p.p1 one does not just pick one and pay

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When a consumer is purchasing a product, there is always a process in which one goes through, with the difference being high involvement and low involvement. Purchasing a low involvement product, example, is when a consumer picks a bar of chocolate in the supermarket check out. Here, the buyer sees something and decides to pick it up with no thinking required, say, at a supermarket check out, the consumer sees a couple of chocolate bars and decides to pick one out and eat it on the way home. Such low involvement purchases are usually FMCG’s, impulse products and daily needs rather than wants. These types of purchases are safe to say low-risk because of price, so if the consumer purchases the wrong product, he or she will not have to worry about wasting their money on the wrong product. A couple of examples of products for low involvement purchases are; chocolate bars, chewing gum, fuel, food and drink.

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On the other hand, high involvement purchases are a bit more complex than a normal, everyday purchase. This is because such products are either expensive, not bought regularly and the consumer might not have enough information about. An example for such high involvement purchases can be cars, computers, televisions, microwave oven, bicycle, mobile phone and many others of the sort. Such purchases might also require more than just one person in the buying process, where two people would need to agree on a purchase. Taking a car purchase into consideration, one does not just pick one and pay for it, but rather he or she will go through a process which is called Consumer Buying Behaviour, six stages in the buying process to finally take the purchase decision. 

When purchasing a car, the consumer will go through the first stage, need recognition. This is where the consumer realises there is a need of a new car, whether reason being present car broken down, needing a bigger car, or current car is getting old and needs a replacement. Second stage, information search, the consumer instantly starts looking for information on the desired car they had in mind. Such information can be found on the internet, car forums, reviews, local car dealerships and family and friends. In this stage, gathering the right information is crucial so that the consumer will buy the right car that suits them best with the right options, size, and price.

After the second stage, the consumer will go through an evaluation of alternatives stage. Here, the purchaser will narrow down their options and study them in further depth. Brand awareness in this stage is a crucial part because having brand knowledge, as well as brand loyalty and also distinguish competing products in the market. People today have diverse mediums to access product and brand information, which are very important in the purchasing stage because this will effect which product will be selected. In the fourth stage is the purchase decision where the consumer has explored all the available options in the market and has a very good knowledge of what is available. The consumer will know the difference between competing products, as well as pricing methods and finally decide which brand and model will be purchased. At this point, the client can walk away from the purchase due to reasons like; competing products (which are on discount or new model is released) or also financial reasons. 

In the purchase stage, all options are finalised and the car is finally ordered. It is important for the dealership to keep the client updated at all stages at this point and keep in contact to make sure the client does not think of changing his or her mind on the purchase decision they have taken.
After the purchase, it is important for the car dealership to keep the customer as close as they were in the purchase decision. An example for this is keeping them updated for car servicing, customer service in case they have problems, and send surveys/questionnaires about their purchase and experience.

Question 2.

Impulse buys happen on a daily basis to almost everybody. Such impulse products are usually found in places like supermarket checkouts and fuel stations’ tills where one can have easy access too, just grab one whilst paying and off you go. These type of products are usually purchased upon one’s mood and feeling at the very point in time, for example, being in a bad mood and purchasing a bar of chocolate to help you feel better, or after food shopping at a supermarket, you grab a pack of  sweets to eat on the way home. 

When one purchases a product, without mentally knowing, he or she will go through the Consumer Buying Process, where the need is recognised, information is searched and so on. When taking an impulse buy into consideration, the purchaser will still go through the consumer buying process, but in this case will see the chocolate bar sitting on the supermarket shelf, and will immediately recognised that a need is triggered. With one part of the buying process, a need is recognised but without following the whole consumer buying process, the consumer will skip all the stages and get to the purchase stage as the product is cheap and has tried it before hence the quick thinking or none to pick up the product.

Starting off with the first step in the effects model, exposure, it is one of the most effective ways to attract consumers in impulse buying. When companies such as Orbit Chewing Gum advertise, they can come up with a very good and smart way to attract impulse buys at supermarkets. Here, they can use ad locations such as placing a little banner over the shelves that will stand out of the supermarket stand where Orbit can place their slogans to attract impulse buys. Ads listed on magazines and TV shows will also help at the given reading times.

