy which he had united” (35). Another interesting fact about Khan is that he never addressed himself to “his inferiors,” but only to his brothers, his sons and his senior military commanders.

Some of the tribes that Khan had conquered were not falling into line as often as Khan would have liked, and hence some of the ambitions that Khan originally had in mind were “curbed,” de Hartog continues. “Mongols were largely a backward people, even in comparison with other tribes,” de Hartog explains (36). Order at home had to be fully established prior to Khan’s massive armies going in to attack “more educated countries.

While Khan himself was illiterate, he was smart enough to realize that there needed to be some kind of language for his empire. He is credited with the “…introduction of the Uighur script as the official alphabet,” de Hartog reports (36). “He was shrewd enough to realize that his sons and leading officials” would certainly need to become literate, to read and write; hence Khan assigned Ta-ta-T’ong — a was handed the responsibility of “keeper of the seals” and of official tutor to the sons of the new overlord (de Hartog, 36).

Hillary Mayell writes in the National Geographic News that Genghis Khan may have “helped populate” his empire. In fact an international group of geneticists that studied the Y-chromosome data have discovered that “…nearly 8% of the men living in the region of the former Mongol empire carry y-chromosomes that are nearly identical” (Mayell, 2003, p. 1). That means that about 0.5% of the male population in the world, or about 16 million descendents living today are related to Genghis Khan. Geneticist Spencer Wells, who was one of the co-authors, explains that it is the “…first documented case when human culture has caused a single genetic lineage to increase to such an enormous extend in just a few hundred years” (Mayell, p. 1).

TimeLine — Genghis Khan and Mongolia / Royal Albert Museum

1160 — 1200 — Temujin (Genghis) is born in the 1160s; his father dies while he is still a child and in his teens he is already leading raids against neighboring tribes.

1206 — Temujin is officially named Genghis Khan, ruler of all the Turko-Mongol peoples; he builds an army and divides his forces into like-minded tribal chieftains.

1209 — 1221 — Genghis and his army defeat the Tangut kingdom of Xi Xia; they take the capital of the Jin (Chin) Empire (now Beijing) and in 1218 they take the Kara-Khitai empire; in 1221 a caravan of Khan’s traders is executed; a Mongol ambassador seeking justice is killed and that unleashes a bloody war with Khan’s army slaughtering entire populations.

1226 — 1227 — Khan by now has conquered Western…

Services Sector Comprises Vast Groups Term Paper

Banks have thus the role of distributing these products to their customers. Added to that in the international arena banks are dealing more with derivatives and foreign exchange, making the role of the bank far more important in the overall well being of the economy. Banks are diversifying and redefining themselves as trading, banking and service institutions. The banks are multifunctional and are known by various terms like the ‘clearing bank’ in UK, ‘Commercial banks’ and ‘Investment banks’ or ‘Merchant banks’. Banks are thus redefining themselves to suit the wider rage of operation sand services offered. (Cranston, 1997, p. 3)

2. Globalization of banking sector

Globalization is a phenomenon that has invaded all industries and human life. The changes that have come about after the break down of the cold war and the new social interaction between nations have affected the financial sector as well. Globalization has removed restrictions for operations all over the globe to a great extent. With the available technology functions of any institution can be carried on in a global scale.

There has been a change in the outlook on banking principles and the role of banks after globalization. At the end of the Second World War, and for the decade thereafter, there was a hesitant participation in overseas banking. Banks concentrated on strengthening overseas interests especially in the neutral countries and with allies. The U.S. banks proffered credit to South American countries and Europe. American merchants benefited from the supply of credit afforded to them by their own banks in these countries. (Stern, 1951, p. 413) the changes and fast development in the economy and technology was defined in theory earlier, with some implications of the changes on the economy by the economists. The Economist Joseph a. Schumpeter theorized that new processes and policies will destroy the established methods of doing business and will bring in new methods and means. This he called the ‘creative destruction’ and constructive changes were predicted to occur in wave like patterns. These observations are being proved by the giant changes that are taking place in the world today. The deregulation of the international trade, transactions and the associated changes termed globalization coupled with the changes in technology have brought in vast changes in all sectors, especially the global financial services sector, and banking institutions in particular. Some of the services overlap between the banking and non-banking institutions like payments, risk taking and mutual fund for example. The methods in which these services are rendered are fast changing. Today the banking and financial services sector in general has come far from the times of Adam Smith, the functions and scope of operation of banks and other institutions are wide and vast, so much that earlier services have almost become unrecognizable. (Gup, 2003, p. 1)

