Over the course of hundreds of years, there has been extensive research indicating that individuals with schizophrenia have a shorter life expectancy, because they’re more likely to have various, terminal medical conditions that result in premature death and unfavorable clinical outcomes. Not to mention, patients with schizophrenia are also less likely to benefit from or end up receiving medical treatment. In light of these observations, investigators have started to focus more closely on the risk factors that contribute to “morbidity and mortality in patients with schizophrenia” and look closer at characterizing both natural and unnatural causes of death. The typical lifespan for individuals with schizophrenia is on average more than 10-30 times shorter than the general population. Recent studies show that majority of patients die from natural causes than unnatural causes; precisely 73% died as a result of medical diseases. The leading cause of early death amongst people with serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia, is cardiovascular disease; which accounts for over 50% of all deaths in the US population. Other diseases such as type 2 diabetes, is also significantly more common (about two to four times higher) in schizophrenia patients than in the general population. Furthermore, it increases the chances of diabetes in earlier years. In many developing countries, infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis C, remain a pressing issue for many because the percentage of people affected is drastically higher in patients with a severe mental illness- even though the exposure risks are generally low. In addition, people with serious mental illnesses are more than twice as likely to smoke as the general population and be a victim to second hand smoke. For example, up to “81% of people with schizophrenia are addicted to nicotine” which is a large percentage compared to the 28% of the general population (88). Many of these nicotine addicts are “inhaling more than 20 cigarettes per day” which is way above the average amount (88). Schizophrenia is “frequently accompanied by medical comorbidities” and other “prevalent complications” such as substance abuse; which is why it’s essential to address the risks and treatments available for this particular population of people- in order to help improve their health outcome (93). In order for this to occur, psychiatric and medical systems and other services need to “collaborate effectively in order to coordinate care of their patients” (93). This co-team operation should help the implementation of screenings before the initial antipsychotic treatment and through therapy, they will be more likely to improve outcomes among individuals who suffer from schizophrenia.