Bringing a customer’s attention in today’s day and age is very hard due to almost everyone living a busy lifestyle, therefore it is hard for companies to advertise their products on billboards and attract one’s attention. With many ads being placed in almost every possible way, through billboards, magazines, television, radio, websites, FaceBook and many other mediums, it is important for the company to keep their ads fun, interesting and totally different to the norm. Taking an impulse buy into consideration, attention seeking is very important as most impulse buys are usually carried out by consumer’s attention towards the product. Product placement can be used to advertise in today’s day and age because it watchers’ attention would be at peak, for example a very famous local TV show where people in a waiting area are offered chewing gum.

Perception is where the product will activate one of the five stimuli, in this case, Orbit chewing gum. The five senses are vision, sound, touch, taste and smell. When comparing all five senses to the brand Orbit, vision is when the consumer hears the brand name, what comes to mind first? This is the use of the colours, size and design of packaging is important. In Orbits’ TV ads, the sound used in the entire clip will be remembered by the consumer, and will associate the sound with the product itself. Touch is another point in perception of an impulse buy, where one can feel the product. With comparison with chewing gum, taste is for sure something in which a consumer can distinguish the difference between the brand Orbit and competing products. The smell of the product will also help in pointing out which brand the product is, in the case of chewing gum, the smell of mint will be unique to the brand. 

Learning the brand Orbit is something that comes along by time, especially after repetitive impulse purchases of the brand, the consumer will tend to get used to the brand image, its packaging and where to find it. Familiarising with the brand, the product might bring memories to the consumer in which when remembering of that special moment, he or she will remember of the brand. The main aim for companies that sell impulse products is to keep the product in the consumers’ mind, for example, when the consumer finds the need of purchasing a new pack of chewing gum, they will grab a can of Orbit. Another example by the stimulus discrimination, would be at a fuel station cash till, as soon as one sees a pack of chewing gum but not being Orbit, they will ask for the specific brand in mention.

At this very point in the whole hierarchy of effects, all the stages should have come to practise to the daily purchase consumer. After this stage, the company has actually come to a point that it has reached its target market, using communication, has been remembered and also interpreted in the way it intended it to be. Following this, the firm’s concern is to see what the consumers’ behaviour will be towards attitude change. Theoretically, there are three different components in which the consumer will go through, cognitive component is the consumer’s knowledge and beliefs on the brand and its products, and how he or she will perceive them. An affective component is the consumer’s attitude, feelings and emotions towards the product, them being both positive and negative. Last point is the conative component, based on how the consumer will respond to the product according to what they know about the product, as well as how to feel about it.

The very final stages of the effects model, Action stage is where the consumer will physically buy the product, ‘the action of the purchase’. Impulse buys are products that are purchased without any planning, or without any purpose to purchase and this happens not only to cheap items, but some of high prices too. A compensatory purchase is where a consumer buys a product upon feeling, where the person feels rather ‘down’ and purchases a product to make him or herself feel better. There are four forms of impulse buys, starting from a Pure Impulse buy where the consumer will literally spontaneously purchase a product. The second form is Reminder Impulse Buy, the item is suddenly remembered by the purchaser and will grab the item instantly. The third form is a Suggestion Impulse, the consumer is being recommended a product whilst shopping for other products and spontaneously purchases purchases it without any plans and without any knowledge, nor any information or previous purchases of the said product. After this is a Planned Impulse, where at times the consumer will have previously made plans of buying a product, or at the spur of the moment will plan of making a purchase but not necessarily know what it is or what it will be and purchase at random.

After the consumer purchases the product, one will expect the product to exceed or at least meet his or her expectations. In the Post Purchase stage, positive customer satisfaction is very important as this will result in repeat purchases, as well as word-of-mouth with family and friends by sharing their purchase experiences. Not every purchase might result to a positive one, so in the case of an unsatisfied customer after a purchase, there are some consequences to follow. Dissatisfaction can be spread by the consumer in various ways; by voice, complaining directly towards the company, third party is filing a complaint on social media or bad reviews on a website, and finally is in a private way; where the consumer shares their bad experience within their close circle through word of mouth, being friends, family and colleagues. 

In Post Purchase, Cognitive Dissonance is a very important point to take into consideration. This mainly happens to consumers that make expensive purchases. Here, the consumer is not sure whether or not they have made the right purchase, example when purchasing a car, one might not be sure if they bought the right one for the money, or they are not sure if they could have purchased another car with more features for the same price. Also, if somebody asks the person if they made the right choice, this will confuse them.

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