The transition was not easy. Many events occurred in the 1990s that altered the structure of every nation in the globe. One was the formation of the European Union, the North American Free Trade Area, and the industrialization of the third world countries. Rapid changes in technology were one of the reasons why globalization could happen. Banking industry is hard hit by the global changes. The deregulation and the arrival of foreign competitors have created ripples in the banking sector. The competition in the industry is now intense and gaining momentum. The banking institutions were in a crisis in the nineties with rapid fall in margins at the European Union, and the rising cost of deposits and falling interest rates added to the woe. (Gup, 2003, p. 12)

Changes in banking – After Globalization

There is no remarkable change in the core banking services for banks on account of globalization. The customers still prefer the local banks. The banking service caters to mostly the local clientele. Customers prefer local banks and banks that operate from offshore or expand from other places are least preferred. Therefore banks that have ambitions to go global prefer mergers and acquisitions in the case of international banking to keep the customer. This can be noticed as happening from the eighteenth century. (Cranston, 1997, p. 459) Even today banks operate in the international arena by tie-ups with local banks. The international banking is growing with globalization, and now global banking is a reality. The international banking options have been clearly established. Global demand for the services however is still misty. Serving customers across the globe still remains elusive and filled with obstacles. Banking operations in various countries have various regulations and there are no uniform global standards. The regulations in each country are aimed at protecting and regulating the national banking system. The rules also are aimed at providing the authorities with instruments to regulate banking. Thus foreign banking is strictly regulated, with the regulation varying from country to country. Still there is no international agreements for what ought to be legal for banks on a global scale. International trade services is proposed to be the next agenda for globalization and banking services are likely to be services extended to international services. There is expected to be mergers and collaborations. Such moves however will have to be made after solving a lot of known and unknown issues that will crop up in the event of such progress. (Feldstein, 1998, pp: 245-246)

The issues in the process will not relate to the normal banking services that are available in all banks. The customer can easily avail such services from the local bank. The issues in international banking will relate to the regulations imposed on banks from the countries where they are registered or originate. The problem is where the customer desires foreign bank operations to keep the funds from the reach of his home country. In cross national transactions the policies of each country will govern the nature of services demanded by customers. (Feldstein, 1998, p. 247) the financial services industry is seen as a growth industry and the network of financial institutions is necessary for the country’s economic growth. The developing countries tend to protect their banking industry for this reason. Thus though globalization is taking place in most sectors, foreign banks have stringent regulations placed on them in all countries that do not wish the banking sector going global and entry of foreign banks, which may be prohibited from entering certain line of transactions especially securities. (Feldstein, 1998, p. 249)

Ever since trade has expanded on a global scale, the market place has gained tremendous importance. The focus is on trade and issues in international trade. The Federal Reserve System ought to be geared up to meet the challenges of modernization. (Ashdown, 2002, p. 79) the International trade is the most discussed topic today. For the richer exporting countries it signifies a healthy economy. In other nation sit can mean the ability to sustain the living standards to a higher than base level. In to day’s world banking creates development. Therefore the banking policies of a country will also be its effective trade policy. The financial sector controls the value of the currency and trade balance (Ashdown, 2002, p. 109)

Today the universal bank has emerged as an important institution. The relationship between its various units and the relationship between the bank with other industries, and the advisability of the banks branching out to other industries not essentially connected with banking are all relevant issues today. (Gup, 2003, p. 14) There is no immediate prognosis possible on the outcome of the expansion of the financial industry world wide and the future of banking and what roles it will play in the domestic and international arena. Boundaries are being blurred and industries that were hitherto in tight walled segments are merging. Traditional roles of the banking institution though fundamental to its existence are not by itself a definition of the modern banking service, but is one of the many diverse activities that banks are called upon to undertake today.

3. Effects of Technology and regulations on banking sectors

The most influential change that has occurred in the banking sector is the modern technology which has not only changed the way the sector operates, but also has increased the scope of operations. With that change the need for controls has resulted in legislation which is both local t the country and also with relation to foreign banks that may venture into the country on account of globalization. The aim of banking regulations today is to prevent bank crisis and financial tragedies. The liquidity of the banking sector is very important for the economy. There must be supervision and regulation by the state and prudential standards ought to be maintained in the financial sector to keep the economy alive and retain customer faith. There ought to be a system for keeping out frauds, and at the same time maintains the quality of service afforded to the customer. The banks operating costs ought to reduce with the introduction of modern…

Swedish Health Care System All Over the Essay

Swedish Health Care System

All over the world, governments approach their social responsibilities from a wide range of perspectives. For instance, for many industrialized nations, health care is taken to be an example of a social program tailored to benefit the general public. Hence in that regard, the relevance of a well designed health care system cannot be overstated. This paper takes Sweden as a reference point in seeking to map the history, demographics as well as structure (political) that informed the development of the nation’s health care system. Further, the major health conditions facing Sweden as well as the organization and financing of the nation’s health care system will be discussed. This paper will also demonstrate how Sweden’s health care system differs from that of the United States. Lastly, based on the discussion, one lesson the United States can derive from Sweden’s health care system will be clearly and concisely highlighted.


According to Reid (2009), the Swedish health care system is part of the nation’s larger approach to social insurance funded by income taxes of Swedish citizens.

Overall, Swedish health care costs amount to approximately ten percent of the country’s GDP, which is more than three times less than the cost of American health care. Most of the health care facilities and services in the country are furnished by physicians and health care workers who comprise of public employees earning wages comparable to those earned by other professionals in areas that require less skill. This in the view of Reid (2009) reflects a fundamental socialist approach that could not be implemented in U.S. Similarly, Swedish citizens are restricted to receiving a significant portion of health care services within their immediate counties (Genser, 1999). Further, as far as the Swedish health care system is concerned, physicians aged 65 years and above may not practice within the public system. This age matches the national retirement age in general.

It can be noted that in Sweden, the entire drug dispensing process is nationalized in a system that requires only the patient’s identity card at any dispensary. Patients do pay a nominal fee for physician services amounting to approximately $20 per visit and similarly, they also do pay a nominal amount for prescriptions (all medical expenses are subject to annual caps that would barely pay for most minor surgical services in the U.S.). Preventative care is considered essential and preventative services are included in the health care system (Genser, 1999).

Sweden: An Overview

Located on Northern Europe’s Scandinavian Peninsula, Sweden has a population of approximately 9.1 million. Currently, the country’s employment rate stands at approximately 5.6%. This significantly differs from that of the United States which currently stands at about 9% according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011). Basically, the nation’s health care is paid for by the government and in a way, this ensures that almost everyone has health care coverage. It can be noted that the Swedish health care system basically has three layers or levels. These levels include national, local and regional levels. While the regional level is responsible for health care provision as well as financing to the various county councils, the national level has social affairs and health ministry as the ones establishing guidelines for health as well as medical care while the local level is charged with maintaining the social welfare services.

Major Health Conditions

Sweden like many other countries all over the world suffers from a number of health concerns which happen to be prevalent throughout the country. For instance, heart failure is one of the most serious health conditions in the country. In that regard, the condition continues to demand a large chunk of the nation’s health care resources. To highlight this, Anderson & Rydean-Bersten (1999) note that in 1995, “heart failure was the fourth most common reason for hospital care…” particularly for those aged 65 years and above. Further, in the period under consideration, heart failure accounted for approximately 14% of all instances of hospital care associated with circulatory system diseases (Anderson & Rydean-Bersten, 1999).

In recent times, Obesity has also been identified as an evolving health issue in Sweden although in comparison to international obesity rates, Sweden’s obesity rate still remains low. As Neovius et al. (2006) note, obesity prevalence in recent times has been worrying. This is especially the case given that the condition has been on an upward trend across the spectrum with those affected including children, adolescents and even adults. According to Neovius et al. (2006), the prevalence of obesity particularly amongst adults has in the last twenty years doubled. Thus in that regard, Sweden needs to take deliberate steps to contain the condition before it becomes an epidemic going forward.

Asbestos related health issues, like lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma, are also issues of grave concern in Sweden. With that in mind, laws have been implemented in the recent past to assist in the reduction of asbestos related health issues. However, major reductions in terms of occurrence rates of asbestos related health issues may take quite a while.

Sweden does not have major health conditions related to smoking. Indeed, it is estimated that close to 85% of Swedes do not smoke (Sweden.se, 2011). On this front, Sweden scores highly as very few countries have such a high percentage of non-smokers. The low percentage of smokers in the case of Sweden can hence be said to have contributed to fewer major health conditions related to smoking.

The Organization of Sweden’s Health Care System

The health care system in Sweden is largely organized on equal access to services basis. It is financed through tax payers. The health care system in this case is also significantly decentralized. As it is highlighted by Sweden.se (2011), the “responsibility for providing health care is decentralized to the county councils and, in some cases, municipal governments.” It can be noted that in this case, county councils are essentially political formations comprising of elected representatives.

It is a Swedish policy for the county council to provide residents of a given county with high quality health care as well as medical care. In this case, the county council is also charged with the duty of promoting good health for residents. Sweden has two hundred and ninety municipalities, eighteen county councils, and two regions. Swedish county councils perform approximately 90% of work touching on health care. Municipalities in the country are basically in charge and accountable for the care of elderly residents with health care in this case being availed at home or in special accommodation. It is also the duty of the municipalities to care for residents with psychological disorders and/or physical disabilities. The support and services for patients released from hospitals is also under the jurisdiction of municipalities. Also under the jurisdiction of Swedish municipalities are health care services thought schools.

It can be noted that Sweden is also working on health care in an international framework. In that regard, the country continues to be on the front line in the corporation with EU for the enhancement of health and medical services. Collaboration in this case touches on the enhancement of patient influence as well as the improvement of patient care (Sweden.se, 2011).

Financing of the Swedish Health Care System

As it has been noted earlier on in this text, the delivery of health care in Sweden is tailored in a way that ensures everyone enjoys access to health care on an equal and fair basis. According to the Swedish Institute (2011), the health care system in this case in addition to being decentralized is funded by the taxpayer. Municipalities, county councils and the central government share the health and medical care responsibility. However, a majority of Sweden’s medical and health costs are settled using municipal and county taxes. The national government also makes some contribution to the health care funding and a patient fee hence covers a small percentage of the overall health care cost.

It can be noted that medical care and health care costs account for approximately 9% of the country’s GDP. This percentage according to Swedish Institute (2011) has since the early 1980s remained relatively stable. In a nutshell, the percentage of the country’s health care funded by way of taxation at the local level is captured as 71%. In this case, it can be noted that county councils also possess a right when it comes to income tax collection. Basically, about 97% of medical expenditure is met or paid for by the state.

In a big way, the cost of health care in Sweden is comparable to most other countries in Europe. Further, Sweden’s health care system remains closely linked to social insurance effectively meaning that everyone who lives or works in the country benefits by having equal access to health care. In most cases, sick leave pay usually equals to 80% of an individual’s salary. This payment starts on the second day of being sick as the first sick day is not compensable (Swedish…

Darkness Visible William Styron Is an Award-Winning Term Paper

Darkness Visible

William Styron is an award-winning literary author whose most famous book is ironically not one of his novels, but his memoir entitled Darkness Visible. Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness details the inner journey through the hell of depression. The book is a far cry from the dry, detached, and cold clinical accounts of depression in scholarly literature. A Memoir of Madness reads like a poetic narrative, but details many of the scientific underpinnings of depression. Styron researched his condition, and fuses an understanding of the clinical condition with the more important knowledge of what it is like to suffer from depression.

Styron never set out to publish a book about depression. He simply started lecturing on the subject and published an article about depression in the magazine Vanity Fair. The book is an extended version of the Vanity Fair article. The book begins with an anecdote in which Styron travels to Paris to accept a literary prize. It was on this trip that Styron became fully aware of his depressive state. He describes his pervasive self-hatred, his sense of helplessness and hopelessness, and his “dank joylessness,” (Styron, 1990, p. 5).

One of the cornerstones of Darkness Visible is Styron’s repeated assertion that the term depression has been overused and misused in common vernacular, and because of this, the true extent of the disease is often overlooked. The term depression is, in Styron’s (1990) words, “a noun with a bland tonality and lacking any magisterial presence, used indifferently to describe an economic decline or a rut in the ground…a true wimp of a word for such a major illness,” (p. 37). Although minor bouts of depression are relatively common, clinical depression is not about daily doldrums. Depression can be a serious and life-threatening illness, as it has been for Styron, who underwent severe suicidal ideation. The medications prescribed for his depression often did more harm than good, testimony to the limitations of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Styron also points out that like him, writers throughout history have grappled with depression. Styron’s (1990) claims also that “artistic types (especially poets) are particularly vulnerable to the disorder,” and that women are more susceptible than men statistically, but ultimately, it is a “democratic” illness that affects millions of people indiscriminately (p. 35).

There is no known cure for depression, and as Styron points out, the disease is persistent and difficult to treat. It certainly does not go away overnight. Styron’s symptoms of depression are classic, reflecting official descriptions of the disease as they are documented in the bible of the psychiatric world: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). For example, Styron complains of various sleep-related disturbances and in some cases, an “inability to sleep,” (p. 18). He is also quick to point out that depression will impact different sufferers in different ways, with some being unable to get out of bed in the morning and others, like him, feeling progressively worse as the day goes on. Styron’s analysis corresponds with recent research showing that different symptoms manifest differently in different people (Fried, Nesse, Zivin, Guille & San, 2014). Moreover, sleep is viewed as an escape or respite from the despair of waking cognitions. Without sleep, notes Styron, there was no relief from the feelings of anxiety and despair. In spite of his professional and personal achievements, Styron felt unworthy and undeserving. Low self-esteem is one of the hallmarks of clinical depression. Styron also felt unable to laugh and in some cases, even unable to speak. He found himself occasionally walking around as if in a “trance” state (Styron, 1990, p. 17). His appetite, even in the midst of great food, was often completely lost. Styron goes on to the describe the specific manifestations of depression in his life, distinguishing major depression from bipolar disorder, speculating about the causes of depression including genetics, and referring to his periods of hospitalization.

Styron’s descriptions of his symptoms correspond well with those outlined in clinical literature. With regards to low self-esteem and self-hatred, core themes in Darkness Visible, an ample amount of research highlights the link between low self-esteem and depression. Interestingly, research does reveal that, “depression can be prevented, or reduced, by interventions that improve self-esteem, (Orth & Robbins, 2013).

Moreover, one of Styron’s express purposes in writing about his depression was to communicate with others like him to also suffer. He notes, “I had apparently underestimated the number of people for whom the subject had been taboo, a matter of secrecy and shame,” (Styron, 1990, p. 34). As soon as he started to speak about depression, Styron (1990) found, “the overwhelming reaction made me feel that inadvertently I had helped unlock a closet from which many souls were eager to come out and proclaim that they, too, had experienced the feelings I had described,” (p. 34). Research has shown that stigma is a significant barrier to recovery, and that it exacerbates one of the core issues related to depression: self-esteem (Link, et al., 2001). Pharmacological interventions, often touted as panaceas, often do more harm than good. When Styron (1990) published Darkness Visible, he was administered drugs in the benzodiazepine family, like Halcion, which essentially act as tranquilizers (p. 49). Benzodiazepine drugs create dependence, and long-term use can actually exacerbate depressive symptoms (Leggett, et al., 2014). Yet in spite of their side effects, benzodiazepine family drugs are remain within the arsenal of elder care treatment options (Leggett, et al., 2014). Styron briefly abused the prescription drugs offered to him, including Halcion but also sleep aids. He admits that he had become addicted to the drugs.

Although Styron (1990) does not cite his source, the author claims that twenty percent of persons suffering from depression end up committing suicide. Research does show that the link between depression and suicide is so close, that it is nearly impossible to consider suicide without considering depression. As many as 90% of people who kill themselves had been diagnosed clinical depression or a related mental disorder (“Recognize the Warning Signs of Depression,” n.d.). And whereas more women than men seek treatment for depression itself, far more men commit suicide vs. their female counterparts — 79% of suicides in the United States are males (“Recognize the Warning Signs of Depression,” n.d.). Alcohol and/or substance abuse problems are also connected with depression; Styron (1990) had quit drinking prior to his engagement in France to accept the literary award and it is highly likely that without the crutch of self-medication alcohol provided, the true depths of despair bubbled to the surface. Substance abuse is often a symptom of underlying depressive conditions (“Recognize the Warning Signs of Depression,” n.d.). Styron (1990) claimed that alcohol was “the magical conduit to fantasy and euphoria,” but also the ” means to calm the anxiety and incipient dread that I had hidden away for so long somewhere in the dungeons of my spirit,” (p. 40). Clinical experts would agree that Styron (1990) quitting drinking was good for him. Recent research goes beyond speculation about the link between depression and alcohol abuse, to show that there is indeed a causal relationship. The direction of that causal relationship is surprising: alcohol abuse can cause depression, just as much as having depression might cause someone to drink. Boden & Fergusson (2011) found “a causal linkage between alcohol use disorders and major depression, such that increasing involvement with alcohol increases risk of depression,” (p. 906). Interestingly, though, Styron (1990) did not quit drinking because it was making him depressed, but because he no longer enjoyed alcohol. His physical tolerance for alcohol diminished as he grew older, and he ceased enjoying the “magical conduit” drinking had become. When he quit, his demons came to the surface with a rage.

Clinical depression is a serious and life-threatening illness. In Darkness Visible, Styron describes depression and its many manifestations in a sobering way. The disease is misunderstood, according to Styron. Depression is an overused term and not one that does justice to the depth of suffering felt by those with the condition. Because of misunderstanding of depression and overall stigma associated with mental illness, many people with depression suffer in silence. Some of the misunderstanding about depression is similar to general misunderstandings about mental illnesses in general. For example, Styron (1990) notes that some people may confuse depression with bipolar disorder. Unipolar depression is, as Styron points out, not to be confused with bipolar disorder, in which the individual swings from a pole of intense euphoria to deepest despair. Styron discusses important relationships between depression and self-esteem, depression and substance abuse, and depression and suicide.

The book Darkness Visible also achieves what psychiatric and psychological research cannot do: admit their own limitations. Through his searching literary voice, Styron shows the ways in which psychiatric research, and research in counseling psychology, are limited. Therapy may address the needs of persons with mild depression or who are in the early stages of the disease. At later stages, though, counseling proved useless to Styron: “its usefulness at…

Team Leading — Nursing for Many Professions, Essay

Team Leading — Nursing

For many professions, including the nursing field, bringing about structural change in an organization can cause stress and anxiety. But change doesn’t have to create tension. And the available literature reveals that structural change can be smoothly, seamlessly accomplished when strong, competent nursing leadership is available to help make change a positive thing.

What steps should be taken in order to lead positive change?

A scholarly article in the Journal of Advanced Nursing points out steps that need to be taken to bring change to a healthcare environment. The authors explain that when change is on the agenda, nurse leaders face “…the challenge of having to navigate the difficult waters of uncertainty” as they push forward and advocate “for themselves, others, and their profession” (Salmela, et al., 2011, p. 424). The article includes research based on interviews with 17 nurse leaders in Finland; the results of those interviews are very interesting and can be helpful for other nurse leaders facing the daunting task of bringing change without stress and tension.

The findings from those interviews resulted in a model for leading change, and from that model three specific dimensions emerged. Those three are: a) leading relationships; b) leading processes; and c) leading cultures (Salmela, 423). This is not to say nurse leaders have all the answers, because they don’t. As Salmela points out, leaders in the nursing field are role models and their leadership must positively impact a “caring culture”; and demonstrating the ethical behaviors that are imperative in a healthcare environment fall on the shoulders of those leaders. But, because they lead and expect others to follow, they themselves need “…guidance and knowledge of what is expected of them” as a structural change is underway (Salmela, 423). True nursing leadership boils down to what Salmela refers to as “direction”; that is, leaders must be able to “transform mental and physical resources into the fulfillment of goal” and that entails the creation of an environment where subordinates are “motivated” and indeed subordinates become part of the change process (424).

Salmela’s conclusion in the article points out that nurse leaders play “different roles” during the process of structural change: beyond their normal responsibilities, leaders must direct, guide, motivate, support and communicate well with their subordinates vis-a-vis the value of change (431). While guiding subordinates through change, no matter how radical the structural change and no…

Foreign Exchange Markets by Danny Term Paper

Globalization is juxtaposed with this; nations are integrated on the level of economic prosperity. Nevertheless, Mills points out that many Christian principles prevail in the globalization paradigm: fair trade, the accountability of the government, the interdependence of nations and the upliftment of the poor are some of the issues mentioned in this regard.

According to the author, globalization is therefore a phenomenon that can be very beneficial from a Christian perspective. It is however important that the correct actions are taken and specific principles upheld.

When I first realized that Mills’ article was going to address the Christian perspective of globalization, I must admit that I experienced a sinking feeling in the vicinity of my rib cage. I also admit to thinking something like, oh no, one of those. I expected the article to beat the whole globalization to a pulp, because it is reminiscent of the Tower of Babel and very, very wrong for people of different cultures to integrate in any way at all.

Great and pleasant was my surprise when I actually found myself reading a well-written, thought-provoking article.

Mills uses the Bible as the foundation of the discussion. He does not however do this in a hysterical manner, as is often typical of Christian articles on the topic. Instead, he addresses episodes from the Bible in a balanced an honest manner, applying them to the globalization issue to highlight its benefits and potential threats.

To my further surprise, Mills seemed non-hostile towards the globalization issue. Indeed, he proves most of the negative assumptions about globalization incorrect, pointing out that the phenomenon has benefited many a poverty stricken country. Furthermore, he applies the Christian paradigm to a wider context than only the Tower of Babel and how globalization means the imminent return of Jesus. Instead, he regards the issue in a very practical, but also in a very Christian way.

Instead of the fundamentalist view, Mills approaches his integration of Christianity and globalization from the point-of-view of Christian charity and a concern for the poor. Indeed, the poor is an issue frequently addressed by the Bible. In this, Mills then views globalization as an opportunity for Christians to help others, welcoming them into their own community and at the same time benefiting those who are less fortunate.

Mills’ article proves that not all Christians are fundamentalist or hostile. Indeed, there are those attempting to live by the principles taught by the Bible in the first place.

Article 4: How to Find Success in the Import Export Business by Randy Wilson

In this brief article, Randy Wilson encourages the reader to invest in import/export businesses. Indeed, globalization and the Internet have opened the import/export market for many and entrepreneur. Wilson first addresses the export opportunity to countries in the East. The mysticism attached to the West and its culture have made especially American products popular in Easter Europe. Wilson cites the example of American blue jeans in Russia as a starting point for this paradigm.

In terms of importing goods, Wilson states that the need for low priced goods in the United States and other Western countries also provides the importer with many opportunities for prosperity. Such goods can then in turn be imported from Eastern European countries, and specifically from China.

Wilson suggests a number of different ways in which the entrepreneur can embark upon an import/export business: this can be done via the Internet, by means of a physical storefront in one’s home town, by affiliation with existing import/export companies, or by purchasing and reselling goods. Any combination of these methods can also be used to establish such a business. The way in which the entrepreneur will build the business largely depends upon the size of the initial cash layout at his or her disposal.

The only point of caution the author provides is that the entrepreneur should be careful in investigating the tax and legal issues related to the business. It should be ensured that the goods being moved across the border are legal in all respects, and that the relevant tax laws are adhered to. If this is done, according to the author, the entrepreneur has opened a world of opportunity for profit. Indeed, the relaxation of many import/export laws by Eastern countries ensures that this will remain a profitable business opportunity for a long time into the future.

This article is extremely interesting, and highly appealing in its enthusiasm. It reads almost like an advertisement for a new and exciting product. This for me is however also its fundamental flaw. I am instinctively distrustful of advertising, and it was difficult for me to take the article seriously while it contained such an obviously commercial tone. As I read further, the tone seemed to improve, however, providing the reader with valuable advice regarding the import/export market.

Indeed, the author makes it appear absurdly easy and ridiculously profitable to embark upon an import/export business. This is another fundamental flaw. No business is without its problems. I believe that the highly positive tone of the article is misleading. The author addresses only a few potential problems, including possible legal and tax issues. In terms of the business itself, he makes it sound so easy that even the person without any business sense whatsoever will be tempted to invest in it.

While it may in fact be easier than other businesses to start an import/export venture, I feel that the author should have been more serious in his tone. I would have found an article addressing the various pros and cons of such a business in a comparative manner much more realistic. What basically therefore bothers me about this article is the lack of balance in its tone. The fact that it begins with such a commercial tone sets a precedent of mistrust for me. I therefore find it very difficult to entirely trust the rest of the information in the article, regardless of how good it may sound.

The article provides a number of good points, including the various ways in which a person can start import/export business. While I am sure many would enthusiastically take the author’s advice, I personally would be careful to investigate all aspects of the business before leaving my day job.

Article 5: How to Successfully Promote your Business to an International Audience

By Marie-Claire Ross

In this article, Ms. Ross addresses the issue of how to appeal to an international audience with one’s product. She discourages using the most common approach of brochures. One important reason for this is that brochures tend to be cumbersome and uninspiring. Another reason is that this quality is exacerbated when the brochure is translated into a foreign language. This makes it even less accessible to the target audience, and eventually has the opposite effect from the one desired.

Instead, the author suggests video promotion. This kind of promotional materials have been proven, according to the article to be up to four times more effective than written material. The reason for this is the human tendency to recall audio-visual material much more easily than written work. In this regard, the author suggests that CDROMs are particularly useful, as they can incorporate a variety of different materials, including Web site links, company brochures, audiovisual materials, and whatever other information is relevant to the company and its promotion. Another way in which to offer corporate videos is via Web sites, which saves distribution costs to the manufacturer.

An additional advantage of audio visual material is the fact that voice overs can be translated in a natural and flowing way that makes it appealing to foreign customers. This is far superior to a written brochure, of which a translation tends to be stilted and unnatural.

To substantiate her point, Ross cites the example of Warrnambool Cheese and Butter Factory. Its managers have successfully used audiovisual materials to promote their business. Ross emphasizes that audio visual material should incorporate answers to the most important questions potential customers may have.

While I find the article extremely interesting in terms of promotional ideas, the beginning is somewhat slow. The first paragraphs simply did not engage my attention in a very targeted way. There are two reasons for this: Ross begins the article with a question that she will supposedly answer: How do you market to an overseas buyer? In my view, it is reasonable to expect an answer. The author does not however provide such an answer. Instead, she explains what the international business person should not do. While I understand that her intention is to contrast this with what should be done, the positioning of the negative view is unfortunate.

A further flaw in the article is that she then repeats the question – what should the business person do? This makes the reading even less exciting and tempts the reader to either skip to the last paragraph, which must surely contain the answer, or simply to stop reading altogether.

The article does have its…